CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

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1 CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems to try at the end of the chapter. Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,39, 41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,87,89, 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter exists in one of three physical states: solid, liquid, or gas. (See Fig. 4.1 below.) gas: Particles are far apart and are in constant random motion. Gases assume the shape of the container, variable shape. Volume is variable also (changeable): If volume increases, particles move apart to fill entire container. If volume decreases, particles move closer together. liquid: Particles are close together but are free to move past one another. Liquids assume the shape of the container. Volume is constant (can t compress). solid: Particles are packed tightly together; these particles vibrate but remain in their place. Solids have a definite, fixed shape. Volume is constant. Know the terms shown below for changes in physical state! Fig. 4.1 from Corwin 4.2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Pure substance: consist of a single chemical with a fixed composition and distinct properties. A pure substance cannot be separated into parts by physical means. Two types of pure substances: Element: consist of only one type of atom a substance that cannot be broken down further by chemical reaction CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 1 of 7

2 e.g. carbon (C), hydrogen (H 2 ), sulfur (S 8 ), copper wire (Cu) Compound consist of two or more elements bonded together and has a specific formula like MgCl 2 a substance that can be chemically separated into its elements e.g. ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) can be broken down to C, H, & O Two or more pure substances can combine physically to form mixtures. Mixture consist of two or more compounds and/or elements, but has no specific formula has variable composition with definite or varying properties a mixture can be physically separated into its component elements and/or compounds e.g. Metal alloys like 10-K to 18-K gold; coarse mixtures like sea water or sand; gas mixtures like air which consists of nitrogen, oxygen, and other trace gases. Note: You do not need to distinguish between homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures as categorized in the book! Molecular-level Images: represent substances as atoms and molecules An element A compound A mixture Classify A to H as element, compound Or mixture. CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 2 of 7

3 4.3 Names and Symbols of the Elements Each element has a unique name, symbol, and number. Convention for writing chemical symbols Capitalize first letter of element name: hydrogen H, carbon C If the letter is already used, include the second letter (in lower case) of the name: helium He, calcium Ca, cobalt Co Note: Some symbols come from Latin names: e.g. lead is Pb = plumbum gold is Au = aurum (which means golden dawn ) FOR EXAM 1 KNOW THE NAMES AND SYMBOLS OF THE FIRST TWENTY ELEMENTS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE & THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS Ag = silver Au = gold Pb = lead Br = Bromine I = iodine Hg = mercury (There will be a few more later this semester.) 4.4 Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals Properties of Metals vs. Nonmetals Metals shiny appearance Malleable, ductile, most solids density usually high Good conductors of heat & electricity Nonmetals dull appearance Brittle, many gases density usually low Poor conductors (make better insulators) semimetals: Have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals. e.g. silicon Location of nonmetals, semimetals, metals on the Periodic Table (Fig. 4.5) Nonmetals (except H) are located on the top-right of the Periodic Table Semimetals are along the stair-step following B (except Al) All remaining elements are metals Know if an element is a metal, nonmetal, or semimetal based on its position in the Periodic Table! Physical States of the Elements at 25 C and normal atmospheric pressure Normal Physical State of the Elements: (Figure 4.6 ) Only mercury (Hg) and bromine (Br 2 ) are liquids H 2, N 2, F 2, O 2, Cl 2, and all Noble gases (Group VIIIA) are gases All other elements are solids Know if an element is a solid, liquid, or gas given only the Periodic Table! Many elements exist as diatomic molecules: H 2, N 2, F 2, O 2, I 2, Cl 2, Br 2. An easy way to remember them is the saying Have no fear of ice cold beer! 4.5 Compounds and Chemical Formulas atom: smallest unit particle of an element that retains the chemical identity of the element. molecule: composed of two or more nonmetal atoms bonded together. chemical formula: expresses the type and number of atoms present in a compound, but not their bonding order number of atoms is indicated by a subscript following the element s symbol (If there is no subscript, only one atom of that element is in the compound.) CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 3 of 7

