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1 MAIN IDEAS NOTES Rise of the Ottoman Turks Expansion of the Ottoman Empire (p. 484) Late 13 th Century the Turks were ruled by a leader called Osman 1.) Late 1200s = Ottoman Turks controlled Osman Turks expanded and began the Ottoman Dynasty See map on p. 485 Turks took control of the straits that connect the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Byzantine Empire were defeated in this area by the Ottoman Turks Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits Black Sea to Bosporus Strait to Sea of Marmara to Dardanelles Strait to Aegean Sea to Mediterranean Sea See map on p ) 1300s = Turks spread See map on p. 485 Made up of local Christians who were converted to Islam Foot soldiers and administrators 4.) Battle of (1389) = Ottomans 5.) 1390s = Conquering The Byzantine Empire (p. 485) 1.) 1400s to 1700s expanded to 2.) April 6 May 29, 1453 = 700s to 1453 = Byzantine Empire (p ) = Eastern Roman Empire Ottomans lay siege to Constantinople 80,000 Ottoman troops v. 7,000 Byzantine Massive cannons hurled 1200 lb stone balls against the city Byzantine emperor died in the final battle 3-day sack of Constantinople ruined the city See p Page #

2 Western Asia and Africa (p ) 1.) became the new capital Later renamed Istanbul Ottoman Turks dominated the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula 2.) = Sultan Selim I took Original heartland of Islam Selim declared himself the new caliph Caliph = defender of the faith and the successor to Muhammad (the founder of the Islam religion) 4.) Advanced on the Pashas = local officials who collected taxes, kept law and order, and answered directly to the sultan Expansion into Europe 1.) After a Romanian territory Hungary stopped their advance into the Danube Valley 2.) ( ) Became leader in 1520 o advanced up the Danube River to take Belgrade b.) Battle of (1526) = took control of 1529 = invaded Austria but were defeated c.) 1571 = 1571 = defeated by the Spanish at Lepanto 3.) Early 1600s = Sleeping giant Late 1600s went on the offensive and started conquering lands again 4.) Mid 1683 = 5.) Late 1600s Ottomans were Page #

3 The Ottoman World Ottoman Rule (p. 486) Empires formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered Sons would inherit but it didn t have to be the oldest son Struggles over successions Losers would be executed The Imperial Sultans (p ) Used to be Constantinople Means iron gate Built in 15 th Century by Mehmed II Administrative center and private residence of the royal family Overlooks the Bosporus Strait and Sea of Marmara = an important trade route connecting the Aegean and Black Seas Decorated with geometric designs on painted tiles Islam forbids the use of human figures as decorations because of a believe that it might encourage idolatry Means sacred place Residence of the sultan and his wives Would choose 4 wives as his favorites The queen mother was the mother of the son who was chosen to be sultan The queen mother was a major adviser to the throne had power to influence the affairs of state 5.) Met 4 days a week Sultan sat behind a screen 6.) a.) of the imperial council The sultan would indicate his decisions to the grand vizier in private 7.) Empire was divided into provinces a.) Trained in a Page #

4 Religion in the Ottoman World (p. 487) 1.) Ottomans = Islam was formed from the teachings and prophecies of Muhammad in the 600s o Allah is the one God and Muhammad was God prophet p = The Rise of Islam p World Religions = Islam Shia Muslims (680) = accepted only direct descendants of Muhammad as rulers o People in Iraq and Iran are mostly Shia Sunni Muslims = Believed that rulers need only to be followers of Islam and Muhammad o Sunni are the majority in the Muslim world p. 164 = History of Sunni and Shia Muslims Caliph = defender of the Islam faith and successor to Muhammad Leader of the government and the religion a.) Carried out b.) Allowed Architecture and the Arts (p. 488) Patrons of the arts Pottery, rugs, silk, jewelry, weapons a Byzantine church in Constantinople was their model prayer hall with an open central area under one large dome Built 81 mosques Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul His mosques were topped with a dome and framed with four minarets (towers) 3.) 1500s = b.) in each village Page #

5 Ottoman Society (p. 488) 1.) Society was Sultan had ultimate ownership of all land Guilds = financial services, social security and training to members of their crafts Guilds provided financial services, social security, and training to members 5.) Pastoral people = 6.) Role of Women (p. 488) Subject to many of the same restrictions as other Muslim women Turkish culture viewed women as almost equal to men so they had more legal rights 1.) Allowed to 2.) Could In special cases 4.) Become in rare cases Page #

6 Problems in the Ottoman Empire (p. 489) Changes in the Government (p. 489) 1.) ( ) Took Belgrade and invaded western Mediterranean and North Africa (See map on p. 485) Executed two of his sons for suspicion of treason Succeeded by his only surviving son, Selim II 1566 = Suleyman died 2.) Other sultans were let their ministers make more decisions 3.) Early 1600s = Made themselves wealthier and more powerful Lost control of rural areas Taxes increased 5.) Cultural Changes (p. 489) Exchange of Western and Ottoman culture a.) technology d.) e.) f.) introduced to the Ottomans from Arabia spread to Europe from the Ottomans 3.) Some sultans tried One sultan outlawed coffee and tobacco Patrolled the Istanbul streets at night Executed his subjects caught in immoral or illegal acts Page #

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