Steel and cast iron. Chapter Chapter 11-2

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1 Steel and cast iron Chapter 11-1 Chapter

2 Taxonomy of Metals Metal Alloys Ferrous Steels Cast Irons <1.4 <1.4wt%C wt%c wt%c Nonferrous Cu Al Mg Ti Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister 7e d a800 ferrite 600 T( C) g+l g austenite a+g 727 C Eutectoid: C L g+fe 3 C a+fe 3 C 4.30 L+Fe 3 C Eutectic: microstructure: ferrite, graphite cementite Fe3C cementite (Fe) C o, wt% C Chapter 11-3 Carbon steel 1. Other terms: plain steel, mild steel, low-carbon steel 2. Available in almost all product forms: e.g. sheet, strip, bar, plate, tube, pipe etc. 3. Designation: e.g steel wt% C 4. Up to 2 wt% C 5. Limitation for other alloying elements: Si up to 0.6 %, Cu up to 0.6 % Mn up to 1.65 % Chapter

3 Chapter 11-5 Hot-rolled steels and typical applications t11_01b_pg361 Chapter

4 AISI: the American Iron and Steel Institute SAE: the Sociaty of Automotive and Engineering ASTM: the American Society for Testing and Materials UNS: the Uniform Numbering System Chapter 11-7 High alloys: Chapter

5 Chapter 11-9 Designations, compositions and applications for six tool steels Chapter

6 Chapter Chapter

7 Chapter Chapter

8 Stainless steels 1. More resistant to rusting and staining than carbon- and low-alloy steels 2. Chromium addition, usually above 10 wt% (4-30%) Chapter Stainless steels Chapter

9 Chapter Chapter

10 Steels low carbon <0.25 wt%c Low Alloy Med carbon wt% C high carbon wt% C High Alloy heat Name plain HSLA plain treatable Additions none Cr,V Ni, Mo none Cr, Ni Mo Example Hardenability TS EL Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades pistons gears wear applic. plain none wear applic. increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister 7e. tool Cr, V, Mo, W drills saws dies austenitic stainless Cr, Ni, Mo high T applic. turbines furnaces V. corros. resistant Chapter Ferrous Alloys Iron containing Steels - cast irons Nomenclature AISI & SAE 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (10 ~ 20%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni ( %), Cr ( %), Mo ( %) 44xx Mo (0.5%) where xx is wt% C x 100 example: 1060 steel plain carbon steel with 0.60 wt% C Stainless Steel -- >11% Cr Chapter

11 Cast Iron Ferrous alloys with > 2.1 wt% C more commonly wt%c low melting (also brittle) so easiest to cast Cementite decomposes to ferrite + graphite Fe 3 C 3 Fe (a) + C (graphite) cementite (Fe 3 C) a metastable phase graphite formation promoted by Si > 1 wt% slow cooling Chapter Fe-C True Equilibrium Diagram Graphite formation promoted by Si > 1 wt% slow cooling a + g Cast iron 1. Gray iron 2. Nodular (ductile) iron 3. White iron 4. Malleable iron 5. Compacted graphite iron (CGI) T( C) L Liquid + g+l Graphite 1200 g 1153 C Austenite 4.2 wt% C 1000 g+ Graphite C 600 a + Graphite (Fe) C o, wt% C 0.65 Chapter

12 Gray iron Types of Cast Iron 1-3 % Si, 2.5 4% C graphite flakes plus ferrite/pearlite brittleness due to the flake-like graphite weak & brittle under tension stronger under compression excellent vibrational dampening wear resistant Ductile (nodular) iron a small amount (0.05 wt%) of Mg or Ce spheroidal graphite precipitates (nodules) rather than flakes matrix often pearlite or ferrite Ductility increased by a factor of 20, strength is doubled Chapter Microstructure of pearlite in the grey iron (Fe-3.3C-2.1Si- 0.5Cr-0.5Mo-1.0Cu). TEM. Optical micrograph of a grey iron (Fe-3.3C-2.1Si-0.5Cr- 0.5Mo-1.0Cu) Chapter

13 (a) steel; (b) grey cast iron Chapter White iron Types of Cast Iron <1wt% Si, harder but brittle eutectic carbide plus pearlite large amount of Fe 3 C formed during casting Malleable iron the result of annealing white iron castings, 800º-900º C cementite graphite precipitates, clusters or rosettes more ductile Chapter

14 Types of Cast Iron Compacted graphite iron (CGI) 1. C: %, Si: % 2. Lower content of Mg or Ce 3. Worm-like (vermicular) graphite particles higher thermal conductivity better resistance to thermal shock lower oxidation at elevated temperature Chapter Production of Cast Iron Adapted from Fig.11.5, Callister 7e. Chapter

15 Cast iron Chapter Which type of cast iron is in the pictures illustrated below? Chapter

16 Limitations of Ferrous Alloys 1) Relatively high density 2) Relatively low conductivity 3) Poor corrosion resistance Chapter Metal Fabrication How do we fabricate metals? Blacksmith - hammer (forged) Molding - cast Forming Operations Rough stock formed to final shape Hot working vs. Cold working T high enough for well below T m recrystallization work hardening Larger deformations smaller deformations Chapter

