Chapter 11. The Muscular System. Appendicular Musculature. Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College

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1 Chapter 11 The Muscular System Appendicular Musculature Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College

2 Introduction Appendicular Musculature Appendicular muscles are responsible for: Stabilizing the pectoral and pelvic girdles Moving the upper and lower limbs Absorbing shocks and jolts as you walk, run, or jump Aiding in strengthening the joint area

3 Introduction Two Major Groups of Appendicular Muscles The muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs The muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs

4 Figure 11.1 The Two Major Groups of Appendicular Muscles Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle These muscles originate on the axial skeleton, and insert on the clavicle and scapula. Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Muscles That Move the Thigh These muscles originate in the pelvic region, and typically insert on the femur. Muscles That Move the Leg These muscles originate on the pelvis and femur, and insert on the tibia and/or fibula. Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes These muscles originate on the tibia and fibula, and insert on the tarsals, metatarsals, and/or phalanges. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot These muscles originate primarily on the tarsal and metatarsal bones, and insert on the phalanges. Muscles That Move the Arm These muscles originate on the pectoral girdle and the thoracic cage, and insert on the humerus. Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand These muscles primarily originate on the pectoral girdle and humerus, and insert on the radius, ulna, and/or carpals. Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand and Fingers These muscles primarily originate on the humerus, radius, and ulna, and insert on the metacarpals and phalanges. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand These are the muscles that perform fine movements. They originate primarily on the carpal and metacarpal bones, and insert on the phalanges.

5 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function Action Lines of the Muscle Flexion and extension at the shoulder joint Adduction and abduction at the shoulder joint Medial and lateral rotation at the shoulder joint Action lines at the hip joint Spurt and Shunt Muscles

6 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (1 of 7) The Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint When an entire muscle or part of a large muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion in a specific direction. The direction of applied force is called an action line. The movement resulting at the associated joint depends on the relationship between the action line and the anatomical structure of the joint that determines its axes of motion. Knowing what movements the anatomy of a particular joint allows will help you understand or predict the actions of a particular muscle at that joint. Deltoid POSTERIOR Teres minor Triceps brachii Glenoid cavity Tendons of biceps brachii ANTERIOR Subscapularis We will begin by Teres major looking at muscles around the shoulder joint as seen in a lateral view. These muscles insert on the humerus to produce various movements, but to show the relationship between the action lines and the joint itself, the humerus has been removed.

7 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (2 of 7) Extension Flexion and Extension Muscles whose action lines cross the anterior aspect of the shoulder joint are flexors of that joint, and muscles whose action lines cross the posterior aspect are extensors. Posterior portion of deltoid POSTERIOR Glenoid cavity Tendons of biceps brachii ANTERIOR Flexion

8 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (3 of 7) Adduction and Abduction Muscles whose action lines cross the superior aspect of the shoulder joint are adductors of that joint, and muscles whose action lines cross the inferior aspect of the joint are abductors. Abduction Deltoid Glenoid cavity Teres major Triceps brachii Adduction

9 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (4 of 7) Lateral rotation Medial and Lateral Rotation Muscles whose action lines cross the anterior aspect of the shoulder joint may produce medial rotation as well as flexion, and muscles whose action lines cross the posterior aspect of a joint may produce lateral rotation as well as extension. Glenoid cavity Teres minor Subscapularis Medial rotation

10 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (5 of 7) Action Lines at the Shoulder Joint Here is a superficial lateral view showing the action lines of the deltoid, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles. As you have seen, analyzing how those action lines cross the shoulder joint enables one to determine the actions of these muscles on the humerus. Acromion Clavicle Entire deltoid: abduction at the shoulder Scapular deltoid: extension and lateral rotation Clavicular deltoid: flexion and medial rotation POSTERIOR Triceps brachii: extension and adduction ANTERIOR Biceps brachii: flexion Humerus

11 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (7 of 7) Action Lines at the Hip Joint The hip joint, like the shoulder joint, is a multiaxial synovial joint that permits flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and medial/lateral rotation. Determining the action of a muscle on the hip is identical to the process utilized for the shoulder, in that the action of a muscle on the hip is determined by the structure of the joint and the location of the insertion of the muscle on the femur (not shown) relative to the permitted axes of motion at the joint. Gluteal Group Flexion, abduction, and medial rotation Gluteus medius Extension and abduction Extension Iliopsoas: flexion Gluteus medius and minimus: abduction Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae ANTERIOR Adductor longus Acetabulum Gluteus maximus POSTERIOR Hamstring group Obturator externus: lateral rotation Tensor fasciae latae: medial rotation Adductor longus: adduction Hamstring group: extension and lateral rotation Adductor magnus Adductor magnus Adduction Adductor Group Extension and lateral rotation Lateral Rotator Group Action lines of the adductor magnus

