Words can be classified into three groups:

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2 Words can be classified into three groups: 1. The first group: the form-classes They are five: Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and uninflected words These form-classes are large and open; they admit new members, that is new words coming into the language from other tongues. They are called form-classes because membership in a class is determined by the form of a word Example: Kindness Book s Politely is a noun because it has the derivational suffix {-ness} is a noun ~~~~~~~~~~~ inflectional suffix {- s ps} is an adverb because it ends in the derivational suffix {-ly av}

3 1. The second group: the positional classes They are four main positional classes: nominal, verbal, adjectival, and adverbial They are called positional because membership in this class is determined by position or word order. Example: We enjoyed ( this blank is a noun position; the slot-filler is a nominal) I listen to the teacher..( the slot-filler here is an adverbial) My sister seems.( the slot-filler is an adjectival)

4 1. The third group: the structure classes Such as prepositions and auxiliaries. They are small and closed. Membership in this class is fixed and closed.

5 1. Nouns Nouns are identified as nouns by two aspects: The inflectional morphemes Any word that has the {-s pl}, {-s ps} or {-s pl ps}, it is a noun. If the word does not have the plural s but can take in the same position with a readjustment, then it is a noun. COMPARE: The author seems tired (noun) My brother may author a new biography. See p. 155 for further detail ; see exercise 12.1 Words that have only a plural form are considered as nouns, e.g. clothes, glasses, pants, scissors, goods, oats, pliers etc. The derivational morphemes The noun -forming derivational suffixes added to verbs, adjectives, adverbs, nouns and bound morphemes can help identify nouns. Example: Creativity is a talent Study the list on p. 156 See exercise 12.3 (noun)

6 2. Verbs Verbs have a maximum of five different inflectional suffixes: the stem plus the inflectional suffixes [{-s 3d}; {-ING vb}]; {-D pt}]; {-D pp}]. Stem -s 3d -ing vb -d pt -d pp learn learns learning learned learned Any word that has three or more of the inflectional suffixes listed above is said to belong to the form-class the verb. See exercise 12.4 p. 159 Verbs are also identified as verbs by the derivational suffixes. They are few Study the list on p. 159; See exercise 12.5

7 A word that is inflected with er or est and that is capable of forming adverbs with ly or nouns with ness is called an adjective. Example: small - smaller - smallest smallness See exercise Adjectives Adjectives are identified as adjectives by derivational suffixes. In comparison, they are preceded by more and most rather than er or est. Example: selfish- powerful manageable - active etc. Study the list on p. 161

8 4. Adverbs The adverb has four suffixes: the derivational suffixes ly, - wise, -ward, and s and the free form like. e.g. fortunately (adj+ly), studentwise (n.+ wise), northward/northwards (n.+ward), nights or Saturdays (n. +s), childlike (n. +like), casual-like (adj.+like) See exercise 12.8 p 164

9 5. Uninflected Words (UW s) Words that cannot be classified in one of the four formclasses are known as uninflected words, UW s. Study the list on p. 164 See exercise 12.9 p 165

10

11 1. Qualifiers Position : before an adjectival or an adverbial Function: to modify Example: rather, very, quite, etc. The dinner was rather good. She handled it very carefully Rather and very are qualifiers. The words following (the qualifiers are called the head. Most of the qualifiers are uninflected words. See exercise 13.1 The qualifier position can accept any form-class a verb, a noun, an adjective, or an adverb- See exercise 13.2

12 2. Prepositions Definition : they are words such as of, in, on are usually followed by a noun, a noun phrase, a personal pronoun, or a noun substitute. Function: to serve the linguistic structure Example: at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, and with. Of, in, and on are most frequently used. I went to the hospital with my father I found my keys in the bag Kinds of prepositions: 1. Monosyllabic prepositions, e.g. with, of, in, on, up, 2. Prepositions of two syllables, such as about, beneath, behind, below, beyond, between, above, after, against Compare: She looked up the stairs prep. She looked up adv. See exercise 13.6

13 3. ing prepositions which have a verb stem, e.g. assuming, beginning, considering, concerning, including.e.g., See exercise 13.7 Regarding the exam, the grade will be out of Compound prepositions: In case of emergency, call 911 They are of various types. Here is a few of them Instead of in place of Due to in addition to because of In spite of in case of In front of out of On behalf of up to See exercise 13.8 (6, 7, 9, 10)

14 3. Determiners Definition : A determiner is usually preceding a noun. Function: serving as a signal that a noun is soon to follow. Example: the news If the noun is preceded by adjectives and nouns, determiners precede these modifiers. Example: the new book, the blue bag, her nice dress. See the list of determiners on p. 174 See exercise 13.9 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

15 4. Auxiliaries They are closely associated with the verbs Function: they are verb markers; they signal that a verb is about to follow Position: they precede the stem of the verb in a sentence. They have special shades of meaning like probability, possibility, permission, necessity, futurity, and volition. They are of three kinds: 1. Modal auxiliaries, e.g. can could May might Will would Shall should Must Ought to had to ought to + pp. should have + pp.

16 2. The primary auxiliaries, have and be The stem have be Present tense has/have am/is/are Present participle having being Past tense had was/were Past participle had been They precede the main verbs: Have/has precedes the past participle, e.g. she has eaten the apple. Be precedes the past participle or the present participle, e.g. The key was found she is walking on the bench

17 3. The periphrastic auxiliary, do Do is a dummy form that has three uses: a. In questions, e.g. Do you study? Or When do you sleep? Does he study Or Where does he go? Did you study? Or How did you study? b. In negative sentences, e.g. Huda does not study. Or They do not study. Ahmad did not study. c. In declarative affirmative sentences, e.g. Huda did study. Or They do care. d. In tag questions, e.g. She likes apples, does not she? He bought a car, did not he? e. in sentences beginning with negative adverbials like seldom, never, e.g. Never did I dream of such a thing Not only does he dream, he has nightmares. See exercise 13.11; 13.12

18 5. Pronouns: personal, interrogative, relative A. Personal pronouns include: the subject pronouns the object pronouns the prenominal possessive pronouns substitutional possessive pronouns. (I, you, he, she, it) (Me, you, him, her, it) (My, your, his, her, its) (Mine, yours, his, hers, its) B. Interrogative pronouns include: Who, whom, whose which are used as the first word in questions. C. Relative pronouns include: Who (the subject of the verb), e.g. the student who does not study get zero whom (the object of the verb), e.g. the girl whom I met is my best friend (the object of the preposition), e.g. the lady whom I talked to is my aunt whose (possessive relative), e.g. the teacher Whose book I borrowed has an extra copy See exercise (13. 15, 13.16)

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