4 Example: water = H 2 O 2 H atoms, 1 O atom Parentheses are used when there is more than one polyatomic group present in the compound. Example: (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 = 2 NH 4 s = 2 N + 2 (4 H) = 2 N + 8 H TOTAL: 2 N, 8 H, 1 C and 3 O Law of Definite (or Constant) Composition: Compounds always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass. e.g. Water always contains 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass. 4.6 Physical and Chemical Properties Physical Properties: inherent characteristics of a substance observable without changing the substance chemically. Examples include: physical state (solid, liquid, gas) electrical & heat conductivity color solubility density hardness melting and boiling points odor Chemical Properties: describe how a substance reacts/behaves with other substances. Examples would be corrosive, toxic, inert, reactive, oxidizes, decomposes, rusting e.g. hydrogen reacts explosively with oxygen, iron rusts slowly in air 4.7 Physical and Chemical Changes physical change: a process that does not alter the chemical composition of the substance substance only changes its physical state or shape or form e.g. boiling water, melting gold, breaking glass, dissolving salt in water, freezing ice, cutting paper Note that the H 2 O molecules in Fig remain H 2 O regardless of whether the sample is a solid, liquid, or gas; thus, changes in physical state are physical changes. chemical change: a process that changes the chemical composition of the substance Starting substance is destroyed and a new substance with different properties is formed. Indicators of chemical change: oxidation of matter (burning or rusting) release of gas bubbles (fizzing) without heating it formation of insoluble solid (precipitation) release of heat or light change in color or odor. e.g. Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) reacts with oxygen gas (O 2 ) to produce water. This is a chemical change since the starting materials are different from the substance produced, with different chemical formulas. chemical equation - describes a chemical change Form of chemical equation: REACTANTS PRODUCTS CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 4 of 7

5 Starting substances on left are called reactants; New substances formed on right are called products. E.g. 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O 4.8 Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter cannot be created nor destroyed. Mass of the reactant(s) = mass of the product(s). For example: 11.2 g hydrogen g oxygen = g water 4.9 Potential and Kinetic Energy kinetic energy (KE): energy resulting from motion e.g. water flowing over dam, working out, dancing, burning gasoline potential energy (PE): stored energy that matter possesses due to its position or its chemical bonds. e.g. water stored in dam, gasoline and other fuels, food Kinetic Energy, Temperature, and Physical States As temperature increases, the particles move faster Solids have lowest KE Strongest attraction between particles particles vibrate in fixed positions If heated enough, particles gain enough energy to break out of their positions the solid begins to melt and become a liquid Liquids have slightly higher KE Particles are still attracted to each other but can move past one another particles are less restricted If heated enough, particles gain enough energy to completely break away from one another the liquid begins to evaporate and become a gas. Gases have greatest KE Attractive forces are almost (if not) completely overcome, so particles can fly freely within container particles are completely unrestricted 4.10 Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy (E): Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred Total E of the reactant(s) of a reaction must = total E of the product(s). Forms of Energy: Six types of energy: heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, and nuclear each can be converted to another CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 5 of 7

6 Practice Problems 1. A D B E C F For each figure above, indicate if it represents an element, a compound, or a mixture AND if it represents a solid, liquid, or gas. A: B: C: D: E: F: 2. Sodium sulfate = Na 2 SO 4 How many of each atom? Na, S, O atoms 3. How many atoms of each element are present in TNT: C 7 H 5 (NO 2 ) 3? C, H, N, and O 4. Which physical state has variable volume and variable shape? 5. Write the chemical symbol for potassium, phosphorus, oxygen, and sodium. 6. Write the name for Li, N, Au, and Ag. 7. What is the physical state at room temperature and pressure for chlorine, bromine, iodine, and carbon? 8. Is water freezing a chemical or physical change? 9. Is TNT exploding a chemical or physical change? 10. If the reactants in a chemical reaction mass 14.0 grams, what do the products mass? CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 6 of 7

7 11. What is the change in state when a gas turns into a solid? 12. Name the diatomic elements without looking. 13. What diatomic element is a solid at room temp and pressure? 14. What diatomic element is a liquid at room temp and pressure? 1. A. element gas B. compound gas C. mix gas D. element solid E. element, liquid F. mix solid 2. 2_ Na, _1 S, 4_ O atoms 3. 7 C, 5 H, 3 N, and 6 O 4. gas 5. K, P, O, Na 6. lithium, nitrogen, gold, silver Answers to Practice Problems 7. chlorine gas, bromine liquid, iodine solid, carbon solid 8. physical 9. chemical deposition 12. H 2 N 2 F 2 O 2 I 2 Cl 2 Br iodine 14. bromine CHM 130: Corwin Chapter 4 page 7 of 7

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