New Asian Empires

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1 New Asian Empires The Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empires 2. The Mughal Empire 3. The Ming and the Qing Dynasty 4. Medieval Japan and Korea In Asia, the period from 1200 to 1800, was a time of great empires and shifts in power. From east of the Mediterranean Sea to India, strong Muslim rulers built large empires. In China a new dynasty sought to revive the traditions neglected under the Mongols, while a military society rose in Japan

2 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires The Ottoman and Safavid Empires flourished under powerful rulers who expanded the territory and cultural influence of their empires Golden Horn 15c map

3 The Ottoman Empire The Mongol conquest of the 1200s had ripped apart the Seljuk Turk empire in Anatolia, a region known as Asia Minor Small independent Turkish states then formed in the region 1200 s great chieftain arose and went on to found the Ottoman Empire Osman I (Othman):

4 Growth of an Empire Anatolia lies between the intersection of Asia and Europe Bordered by the Byzantine Empire to the west and Muslim empires to the east To the north, beyond the Black Sea is Russia Westerners came to refer to Osman and his descendents as the Ottomans Ghazis warriors for the Islam faith

5 Invasion and Decline Key to the Ottoman Success was their military training Janissaries boys who were converted to Islam and trained as soldiers and were loyal only to the sultan Timur the Lame, a great central Asian crushed the Ottoman Empire; led to temporary decline in power Janissaries Tamerlane ( ) or Timur, the Lame

6 Fall of Constantinople Following a period of decline, a phase of expansion begun with reign of Mehmed II determined to take Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire Took months to capture the city First to use gun powder for cannons to batter the city s walls Mehmet II: ; ( The Conqueror )

7 Istanbul, a New Capital Europeans vs. Turks Mehmed II made Constantinople his capital, which became Istanbul. He had people move there from all across his empire. Soon the city was again a major trading center with people of many cultures

8 The End of the Byzantine Empire He allowed his soldiers to pillage the city for three days, during which many residents were killed or enslaved. Rebuilt Constantinople into a Muslim City

9 Hagia Sophia He had palaces and mosques built and even had Hagia Sophia, the great Orthodox Christian cathedral, turned into a mosque

10 Blue Mosque The Blue Mosque became the place of worship for Muslims.

11 Height of an Empire Under the next three sultans, expansion continued. Expanded east to the rest of Anatolia

12 Selim I, the Grim : Addressed a threat to Persia the Savafid Empire and crushed it at the Battle of Chaldiran. Swept through Syria, and into Egypt Also captured Medina and Mecca, holy cities of Islam

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14 Suleiman the Magnificent: ( ) Suleiman s Signature The Ottoman Empire reached its peak under Suleyman I. Passed through Hungary up to Vienna Also gained control of the Mediterranean Sea and the North African coast.

15 Collection of Taxes in Suleiman s Court His domestic achievements were equally impressive. He reformed the tax system and overhauled the government bureaucracy. He improved the court system and legal code and had new laws issued to reduce corruption. Titled the Lawgiver

16 Society and Culture Ottoman Sultan ruled over a vast empire. Numerous officials advised him. Officials considered slaves The upper class of his empire The Ottoman Bureaucracy. SULTAN Divans Second class, or lower class, consisted of everyone else in the empire Social / Military Divans Heads of Individual Religious Millets Local Administrators & Military Muslims Jews Landowners / Tax Collectors Christians People of the Book

17 Conversations Between Muslims & Christians Following Islamic law, the Ottomans allowed religious freedom. They required some religious groups, such as Christian and Jews, -People of the Book to Muslims to form millets, or religious communities Each millet could follow its own religious laws and choose its own leaders, who were responsible to the sultan.

18 The Empire s Decline Battle of Lepanto (1571) After Suleyman s reign, the Ottoman Empire, gradually declined. One cause dealing with heirs sultans killed their brothers to eliminate rivals Throughout the next 300 years, weak sultans would be in power Even so, the empire lasted until the early 1900 s.

19 The Ottoman Empire During the 16 c Where were the Ottomans lands located in 1500 s? What three continents did the Ottomans partially control?

20 The Safavid Empire East of the Ottomans, Persian Muslims called the Safavids began building an empire around Came into conflict with the Ottomans and other Muslims. The conflict related to Islam s split into the rival Sunni and Shia sects. The Safavids were Shia: most other Muslims were Sunni

21 Growth of the Empire The Safavid founder 14 year old boy named Esma il. He took up the sword, after the death of his father, and in a series of victories, he gained control of what is now Iran as well as part of Iraq

22 He took the Persian title, the Shah, or king of the Safavid empire Shiism I the official Safavid religion This act worried many of his advisors most of his people were Sunni Eventually defeated in the Battle of Chaldiran against the Ottoman Turks. Died in 1524 Shah Esma il

23 Shah Abbas Abbas, in 1588 became Shah he reformed the government, strengthened the military, and acquired modern gunpowder weapons. His achievements produced a golden age in Safavid culture.

24 Culture and Economy He brought in Chinese potters to improve the quality of ceramics. Capital Esfahan one of the world s most magnificent cities. Public spaces with graceful arches and lush gardens Colorful tiles and domes decorated mosques The Slave trade and Persian carpets became an important industry The empire lasted until 1722.

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