12 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (6 of 7) Spurt and Shunt Muscles Determining the location of the insertion of a muscle relative to the axis of the joint will provide additional details about the functions of the muscle at that joint. The primary action of a muscle whose insertion is close to the joint will be the production of movement at that joint. Such a muscle is termed a spurt muscle, and spurt muscles are prime movers. However, a muscle whose insertion is considerably farther from the joint will generally help to stabilize that joint in addition to producing motion at that joint. This type of muscle, a synergist, is termed a shunt muscle. Flexors Biceps brachii: movement and torque (spurt muscle) Brachioradialis: stability and movement (shunt muscle) Extensors Triceps brachii: movement and torque (spurt muscle) Elbow joint (monaxial)

13 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles associated with the pectoral girdle and upper limbs can be divided into four groups Muscles that position the pectoral girdle Muscles that move the arm Muscles that move the forearm and hand Muscles that move the hand and fingers

14 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle These muscles also coordinate with the muscles that move the arm Levator scapulae Elevates the scapula Pectoralis minor Protracts the shoulder

15 Figure 11.6 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle, Part II Origin Insertion Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle Levator scapulae Trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major (cut and reflected) Subclavius Pectoralis major Trapezius Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior (origin) Serratus anterior (insertion) Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor (cut) Coracobrachialis Serratus anterior Internal intercostals External intercostals Short head Long head Biceps brachii T 12

16 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle These muscles also coordinate with the muscles that move the arm Rhomboid major Adducts the scapula Rhomboid minor Adducts the scapula

17 Figure 11.5 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle, Part I Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection C 1 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle Trapezius C 7 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle Levator scapulae Deltoid Rhomboid minor Infraspinatus Teres minor Scapula Rhomboid major Teres major Serratus anterior Serratus anterior Triceps brachii T 12

18 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle These muscles also coordinate with the muscles that move the arm Serratus anterior Protracts the scapula Subclavius Protracts the scapula Trapezius Rotate scapula and extend the neck

19 Figure 11.6 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle, Part II Origin Insertion Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle Levator scapulae Trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major (cut and reflected) Subclavius Pectoralis major Trapezius Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior (origin) Serratus anterior (insertion) Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor (cut) Coracobrachialis Serratus anterior Internal intercostals External intercostals Short head Long head Biceps brachii T 12

20 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs

21 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle (a)

22 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle (b)

23 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle (c)

24 A&P Flix: Movement of the Pectoral Girdle

25 A&P Flix: Trapezius Muscle

26 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Arm Anterior view Deltoid Abducts the arm Pectoralis major Adducts and medially rotates the arm

27 Figure 11.7a Muscles That Move the Arm Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Clavicle Ribs (cut) Muscles That Move the Arm Deltoid Pectoralis major Sternum Muscles That Move the Arm Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Teres major Biceps brachii, short head Biceps brachii, long head T 12 a Anterior view.

28 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Arm Anterior view Coracobrachialis Adduction at the shoulder Biceps brachii (short head and long head) Flexes the lower arm Teres major Extension and medial rotation at shoulder Subscapularis Medial rotation at shoulder

29 Figure 11.7a Muscles That Move the Arm Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Clavicle Ribs (cut) Muscles That Move the Arm Deltoid Pectoralis major Sternum Muscles That Move the Arm Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Teres major Biceps brachii, short head Biceps brachii, long head T 12 a Anterior view.

30 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Arm Posterior view Supraspinatus Abduction at the shoulder Deltoid Abduction at the shoulder Latissimus dorsi Adduction and medial rotation at the shoulder

31 Figure 11.7b Muscles That Move the Arm Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Muscles That Move the Arm Supraspinatus Deltoid Vertebra T 1 Muscles That Move the Arm Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Latissimus dorsi Teres major Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Thoracolumbar fascia b Posterior view.

