Places: Grand Canyon, city, kitchen, school. Things: lamp, granite, Nobel Prize, Golden Gate Bridge

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1 A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. Persons: teacher, Beyonce, chef, Dr. Ling Places: Grand Canyon, city, kitchen, school Things: lamp, granite, Nobel Prize, Golden Gate Bridge Ideas: happiness, self-control, liberty, bravery Proper Nouns name a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter. Common Nouns name any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas and is not capitalized Common Proper girl Kay O Neil country Argentina religion Jewish city New Orleans monument Eiffel Tower Concrete Nouns name a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell). Abstract Nouns name an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. Concrete Nouns Photograph, music, pears, filmmaker, sandpaper, rose, Brooklyn Bridge Abstract Nouns Love, fun, freedom, self-esteem, beauty, honor, wisdom, Buddhism A Collective Noun is a word that names a group. Examples: audience, committee, herd, quartet, batch, crew, jury, swarm, class, family, team

2 A Pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person). Personal Pronouns Singular Plural First Person I, me, my, mine We, us, our, ours Second Person You, your, yours You, your, yours Third Person He, him, his, she, her, hers, It, its They, them, their, theirs A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. An intensive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence. Reflexive and intensive Pronouns First Person Myself, ourselves Second Person Yourself, yourselves Third Person Himself, herself, itself, themselves A demonstrative pronoun points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Demonstrative Pronouns This that these those An interrogative pronoun introduces a question. Interrogative Pronouns What Which Who Whom Whose An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. Common Indefinite Pronouns All Each Many Nobody Other Any Either More None Several Anyone Everything Most No one Some Both Few Much One somebody

3 A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause. Common Relative Pronouns That which who whom whose Adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. To modify a word means to describe the word or to make its meaning more definite. It tells what kind, which one, how much, or how many. What kind? Which one or ones? How much or how many? Korean children seventh grade several days busy dentist these countries five dollars braided hair any book no marbles Articles: the most common adjectives are a, an, and the. Demonstrative adjectives This, that, these, and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. When they modify a noun or pronoun, they are called demonstrative adjectives. When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative Adjectives: This drawing is mine, and that drawing is his. Demonstrative Pronouns: These are much more expensive than those are. A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun. Proper Nouns Proper Adjectives Thanksgiving Thanksgiving dinner Catholicism Catholic priest Middle East Middle Eastern countries Africa African continent

4 A Verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being. Examples: hooted & plays (are both physical actions), thought & believe (are both mental actions) A Linking Verb is a verb that expresses a state of being. It connects, or links, the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Forms of the verb be am were will be can be is has been shall be should be are have been may be would have was had been might be been Other linking verbs appear grow seem stay become look smell taste feel remain sound turn A Helping Verb helps the main verb express action or state of being Examples: can speak has been named were sent should have been caught Commonly used helping verbs Forms of be: Am Been was Are Being Were Be is Forms of do: Do Does did Forms of have: Have Has had Other helping Verbs Can Might Would Could Must Shall May Will should

5 An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Just as an adjective makes the meaning of a noun or pronoun more definite, an adverb makes the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb more definite. Adverbs answer the following questions: Where? How often? or How long? When? To what extent? How? or How much? Words Often Used as Adverbs Where? away, here, inside, there, up When? later, now, soon, then, tomorrow How? clearly, easily, quietly, slowly How often? Or How long? always, usually, continuously, never, forever, briefly To what extent? Or How much? almost, so, too, more, least, extremely, quite, very, not Special Note: Many adverbs end in ly. They are generally formed by adding ly to adjectives. Adjective Adverb clear clearly quiet quietly convincing convincingly However, some words ending in ly are used as adjectives. Adjectives ending in -ly daily friendly lonely early kindly timely

6 A Conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups A coordinating conjunction joins words or word groups that are used in the same way. Coordinating Conjunctions and but for nor or so yet Ex. Jill or Anna (OR joins two nouns) strict but fair (BUT joins two adjectives Alice Walker wrote the book, yet she did not write the movie script. (YET joins two independent clauses.) Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way, points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. Correlative Conjunctions both.and not only.but also either or whether.or neither.nor Ex. Both Bill Russell and Larry Bird played for the team. (The pair of conjunctions joins two nouns.) She looked neither to the left nor to the right. (The pair of conjunctions joins two independent clauses.) An Interjection is a word that expresses emotion. Commonly Used Interjections aha my ouch wow hey oh rats yikes Ex. hurray oops well yippee Ouch! That hurts! Aha! I caught you! Well, what have you been doing?

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