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1 Chemistry Unit 5- Periodic Table and Periodic Law Name: History of the Periodic Table I. Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity A. Wanted to organize elements according to their B. When elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass*, similarities in chemical properties appeared at regular intervals ( ) C. *Several elements did not quite fit this pattern - Mendeleev put elements with similar in the same column or group D Mendeleev predicted the existence and properties of several (then undiscovered) elements. These elements were: E. Within, those missing elements with those had been discovered II. Moseley and the Periodic Law A. When elements were arranged in order of increasing, there was a distinct regular pattern. B. : The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. C. In other words, when elements are arranged in order of increasing, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals. D. Elements in the same group have similar. III. Modern Periodic Table: arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group 1

2 MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS (GROUPS 1, 2, & 13-18) GROUP NAME ENDING e- CONFIGUR ATION 1 or I A # OF VAL e- e- DOT DIAG WANTS TO (lose or gain) e- TO BE LIKE NOBLE GAS? CHRG OF ION OXIDATI ON # GETS (smaller or larger) WHEN ATOM TO ION? 2 or II A 13 or III A 14 or IV A 15 or V A 16 or VI A 17 or VII A 18 or VIII A What is an ion? How can we determine the likely charge of an ion? 2

3 Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and the Periodic Table I. The "s" block elements: Groups 1 and 2 A. Group 1 - Alkali Metals 1. How many valence electrons? 2. Appearance: 3. Hardness: 4. Found in nature: B. Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals 1. How many valence electrons? 2. Appearance: 3. Properties: 4. Found in nature: C. Exceptions: Hydrogen and Helium 1. Hydrogen (H) a. electron configuration: b. properties do not resemble those of any other element on the periodic table 2. Helium (He) a. electron configuration: b. in Group 18 because II. The "d" block elements: Groups 3-12 A. Name: B. have typical metallic properties such as: C. Reactivity: D. Found in nature: E. Ending of electron configuration: III. The "p" block elements: Groups A. "s" and "p" block elements together referred to as B. ending electron configurations of through C. properties vary greatly because there are: D. Group 17 - Halogens 1. Reactivity: 2. Valence electrons: E. Properties (hardness and density): F. Group 18- Stability of Noble Gases 1. Noble gases undergo very few chemical reactions - why? 2. Valence electrons: 3

4 Periodic Trends The Periodic Table: Period- Group- Factors that the cause trends: Shielding Effect Nuclear Charge Distance From the Nucleus Five Periodic Trends: 1. Atomic Radius: Period Group 2. Ionization Energy: Period Group 3. Electronegativity: Period Group 4. Electron Affinity: Period Group 4

5 5. Metallic Character: Metals Nonmetals PERIODIC TRENDS PRACTICE (complete WITHOUT using Periodic Table) 1.) Which element is most metallic? (A) Group 14, Period 2 (B) Group 14, Period 3 (C) Group 14, Period 4 (D) Group 14, Period 5 2.) Which element is most nonmetallic? (A) Group 16, Period 2 (B) Group 16, Period 3 (C) Group 16, Period 4 (D) Group 16, Period 5 3.) Which has the largest atomic radius? (A) Group 1, Period 2 (B) Group 13, Period 2 (C) Group 15, Period 2 (D) Group 17, Period 2 4.) Which has the highest ionization energy? (A) Group 2, Period 3 (B) Group 2, Period 4 (C) Group 2, Period 5 (D) Group 2, Period 6 5.) Which has the most metallic properties? (A) Group 13, Period 5 (B) Group 14, Period 5 (C) Group 15, Period 5 (D) Group 16, Period 5 6.) Which has the greatest electron affinity? (A) Group 16, Period 4 (B) Group 16, Period 5 (C) Group 17, Period 5 (D) Group 17, Period 4 7.) Which has the smallest atomic radius? (A) Group 15, Period 2 (B) Group 15, Period 3 (C) Group 15, Period 4 (D) Group 15, Period 5 8.) Which has the lowest electron affinity? (A) Group 13, Period 3 (B) Group 15, Period 3 (C) Group 17, Period 3 (D) Group 18, Period 3 9.) Which has the lowest ionization energy? (A) Group 1, Period 2 (B) Group 1, Period 3 (C) Group 1, Period 4 (D) Group 1, Period 5 10.) Which has the most metallic properties? (A) Group 15, Period 5 (B) Group 16, Period 5 (C) Group 15, Period 6 (D) Group 16, Period 6 11.) Which would most easily lose its valence electrons? (A) Group 1, Period 3 (B) Group 14, Period 2 (C) Group 17, Period 3 (D) Group 18, Period 2 12.) Which would most easily gain electrons? (A) Group 13, Period 3 (B) Group 14, Period 2 (C) Group 15, Period 2 (D) Group 17, Period 3 13.) Which has an octet of electrons in its outermost energy level? (A) Group 13, Period 3 (B) Group 14, Period 2 (C) Group 18, Period 2 (D) Group 17, Period 5 14.) Which has chemical properties most similar to [Ar] 4s 1? (A) Group 1, Period 3 (B) Group 2, Period 3 (C) Group 13, Period 3 (D) Group 14, Period 3 5