32 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Arm Posterior view Supraspinatus Abduction at the shoulder Infraspinatus Lateral rotation at the shoulder Teres major Extension and medial rotation at the shoulder Teres minor Adduction and lateral rotation at the shoulder Triceps brachii Extension of the lower arm

33 Figure 11.7b Muscles That Move the Arm Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Muscles That Move the Arm Supraspinatus Deltoid Vertebra T 1 Muscles That Move the Arm Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Latissimus dorsi Teres major Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Thoracolumbar fascia b Posterior view.

34 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Action Line of Muscles When a muscle contracts, it develops tension The direction the muscle moves upon developing tension is known as the action line

35 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Action Line of Muscles (continued) Action lines that cross: The anterior aspect of a joint are flexors The posterior aspect of a joint are extensors The medial aspect of a joint are adductors or sometimes called medial rotators The lateral aspect of a joint are abductors or sometimes called lateral rotators

36 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (5 of 7) Action Lines at the Shoulder Joint Here is a superficial lateral view showing the action lines of the deltoid, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles. As you have seen, analyzing how those action lines cross the shoulder joint enables one to determine the actions of these muscles on the humerus. Acromion Clavicle Entire deltoid: abduction at the shoulder Scapular deltoid: extension and lateral rotation Clavicular deltoid: flexion and medial rotation POSTERIOR Triceps brachii: extension and adduction ANTERIOR Biceps brachii: flexion Humerus

37 Muscles That Move the Arm

38 A&P Flix: Latissimus Dorsi

39 A&P Flix: Pectoralis Major

40 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Most of these muscles originate on the humerus and insert on the forearm and wrist Exceptions include: Long head of triceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts on the olecranon Long head of biceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts of the radial tuberosity of the radius

41 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Anterior view Muscles that move the forearm Biceps brachii Flexes at the elbow and shoulder Brachialis Flexes at the elbow Brachioradialis Flexes at the elbow

42 Figure 11.8b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part I Coracoid process of scapula Muscles That Move the Forearm FLEXORS AT THE ELBOW Biceps brachii, long head Biceps brachii, short head Humerus Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, medial head Brachialis Brachioradialis Pronator teres Medial epicondyle of humerus Muscles That Move the Hand FLEXORS AT THE WRIST Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Pronator quadratus Palmar carpal ligament Flexor retinaculum b Superficial muscles of the right upper limb, anterior view

43 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Anterior view Muscles that move the hand Flexor carpi radialis Flexes and abducts the wrist Palmaris longus Flexes at the wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexes and adducts the wrist

44 Figure 11.8b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part I Coracoid process of scapula Muscles That Move the Forearm FLEXORS AT THE ELBOW Biceps brachii, long head Biceps brachii, short head Humerus Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, medial head Brachialis Brachioradialis Pronator teres Medial epicondyle of humerus Muscles That Move the Hand FLEXORS AT THE WRIST Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Pronator quadratus Palmar carpal ligament Flexor retinaculum b Superficial muscles of the right upper limb, anterior view

45 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Posterior view Muscles that move the forearm Anconeus Extension at the elbow Triceps brachii Lateral head: extension at the elbow Long head: extension at the elbow and adduction at the shoulder Medial head: extension at the elbow

46 Figure 11.10b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part II Muscles That Move the Forearm EXTENSORS AT THE ELBOW Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Triceps brachii, lateral head Triceps brachii, long head Olecranon of ulna Brachioradialis Anconeus Muscles That Move the Hand EXTENSORS AT THE WRIST Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Ulna Radius Extensor retinaculum Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis b A diagrammatic view of a dissection of the superficial muscles

47 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Posterior view Muscles that move the hand Extensor carpi radialis longus Extension and abduction at wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris Extension and adduction at wrist Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extension and abduction at wrist

48 Figure 11.10b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part II Muscles That Move the Forearm EXTENSORS AT THE ELBOW Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Triceps brachii, lateral head Triceps brachii, long head Olecranon of ulna Brachioradialis Anconeus Muscles That Move the Hand EXTENSORS AT THE WRIST Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Ulna Radius Extensor retinaculum Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis b A diagrammatic view of a dissection of the superficial muscles

49 Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand

50 A&P Flix: Movement of the Elbow Joint

51 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Elbow Joint (a)

52 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Elbow Joint (b)

53 A&P Flix: Muscles of the Elbow Joint (c)

54 A&P Flix: Biceps Brachii

55 A&P Flix: Triceps Brachii

56 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers Extrinsic muscles of the hand Relatively large muscles that perform flexion and extension at the joints of the fingers Provide strength and crude control of the hand and fingers These muscles are found mostly in the forearm

