# Introduction to Programming Block Tutorial C/C++

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1 Michael Bader Master s Program Computational Science and Engineering

2 C/C++ Tutorial Overview From Maple to C Variables, Operators, Statements Functions: declaration, definition, parameters Arrays and Pointers From Pointers to Dynamical Data Structures Object Oriented Programming: From C to C++

3 Monday Lesson Overview Maple and C: the differences Compiling First Steps in C: Hello World! Variables in C: data types, declaration and assignments C operators C statements basic input and output

4 Maple and C Differences Maple s programming language: needs Maple as runtime environment is interactive: user calls functions, Maple prints the results is declaration-based: procedures can be (re-)defined any time, the last definition is used C programming language: needs compiler to translate source code to executable program is not interactive. Input/output has to be programmed explicitly. is imperative: sequence of instructions and data flow of a program is predetermined. Changing program code requires recompilation.

5 Maple vs. C Variables Maple: Variables hold expressions mathematical expressions any type of expression type of expression may change logical data structures: lists, sets, tables C: Variables are cells of memory contain certain type of variable (integer, floating point,... ) type of variable is fixed and declared in advance physical data structures: structs, arrays Fundamentally different concept of variables!

6 Maple and C Similarities Binomial Coefficients in Maple and C Recursive Example: in Maple: binom := proc(n, k) if k=0 or k=n then return 1 else return binom(n-1,k-1) + binom(n-1,k) end if end proc; in C: int binom(int n, int k) { if ( k==0 k==n ) return 1; else return binom(n-1,k-1) + binom(n-1,k) ; }

7 Maple and C Similarities Binomial Coefficients in Maple and C using loops: in Maple: binom := proc(n, k) local i,nom,den; nom = 1; den = 1; for i from 1 to k do nom := nom*(n+1-i); den := den*i; end do; return nom/den; end proc; in C: int binom(int n, int k) { int i; float den=1, nom=1; for(i=1;i<=k;i++) { nom = nom*(n+1-i); den = den*i; } return nom/den ; }

8 Maple and C Compiling Maple type procedure in worksheet press return Maple checks syntax Maple builds internal representation of procedure call procedure Maple computes (and prints) result C type program using text editor start C compiler Compiler checks syntax Compiler builds executable program (machine code) start generated executable code does whatever it was designed to do

9 First Steps in C Compiling I. Before compiling: type code into a text file prog.c II. Start compiler: gcc prog.c check syntax check declarations (all variables declared? all assignments type-correct?) generate (meta-)code optimize generate object code link object code (add libraries, other code files, etc.), leads to executable program III. Start program

10 First Steps in C Hello World #include <stdio.h> main() { printf("hello World\n"); } #include <stdio.h>: include library for standard input/output operations #include: call to C preprocessor, include another file <stdio.h>: header file, contains declarations for a standardized set ( library ) of input/output functions. <> hint that the library is provided by C.

11 First Steps in C Hello World #include <stdio.h> main() { printf("hello World\n"); } main()... : define a function called main Question: Where does a C program start? At the first line? What if there is more than on file containing program code? all programs start with a call to main() {} begin/end the definition of the function main

12 First Steps in C Hello World #include <stdio.h> main() { printf("hello World\n"); } printf(): generate output printf() is a function defined in stdio.h prints its parameters to standard output (i.e. screen/terminal/... )

13 First Steps in C Hello World #include <stdio.h> main() { printf("hello World\n"); } "Hello World!\n": a character string just like in Maple \n represents a linefeed (non-printable character) Program prints string "Hello World" to standard output.