6 15.) Which is most reactive? (A) Group 14, Period 2 (B) Group 17, Period 2 (C) Group 15, Period 2 (D) Group 18, Period 2 16.) Which is most reactive? (A) Group 13, Period 2 (B) Group 1, Period 5 (C) Group 2, Period 5 (D) Group 13, Period 5 17.) Which has chemical properties most similar to [Ne] 3s 2 3p 5? (A) Group 16, Period 3 (B) Group 18, Period 3 (C) Group 17, Period 4 (D) Group 18, Period 2 18.) Which would never be found in the free state? (A) Group 1, Period 4 (B) Group 13, Period 3 (C) Group 15, Period 3 (D) Group 14, Period 4 19.) Which is the least reactive gas? (A) Group 16, Period 2 (B) Group 15, Period 2 (C) Group 17, Period 2 (D) Group 18, Period 2 20.) Which is the most reactive gas? (A) Group 16, Period 2 (B) Group 15, Period 2 (C) Group 17, Period 2 (D) Group 18, Period 2 21.) Which would never be in a compound? (A) Group 1, Period 1 (B) Group 18, Period 1 (C) Group 13, Period 2 (D) Group 1, Period 2 22.) Which would be found in the d block of elements? (A) Group 1, Period 3 (B) Group 11, Period 4 (C) Group 17, Period 5 (D) Group 14, Period 2 The Periodic Table- 1. What two types of properties are described in the video? 2. What are some examples of physical properties? 3. How many elements are on the modern periodic table? How many of these can be found in nature? 4. Why do the symbols for some elements (such as iron) seem to have no relationship to their name? 5. What is meant by the atomic and mass number of an element? 6. Elements in the periodic table are arranged by increasing number. 7. What is a groups of elements? a period? 8. What are the ingredients used in the making of glass? What determines the color of glass? 9. What are alkali metals? Describe their reaction with water. 10. How does the size of an atom change - a. as you go down a group of elements? b. as you go from left to right in a period of elements? 11. Who developed the periodic table? 12. What did Mendeleev do for elements that had not yet been discovered? 13. How did Glenn Seaborg change the periodic table? 14. Why are the electrons in the outer shell of an atom important? 6