17 Metal Fabrication Methods - I FORMING Forging (Hammering; Stamping) Ao (wrenches, crankshafts) force die blank force Drawing (rods, wire, tubing) Ao die die Ad Ad tensile force often at elev. T die must be well lubricated & clean CASTING Rolling (Hot or Cold Rolling) (I-beams, rails, sheet & plate) Ao force Ao roll roll Extrusion (rods, tubing) container ram billet container JOINING Ad Adapted from Fig. 11.8, Callister 7e. die holder extrusion die ductile metals, e.g. Cu, Al (hot) Chapter Ad Metal Fabrication Methods - II FORMING CASTING JOINING Casting- mold is filled with metal metal melted in furnace, perhaps alloying elements added. Then cast in a mold most common, cheapest method gives good production of shapes weaker products, internal defects good option for brittle materials Chapter

18 Metal Fabrication Methods - II FORMING CASTING JOINING Sand Casting (large parts, e.g., trying to hold something that is hot auto engine blocks) what will withstand >1600ºC? Sand Sand cheap - easy to mold => sand!!! molten metal pack sand around form (pattern) of desired shape Chapter Metal Fabrication Methods - II FORMING CASTING JOINING Sand Casting (large parts, e.g., auto engine blocks) Investment Casting pattern is made from paraffin. Sand Sand mold made by encasing in plaster of paris Investment Casting (low volume, complex shapes e.g., jewelry, turbine blades) plaster die formed around wax prototype molten metal wax melt the wax & the hollow mold is left pour in metal Chapter

19 Metal Fabrication Methods - II FORMING CASTING JOINING Sand Casting (large parts, e.g., auto engine blocks) Die Casting (high volume, low T alloys) Sand Sand Investment Casting (low volume, complex shapes e.g., jewelry, turbine blades) plaster die formed around wax prototype molten metal wax Continuous Casting (simple slab shapes) molten solidified Chapter Metal Fabrication Methods - III FORMING CASTING JOINING Powder Metallurgy Welding (materials w/low ductility) (when one large part is impractical) point contact at low T pressure densify heat area contact densification by diffusion at higher T filler metal (melted) base metal (melted) fused base metal heat affected zone unaffected unaffected piece 1 piece 2 Heat affected zone: (region in which the microstructure has been changed). Adapted from Fig. 11.9, Callister 7e. (Fig from Iron Castings Handbook, C.F. Walton and T.J. Opar (Ed.), 1981.) Chapter

20 Thermal Processing of Metals Annealing: Heat to Tanneal, then cool slowly. Stress Relief: Reduce stress caused by: -plastic deformation -nonuniform cooling -phase transform. Spheroidize (steels): Make very soft steels for good machining. Heat just below T E & hold for h. Process Anneal: Negate effect of cold working by (recovery/ recrystallization) Types of Annealing Full Anneal (steels): Make soft steels for good forming by heating to get g, then cool in furnace to get coarse P. Normalize (steels): Deform steel with large grains, then normalize to make grains small. Based on discussion in Section 11.7, Callister 7e. Chapter Heat Treatments a) Annealing b) Quenching c) Tempered Martensite T( C) Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e A Austenite (stable) A P B 50% 100% T E 0% b) M + A M + A time (s) a) 0% 50% 90% Chapter c) 20

21 f11_10_pg389 Chapter Chapter

22 Hardenability--Steels Ability to form martensite Jominy end quench test to measure hardenability. specimen (heated to g phase field) 24 C water flat ground Rockwell C hardness tests Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. (Fig adapted from A.G. Guy, Essentials of Materials Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978.) Hardness versus distance from the quenched end. Hardness, HRC Distance from quenched end Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. Chapter Why Hardness Changes With Position The cooling rate varies with position. T( C) Hardness, HRC distance from quenched end (in) M(start) A fi M M(finish) A fi P 0% 100% Pearlite Fine Pearlite Martensite + Pearlite Martensite Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. (Fig adapted from H. Boyer (Ed.) Atlas of Isothermal Transformation and Cooling Transformation Diagrams, American Society for Metals, 1977, p. 376.) Time (s) Chapter

23 Hardenability vs Alloy Composition Jominy end quench results, C = 0.4 wt% C (table 11.2a p363) Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. (Fig adapted from figure furnished courtesy Republic Steel Corporation.) "Alloy Steels" (4140, 4340, 5140, 8640) --contain Ni, Cr, Mo (0.2 to 2wt%) --these elements shift the "nose". --martensite is easier to form. Hardness, HRC Cooling rate ( C/s) Distance from quenched end (mm) T( C) A B 4340 T E %M shift from A to B due to alloying M(start) M(90%) Time (s) Chapter Quenching Medium & Geometry Effect of quenching medium: Medium air oil water Severity of Quench low moderate high Effect of geometry: When surface-to-volume ratio increases: --cooling rate increases --hardness increases Position center surface Cooling rate low high Hardness low moderate high Hardness low high Chapter

24 Summary Steels: increase TS, Hardness (and cost) by adding --C (low alloy steels) --Cr, V, Ni, Mo, W (high alloy steels) --ductility usually decreases with additions. Non-ferrous: --Cu, Al, Ti, Mg, Refractory, and noble metals. Fabrication techniques: --forming, casting, joining. Hardenability --increases with alloy content. Precipitation hardening --effective means to increase strength in Al, Cu, and Mg alloys. Chapter

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