14 Variables in C Basically, variables in C are just cells of memory. we have to declare them first, i.e. tell the compiler what kind of variable they are there are different types of variables. different types of variables cannot hold the same type of information; a certain type of variable can only hold a certain type of information. variables contain values; they do not contain complex terms or expressions variables represent machine oriented data structures (i.e. sequences of cells in memory) logical data structures (lists, sets, matrices) have to be implemented by the programmer

15 Basic C Syntax Variables Variables have to be declared first always! at the beginning of a function/block of code Syntax: <type> <variable>; Examples: { int i; float e,pi; char c; }

16 Variables Simple Types Standard types: char int float Additional types: double long double short [int] long [int] unsigned [int] unsigned char unsigned short unsigned long characters and small integers integers floating point numbers floating point numbers (double precision) floating point numbers (long precision) small integers big integers unsigned integers unsigned characters/small integers unsigned small integers unsigned big integers

17 Variables Initialisation Declare and initialise a variable with a certain value. Examples: { int i=0; float e=2.7182, pi= ; char c= A ; } avoids using a variable that has no value value should make sense, however good practice!

18 Variables Assignments Assignments change the value of a certain variable: { i = 3; e = ; pi = ; c = B ; } assigned value must have the correct type notice the simple = ; there is no operator := in C the semicolon finishes the assignment

19 Arithmetic Operators Examples: { int i; float e,pi; i = 3 + 7; e = ( * 3.0) - 1.5; pi *= 2.0; i = Z - G ; i = ( e - pi ) / i; } in principle, all operations have to be type correct! in practice, C tries very hard to adjust the type ( casting ) use of parentheses like in Maple

20 Arithmetic Operators +, - summation and subtraction * multiplication / division; for integers, an integer division is performed % modulo operator, i.e. the remainder Operator precedence: *,/,% are evaluated before +,- (like expected) unary plus/minus precedes *,/,% parentheses override precedence

21 Changing the Types of Variables Sometimes, it is necessary to change the type of a variable. Example: int a=3, b=5; double f; f = a/b; In this example, an integer division is performed. The result will be 0. However, this does not seem to be the intended result. we need a mechanism to change the type of a variable

22 Casting Syntax: (<type>) <expression> Example: int a=3, b=5; double f; f = (double) a/ (double) b; In this example, the result will be 0.6! C does automatic casting in a wide range of situations: expressions that mix int and double variables expressions that mix float and double variables In most cases, C gets it right. There might be certain surprises, however...

23 Statements Overview: Assignment statements Conditional statements: if... else, switch... case block statements: {... } while statements: while, do... while for statements: for other statements: continue, break

24 Assignment Statements Examples: i = j = 0 ; e += 3.71 ; i--; --i; i++; ++i; Assignment Operators: = an assignment is an operator +=, -=, *=, /=, %= i+=3 equiv. to i=i+3, etc. ++ increment operator -- decrement operator i++, i-- ++i, --i increment/decrement i after evaluation increment/decrement i before evaluation

25 Conditional Statements Syntax: if ( <expression> ) <statement>; if ( <expression> ) <statement> else <statement>; Examples: if ( a!= 0 ) b /= a; if ( x >= 0 ) abs = x; else abs = -x; if ( x > -1 && x < 1 ) { if ( x < 0 ) erg = 1+x; else erg = 1-x; } else erg = 0;

26 Combining Statements The Block Statement Syntax: { <statement> <statement> <statement>...} Example: { int a=2,b=0; { int b=5; b = a*b; } printf("%d%\n",b); } Note: the semicolon does not separate statements, it is part of certain statements! Are block statements useful? if-statements!

27 Conditional Statements Revisited Boolean Expressions Examples: if ( a!= 0 ) b /= a; if ( x >= 0 ) abs = x; else abs = -x; if ( x < -1 x > 1 ) erg = 0; if (!a ) b /= a; Boolean Expressions in C? there is no special type for boolean expressions! a boolean expression is considered false if it evaluates to zero; otherwise it is considered true. one should not exploit this too extensively...

28 Boolean Expressions Overview ==,!= is equal to/is not equal to <, <= less than (or equal) >, >= greater than (or equal) && logical AND logical OR! logical NOT (unary operator) Operator precedence: && precedes!= and == precede && and! precedes!=, ==, &&, and parentheses override precedence use them wisely!