7 THE PERIODIC LAW PUZZLE The present organization of the elements is a product of the first periodic table published by Dmitri Mendeleev in Today, the periodic law states that the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. Each of the elements has its own set of characteristic properties. These range from solid to gas, lustrous to dull, low to high melting points, various colors, and so on. The elements are arranged into groups or families and periods or series based on these properties. This arrangement reflects the periodic or repeating nature of the properties of the elements. In this exercise, you will use your knowledge of periodic properties and a list of clues to arrange the main group (representative) elements into a periodic table. Use the clues below to arrange the letters A - Z into their appropriate positions in the grid of the periodic table provided. (Please note that the letters A - Z in no way correspond to the real symbols for these elements.) The following elements belong together in groups (not necessarily in this order): BFT DGLZ JNV CMS QXY AEO IPH UKWR Use the following clues to determine which group each set of elements belongs to: 1.) G is a noble gas. 2.) U is an alkali metal. 3.) E has 5 electrons in its outermost energy level. 4.) N has 2 valence electrons. 5.) T has an outer electron configuration of 4s 2 4p 1. 6.) Q is a halogen. 7.) C has a valence electron configuration of 2s 2 2p Use these clues to determine where each element is placed within each group. 8.) W is a gas at room temperature. 9.) F has the smallest atomic mass in its group. 10.) P has the lowest ionization energy in its family. 11.) Atoms of Z have a total of 2 electrons. 12.) Atoms of D contain 10 protons. 13.) The electrons of atom G are distributed over three energy levels. 14.) H is the least metallic element in its group. 15.) The atomic mass of V is less than that of J, but more than that of N. 16.) J has a lower ionization energy than V, but a higher ionization energy than K. 17.) The atomic number of R is one greater than that of Z. 18.) Y is a liquid at room temperature. 19.) The atomic radius of M is greater than that of S. 20.) A is more metallic than either O or E. 21.) Atoms of K are larger than those of U. 22.) T is more metallic than B. 23.) X has an atomic number that is one less than that of G. 24.) E is a gas at room temperature. 7

8 8

9 Review 1.) Color the s block area pink. 2.) Color the p block area yellow. 3.) Color the d block area light green. 4.) Color the f block area orange. 5.) Draw an X in the boxes that represent the unreactive elements 6.) Draw a diagonal line (from upper left to lower right) in the area that represents the very reactive nonmetals. 7.) Draw a diagonal line (from upper right to lower left) in the area that represents the very reactive metals. 8.) Draw a purple capital letter R with a circle around it at the location that represents the element with the largest atomic radius. 9.) Draw a blue capital letter I with a diamond around it at the location that represents the element with the highest ionization energy. 10.) Draw a dark green capital letter E with a triangle around it at the location that represents the element with the highest electronegativity/electron affinity. 11.) Outline in black the boxes where metalloids with more nonmetallic properties are located. 12.) Outline in red the boxes where metalloids with more metallic properties are located. 13.) Draw a star in the location that represents the most metallic element (or most reactive metal). 14.) Draw a heart in the location that represents the most nonmetallic element (or most reactive nonmetal). **Doing this correctly will aid you in studying for your Unit 5 test. This summarizes the bulk of the information covered. ** 9

10 Problem Set Match the terms in Column A with the definitions in Column B 1. ionization energy a. half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms 2. electronegativity b. when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, 3. atomic radius there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties. 4. cations c. positively charged ion 5. periodic law d. tendency for the atoms of an element to attract electrons when they are chemically combined with another element e. the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom 1. period a. an element in which the outermost s and p sublevels are filled 2. inner transition metal b. a horizontal row on the periodic table 3. representative elements c. an element whose outermost s sublevel and nearby d contain electrons 4. transition metal d. an element whose outermost s and nearby f sublevel contain electrons. 5. noble gas e. a vertical column on the periodic table 6. group f. an element whose outermost s or p sublevels are only partially filled Elements Li, Be, B, C Be, Mg, Ca, Sr Sn, As S, F Ga, Ge, As, Se Se, Br, Te, I Ca, Sr, Se, Br W, Pb, Sb, P Ni, Pt, Kr, I Fr, Ba, C, N Most Metallic Largest Radius Highest Ionization Energy Lowest Electronegativity Highest Electron Affinity Explain why Ba has a lower ionization energy then Mg. Why does atomic size decrease proceeding left to right across a period? Why do elements in the same group have similar properties? Rank the following elements by increasing atomic radius: carbon, aluminum, oxygen, potassium. Rank the following elements by increasing electronegativity: sulfur, oxygen, neon, aluminum. 1. Consider the following elements: Ca, H, Co, Al, Si, S, Cl a. How many would be conductive? b. How many would likely be liquid or gas? c. How many will likely form colored compounds? d. How many are metalloids? 2. Write the symbol for the element that is described below. a. Outer electron configuration is 4s 2 4p 4. b. Has 7 valence electrons in the 5s and 5p. c. Smallest noble gas. d. Largest alkali metal. e. Most electronegative period 2 element. f. Most reactive halogen. g. Most reactive alkali metal. 10

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