57 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers Intrinsic muscles of the hand Smaller muscles that provide fine control of hand Responsible for flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints Responsible for opposition and reposition of the thumb These muscles are found mostly in the palm or the dorsum of the hand

58 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Anterior view Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexion at the wrist and some digits Flexor digitorum profundus Flexion at the wrist and some digits Flexor pollicis longus Flexion of the thumb

59 Figure 11.11b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hands and Fingers Tendon of biceps brachii Brachioradialis (retracted) Median nerve Pronator teres (cut) Brachial artery Radius Ulna Flexor carpi ulnaris (retracted) Muscles That Flex the Fingers and Thumb Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor pollicis longus Flexor digitorum profundus LATERAL MEDIAL b Anterior view of the middle layer of muscles. The flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus muscles have been removed.

60 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand (continued) Posterior view Abductor pollicis longus Abduction of thumb Extensor digitorum Extension of fingers and wrist Extensor pollicis brevis Extension of thumb, abducts the wrist Extensor digiti minimi Extension of little finger, extension of wrist

61 Figure 11.11e Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hands and Fingers Anconeus Muscles That Extend the Fingers Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Tendon of extensor pollicis longus Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis MEDIAL LATERAL e Posterior view of the middle layer of muscles.

62 Figure 11.11f Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hands and Fingers Anconeus Supinator Muscles That Move the Thumb Abductor pollicis longus Extensor indicis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Ulna Radius Tendon of extensor digiti minimi (cut) Tendons of extensor digitorum (cut) MEDIAL LATERAL f Posterior view of the deep layer of muscles. See also Figures 7.7, 7.8, and 11.9.

63 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Adductor pollicis Adducts the thumb Flexor pollicis brevis Flexes and adducts thumb Opponens pollicis Opposition of the thumb Abductor pollicis brevis Abducts the thumb

64 Figure 11.12c Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand, Part I Synovial sheaths Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Lumbricals Palmar interosseus First dorsal interosseus Abductor digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Opponens digiti minimi Palmaris brevis (cut) Flexor retinaculum Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Tendons of flexor digitorum Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Intrinsic Muscles of the Thumb Adductor pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Tendon of palmaris longus Tendon of flexor carpi radialis c Anterior (palmar) view

65 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Flexor digiti minimi brevis Flexes little finger Palmaris brevis Moves the skin on the medial side of the palm Abductor digiti minimi Abducts little finger Opponens digiti minimi Brings digits into opposition with the thumb

66 Figure 11.12c Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand, Part I Synovial sheaths Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Lumbricals Palmar interosseus First dorsal interosseus Abductor digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Opponens digiti minimi Palmaris brevis (cut) Flexor retinaculum Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Tendons of flexor digitorum Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Intrinsic Muscles of the Thumb Adductor pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Tendon of palmaris longus Tendon of flexor carpi radialis c Anterior (palmar) view

67 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Lumbricals Flexion of the digits Dorsal interosseus Abduction of digits 2 4 Palmar interosseus Adduction of digits 2, 4, and 5

68 Figure 11.12c Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand, Part I Synovial sheaths Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Lumbricals Palmar interosseus First dorsal interosseus Abductor digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Opponens digiti minimi Palmaris brevis (cut) Flexor retinaculum Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Tendons of flexor digitorum Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Intrinsic Muscles of the Thumb Adductor pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Tendon of palmaris longus Tendon of flexor carpi radialis c Anterior (palmar) view

69 Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers

70 A&P Flix: Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

71 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Dense connective tissue layers provide a structural framework for the soft tissues of the body The connective tissue fibers of the deep fasciae support and interconnect adjacent skeletal muscles but permit independent movement The deep fascia extends between the bones and the superficial fascia and separates the soft tissues of the limb into separate compartments

72 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Upper Limb The arm Anterior compartment (or flexor compartment) Posterior compartment (or extensor compartment) The forearm Anterior compartment (superficial and deep) Lateral compartment Posterior compartment

73 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Arm The anterior compartment of the arm Biceps brachii Brachialis Coracobrachialis The posterior compartment of the arm Triceps brachii

74 Figure 11.14a Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Upper Limb Biceps brachii Coracobrachialis Medial intermuscular septum Deltoid Long head Lateral head Triceps brachii a Horizontal section through proximal right arm