29 While Statement Syntax: while (<expression>) <statement> Examples: while (a >= b) a -= b ; i = 1; while (a >= 1) { a /= 2; i++; } repeat executing <statement> until <expression> is false <statement> might not be executed at all

30 Do-While Statement Syntax: do <statement> while (<expression>); Example: a = 1.0; do { a *= 2.0; i--; } while(i>0); repeat executing <statement> until <expression> is false <statement> is executed at least once!

31 For Statements Syntax: for(<expression>; <expression>; <expression>) <statement> Examples: for(i=1;i<=10;i++) a *= 2.0; for(i=1;a>=1;i++) a /= 2.0; 1st expression: initialisation 2nd expression: stopping criterion 3rd expression: loop counter

32 For vs. While for(<expression1>; <expression2>; <expression3>) <statement> is equivalent to Note: <expression1>; while(<expression2>) { <statement> <expression3>; } an expression becomes a statement when followed by a semicolon! an assignment is also an expression!

33 For Statement Examples Binomial Coefficients: coeff = 1; for(i=n;i>=n-k+1;i--) coeff *= i; for(i=1;i<=k;i++) coeff /= i; Or, as a single loop: nom = denom = 1; for(i=1;i<=k;i++) { nom *= (n+1-i); denom *= i; } coeff = nom/denom;

34 Nested Statements Example: prime numbers for(i=3;i<1000;i+=2) if ( i%3!=0 && i%5!=0 && i%7!= 0) printf("%d might be a prime number\n",i); for(i=2;i<1000;i++) { int dividers=0; for (j=2;j<i;j++) if (i%j == 0) { printf("%d is multiple of %d\n",i,j); dividers++; break; }; if (dividers==0) printf("%d is prime!\n",i); };

35 Input and Output In contrast to Maple, we have to handle all user input/output ourselves. However, C provides some powerful library functions for this task: printf for output scanf for input These are defined in the library <stdio.h>. For today, we ll imagine we already know everything about functions... Fortunately, calling functions in C and Maple looks exactly the same. Actually, Maple adopted printf and scanf from C almost without any changes.

36 printf Syntax: printf(<string>,...); printf requires a so-called control string and, possibly, further parameters. The number of parameters depends on the control string! Examples: printf("hello World\n"); printf("%d plus %d equals %d \n",a,b,(a+b)); printf("the logarithm of %d is %f\n",a,log(a)); The %-expressions are called format specifiers: for each format specifier, printf expects a parameter. specifier is replaced by formatted output of the parameter s value.

37 printf Format Specifiers specifier %d, %i print as: decimal integer %f fixed point decimal number %e, %E floating point decimal number ( scientific notation) %g, %G %f or %e,%e (shorter representation) %c character %s string The format specifiers also determine the type of the parameters: %d, %i require int parameters; %e, %f, %g require double parameters; etc.

38 scanf Syntax: scanf(<string>,...); scanf works very much like printf. For each format specifier in the control string, scanf expects a parameter. Examples: printf("please input a and b\n"); scanf("%d %f",&a,&b); The &-operator is strictly required: it indicates that a and b are modified by scanf it works in a similar way as ::evaln works in Maple

39 scanf Format Specifiers %d, %i require int parameters; specifier input type %d, %i int %f, %e, %g float %lf, %le, %lg double %c character %s string notice the different specifiers for float and double: %e, %f, %g require float parameters; %le, %lf, %lg require double parameters.

40 scanf Formatted Input Example: printf("please input current date (dd / mm / yyyy)\n"); scanf("%d / %d / %d",&day,&month,&year); white space characters (space, tab, etc.) in the control string are ignored. other characters have to appear in the input in exactly the same way! Input Source: standard input input stream (provided by the operating system) in most cases: input from the user (keyboard) can be redirected (on OS-level): e.g. input from a file

41 Last Example What Does this Program Do? main() { int i, k=1; double x, e=1.0, old=0.0; scanf("%lf",&x); while (old < e) { double f=1.0, p=1.0; for(i=1;i<=k;i++) { f *= (double) i; p *= x; } k++; old = e; e += p/f; } printf("%.16g\n",e); }

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