75 Figure 11.14b Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Upper Limb Flexor Compartment Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachial artery and median nerve Medial intermuscular septum Lateral intermuscular septum Extensor Compartment Triceps brachii b Horizontal section through distal right arm

76 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Forearm The anterior superficial compartment Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Palmaris longus Pronator teres Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus

77 Figure 11.15c Dissection of the Right Upper Limb, with Sectional Views of the Arm and Forearm POSTERIOR Extensor pollicis longus Extensor digitorum Abductor pollicis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus Radius Flexor pollicis longus Brachioradialis Extensor digiti minimi Flexor carpi radialis ANTERIOR Extensor carpi ulnaris Ulna Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Palmaris longus c Sectional view of the forearm showing the relationships among deeper muscles.

78 Figure 11.15d Dissection of the Right Upper Limb, with Sectional Views of the Arm and Forearm Deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor carpi radialis Tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris Flexor retinaculum Extensor retinaculum Tendon of palmaris longus Ulna d A posteromedial view of superficial dissection of the right upper limb.

79 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Forearm The anterior deep compartment Pronator quadratus

80 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Forearm The lateral compartment Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus

81 Figure 11.14c Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Upper Limb Superficial Flexor Compartment Flexor digitorum superficialis Lateral Compartment Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis brevis Deep Flexor Compartment Flexor digitorum profundus Extensor Compartment c Horizontal section through proximal right forearm Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum

82 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm and Forearm Compartments of the Forearm The posterior compartment Abductor pollicis longus Anconeus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Extensor indicis Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Supinator

83 Figure 11.15c Dissection of the Right Upper Limb, with Sectional Views of the Arm and Forearm POSTERIOR Extensor pollicis longus Extensor digitorum Abductor pollicis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus Radius Flexor pollicis longus Brachioradialis Extensor digiti minimi Flexor carpi radialis ANTERIOR Extensor carpi ulnaris Ulna Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Palmaris longus c Sectional view of the forearm showing the relationships among deeper muscles.

84 Figure 11.15d Dissection of the Right Upper Limb, with Sectional Views of the Arm and Forearm Deltoid Teres major Latissimus dorsi Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor carpi radialis Tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris Flexor retinaculum Extensor retinaculum Tendon of palmaris longus Ulna d A posteromedial view of superficial dissection of the right upper limb.

85 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs The muscles of the lower limbs are larger and more powerful than those of the upper limbs. These muscles can be divided into three groups Muscles that move the thigh Muscles that move the leg Muscles that move the foot and toes

86 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Thigh Originate on the pelvis; many are large and powerful Four groups Gluteal group Lateral rotator group Adductor group Iliopsoas group

87 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Thigh The gluteal group Gluteus maximus Posterior extension at the hip Gluteus medius Abduction at the hip Gluteus minimus Abduction at the hip Tensor fasciae latae Abduction at the hip

88 Figure 11.16a Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part I Iliac crest Sacrum Lateral Rotator Group Piriformis Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Quadratus femoris Gluteal Group Gluteus maximus (cut) Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Greater trochanter of femur Ischial tuberosity Gracilis Adductor magnus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris (long head) Iliotibial tract a Posterior view of pelvis showing deep dissections of the gluteal muscles and lateral rotators. For a superficial view of the gluteal muscles, see Figures 11.2, 11.18, and

89 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Thigh The lateral rotator group Obturators Lateral rotation and abduction of hip Piriformis Lateral rotation and abduction of hip Gemelli Lateral rotation and abduction of hip Quadratus femoris Lateral rotation of hip

90 Figure 11.16a Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part I Iliac crest Sacrum Lateral Rotator Group Piriformis Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Quadratus femoris Gluteal Group Gluteus maximus (cut) Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Greater trochanter of femur Ischial tuberosity Gracilis Adductor magnus Semitendinosus Biceps femoris (long head) Iliotibial tract a Posterior view of pelvis showing deep dissections of the gluteal muscles and lateral rotators. For a superficial view of the gluteal muscles, see Figures 11.2, 11.18, and

91 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Thigh The adductor group Adductor brevis Adduction at the hip Adductor longus Adduction and medial rotation at the hip Adductor magnus Adduction at the hip Pectineus Flexion and adduction at the hip Gracilis Flexion and medial rotation at the knee Adduction and medial rotation at the hip

92 Figure 11.16d Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part I Iliopsoas Group Psoas major Iliacus L 5 Inguinal ligament Adductor Group Adductor magnus Adductor brevis Adductor longus Pectineus Lateral Rotator Group Piriformis Obturator internus Obturator externus Sartorius (see Table 11.8) Gracilis d Anterior view of the iliopsoas muscle and the adductor group.

93 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Thigh The iliopsoas group Iliacus Flexion at the hip Psoas major Flexion at the hip

94 Figure 11.16d Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part I Iliopsoas Group Psoas major Iliacus L 5 Inguinal ligament Adductor Group Adductor magnus Adductor brevis Adductor longus Pectineus Lateral Rotator Group Piriformis Obturator internus Obturator externus Sartorius (see Table 11.8) Gracilis d Anterior view of the iliopsoas muscle and the adductor group.

95 Muscles That Move the Thigh

96 A&P Flix: Gluteus Maximus

97 A&P Flix: Iliopsoas

98 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Leg Extensors of the knee (collectively called the quadriceps femoris) Vastus intermedius Extends the leg Vastus lateralis Extends the leg Vastus medialis Extends the leg Rectus femoris Extends the leg Flexion at the hip

99 Figure 11.18b Muscles That Move the Leg, Anterior Views Anterior superior iliac spine Gluteus medius Tensor fasciae latae Iliopsoas Pectineus Adductor longus Femoral nerve Inguinal ligament Pubic tubercle Femoral vein Femoral artery Gracilis Extensors of the Knee Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Iliotibial tract Sartorius Quadriceps tendon Patella Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity b Diagrammatic anterior view of the superficial muscles of the right thigh

100 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Leg Flexors of the knee Biceps femoris Flexes the leg Extension at the hip Semimembranosus Flexes the leg Semitendinosus Flexes the leg The biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus are collectively called the hamstrings

101 Figure 11.19b Muscles That Move the Leg, Posterior Views Iliac crest Gluteal aponeurosis over gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Tensor fasciae latae Adductor magnus Gracilis Iliotibial tract Flexors of the Knee Biceps femoris, long head Semitendinosus Biceps femoris, short head Semimembranosus Sartorius Medial head of gastrocnemius Lateral head of gastrocnemius Tibial nerve Popliteal artery (red) and vein (blue) b Posterior view of superficial muscles of the right thigh

102 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Leg Flexors of the knee Sartorius Allows crossing of the lower leg Popliteus Flexes the leg

103 Figure 11.19d Muscles That Move the Leg, Posterior Views Sartorius Gracilis Biceps femoris, short head Hamstrings Semitendinosus Biceps femoris, long head Semimembranosus Sartorius Popliteus d Deep muscles of the posterior thigh

104 Figure 11.21a Muscles That Move the Leg, Medial and Lateral Views Pubic symphysis Sacrum Gluteus maximus Adductor longus Adductor magnus Gracilis Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Patella Gastrocnemius, medial head a Medial view of the muscles of the right thigh

105 Figure 11.21b Muscles That Move the Leg, Medial and Lateral Views Gluteus medius Tensor fasciae latae Sartorius Gluteus maximus Rectus femoris Iliotibial tract Vastus lateralis Biceps femoris, long head Biceps femoris, short head Semimembranosus Patella Plantaris Patellar ligament b Lateral view of the muscles of the right thigh

106 A&P Flix: Vastus Lateralis

107 A&P Flix: Biceps Femoris

108 A&P Flix: Sartorius

109 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Extrinsic muscles of the foot and toes Muscles that originate on the distal end of the femur or on the tibia or fibula but yet move the foot and toes Intrinsic muscles of the toes Muscles that originate on some aspect of the foot but yet move the toes

110 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Extrinsic muscles that move the foot Dorsiflexor Tibialis anterior: dorsiflexion of the foot

111 Figure 11.23a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Anterior View Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Patella Iliotibial tract Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity Dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Fibularis longus Tibia Digital Extensors Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibula Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus Inferior extensor retinaculum a Anterior views showing superficial and deep muscles of the right leg

112 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Extrinsic muscles that move the foot Plantar flexors Gastrocnemius: plantar flexion of the foot Fibularis brevis: eversion of the foot Fibularis longus: eversion of the foot Plantaris: plantar flexion Soleus: plantar flexion Tibialis posterior: inversion of the foot

113 Figure 11.22a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Posterior Views Plantaris Plantar Flexors Plantaris Gastrocnemius, medial head Gastrocnemius, lateral head Popliteus Soleus Soleus Gastrocnemius (cut and removed) a Superficial muscles of the posterior surface of the leg; those large muscles are primarily responsible for plantar flexion. Calcaneal tendon Calcaneus

114 Figure 11.22c Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Posterior Views Head of fibula Plantar Flexors Tibialia posterior Fibularis longus Tibialis posterior Digital Flexors Flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis longus Fibularis brevis Tendon of fibularis brevis c Posterior view of deeper muscles of the leg. Tendon of fibularis longus

115 Figure 11.24b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Medial and Lateral Views Iliotibial tract Biceps femoris Head of fibula Lateral head of gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Fibularis longus Soleus Fibularis brevis Extensor digitorum longus Superior extensor retinaculum Calcaneal tendon Lateral malleolus Inferior extensor retinaculum Tendon of extensor hallucis longus b Lateral view of the superficial muscles of the right leg

116 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Extrinsic muscles that move the toes Digital flexors and extensors Flexor digitorum longus: flexion of toes 2 5 Flexor hallucis longus: flexion of the hallux Extensor digitorum longus: extension of toes 2 5 Extensor hallucis longus: extension of the hallux

117 Figure 11.22c Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Posterior Views Head of fibula Plantar Flexors Tibialia posterior Fibularis longus Tibialis posterior Digital Flexors Flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis longus Fibularis brevis Tendon of fibularis brevis c Posterior view of deeper muscles of the leg. Tendon of fibularis longus

118 Figure 11.23a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Anterior View Superficial Dissection Deep Dissection Patella Iliotibial tract Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity Dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Fibularis longus Tibia Digital Extensors Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibula Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus Inferior extensor retinaculum a Anterior views showing superficial and deep muscles of the right leg

119 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Intrinsic muscles that move the toes Abductor hallucis: abduction of the hallux Flexor digitorum brevis: flexion of toes 2 5 Abductor digiti minimi: abduction of the little toe Lumbricals: extension of toes 2 5 Flexor hallucis brevis: flexion of the hallux Flexor digiti minimi brevis: flexion of the little toe

120 Figure 11.25b Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part I Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Fibrous tendon sheaths Lumbricals Tendons of flexor digitorum brevis overlying tendons of flexor digitorum longus Flexor hallucis brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis b Plantar aponeurosis (cut) Plantar (inferior) view, superficial layer of the right foot Abductor digiti minimi Calcaneus

121 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Intrinsic muscles that move the toes Quadratus plantae: flexion of toes 2 5 Flexor hallucis brevis: flexion of the hallux Adductor hallucis: adducts the hallux Plantar interossei: adduction of toes 3 5

122 Figure 11.25d Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part I Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Tendon of flexor hallucis longus Tendons of flexor digitorum brevis (cut) Lumbricals Abductor digiti minimi (cut) Flexor digiti minimi brevis Tendon of fibularis brevis Tendon of fibularis longus Abductor digiti minimi (cut) Plantar aponeurosis (cut) Flexor hallucis brevis Abductor hallucis (cut and retracted) Tendon of flexor digitorum longus Tendon of tibialis posterior Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Quadratus plantae Flexor digitorum brevis (cut) Abductor hallucis (cut) Calcaneus d Plantar (inferior) view, deep layer of the right foot

123 Figure 11.25e Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part I Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Adductor hallucis (transverse head) Abductor digiti minimi (cut) Plantar interossei Flexor digiti minimi brevis Tendon of fibularis brevis Tendon of fibularis longus Flexor digitorum brevis (cut) Plantar aponeurosis (cut) Calcaneus Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Flexor hallucis brevis Adductor hallucis (oblique head) Tendon of tibialis posterior Plantar ligament Tendon of flexor digitorum longus (cut) Tendon of flexor hallucis longus (cut) e Plantar (inferior) view, deepest layer of the right foot

124 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Intrinsic muscles that move the toes Quadratus plantae: flexion of toes 2 5 Flexor hallucis brevis: flexion of the hallux Adductor hallucis: adducts the hallux Plantar interossei: adduction of toes 3 5

125 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Intrinsic muscles that move the toes Extensor digitorum brevis Extension of the toes of digits 1 4 Dorsal interossei Abduction of toes 3 and 4 Extension of toes 2 through 4

126 Figure 11.25a Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part I Tendon of fibularis brevis Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus of fibula Inferior extensor retinaculum Tendons of extensor digitorum longus Tendons of extensor digitorum brevis Tendon of tibialis anterior Medial malleolus of tibia Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Extensor hallucis brevis Abductor hallucis Dorsal interossei Extensor expansion Tendon of extensor hallucis longus a Dorsal view of the right foot Tendon of extensor hallucis brevis

127 Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes

128 A&P Flix: Extensor Digitorum Longus

129 A&P Flix: Tibialis Anterior

130 A&P Flix: Soleus

131 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs Action Line of Muscles When a muscle contracts, it develops tension The direction the muscle moves upon developing tension is known as the action line The following figures show the action line of muscles that move the thigh

132 Figure 11.2 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function (7 of 7) Action Lines at the Hip Joint The hip joint, like the shoulder joint, is a multiaxial synovial joint that permits flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and medial/lateral rotation. Determining the action of a muscle on the hip is identical to the process utilized for the shoulder, in that the action of a muscle on the hip is determined by the structure of the joint and the location of the insertion of the muscle on the femur (not shown) relative to the permitted axes of motion at the joint. Gluteal Group Flexion, abduction, and medial rotation Gluteus medius Extension and abduction Extension Iliopsoas: flexion Gluteus medius and minimus: abduction Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae ANTERIOR Adductor longus Acetabulum Gluteus maximus POSTERIOR Hamstring group Obturator externus: lateral rotation Tensor fasciae latae: medial rotation Adductor longus: adduction Hamstring group: extension and lateral rotation Adductor magnus Adductor magnus Adduction Adductor Group Extension and lateral rotation Lateral Rotator Group Action lines of the adductor magnus

133 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Lateral compartment Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis

134 Figure 11.28c Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Tibialis anterior Anterior tibial artery and vein Lateral Compartment Fibularis longus Deep Posterior Compartment Tibialis posterior Posterior tibial artery and vein Superficial Posterior Compartment Soleus Gastrocnemius c Horizontal section through proximal right leg

135 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Superficial posterior compartment Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris

136 Figure 11.28c Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Tibialis anterior Anterior tibial artery and vein Lateral Compartment Fibularis longus Deep Posterior Compartment Tibialis posterior Posterior tibial artery and vein Superficial Posterior Compartment Soleus Gastrocnemius c Horizontal section through proximal right leg

137 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Anterior compartment Iliopsoas Quadriceps femoris Sartorius Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Tibialis anterior

138 Figure 11.28a Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Sartorius Vastus medialis Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Medial Compartment Adductor longus Adductor magnus Posterior Compartment Gluteus maximus Sciatic nerve Biceps femoris and semitendinosis a Horizontal section through proximal right thigh

139 Figure 11.28b Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Rectus femoris Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Vastus lateralis Medial Compartment Adductor longus Adductor magnus Posterior Compartment Sciatic nerve Biceps femoris b Horizontal section through distal right thigh

140 Figure 11.28c Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Tibialis anterior Anterior tibial artery and vein Lateral Compartment Fibularis longus Deep Posterior Compartment Tibialis posterior Posterior tibial artery and vein Superficial Posterior Compartment Soleus Gastrocnemius c Horizontal section through proximal right leg

141 Figure 11.28d Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Tendon of tibialis anterior Anterior tibial artery and vein Deep Posterior Compartment Flexor hallucis longus Posterior tibial artery and vein Lateral Compartment Tendon of fibularis longus d Horizontal section through distal right leg Superficial Posterior Compartment Soleus Calcaneal tendon

142 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Medial compartment Adductor longus Adductor brevis Pectineus Adductor magnus Gracilis Obturator externus

143 Figure 11.28a Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Sartorius Vastus medialis Femoral artery, vein, and nerve Medial Compartment Adductor longus Adductor magnus Posterior Compartment Gluteus maximus Sciatic nerve Biceps femoris and semitendinosis a Horizontal section through proximal right thigh

144 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Deep posterior compartment Popliteus Flexor hallucis longus Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis posterior

145 Figure 11.28d Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb Anterior Compartment Tendon of tibialis anterior Anterior tibial artery and vein Deep Posterior Compartment Flexor hallucis longus Posterior tibial artery and vein Lateral Compartment Tendon of fibularis longus d Horizontal section through distal right leg Superficial Posterior Compartment Soleus Calcaneal tendon

146 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh and Leg Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Thigh and Leg Posterior compartment Hamstrings

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