The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems

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2 The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems

3 1. Circulatory System 2.Respiratory System ( 3.Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs, tissues) 4.Skeletal System (bones) 5.Excretory System (lungs, large intestine, kidneys) 6.Urinary System (bladder, kidneys)

4 7. Muscular System (muscles) 8. Endocrine System (glands) 9. Digestive System (mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines) 10. Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves) 11. Reproductive System (male and female reproductive organs)

5 The skeletal system is made up of the bones and cartilage that form the framework of your body. The muscular system helps you move!!

6 All humans have a stiff inner skeleton made of bone and a hard, but flexible tissue called cartilage. The human skeletal system has 5 major functions: 1. To support your body and give it shape 2. To protect your internal organs 3. Muscles attach to bones & enable them to Move. 4. Red Blood Cells are formed in the marrow of some bones. 5. Calcium and Minerals are stored for later use in your bones.

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8 The joints in your skull are fixed and do not allow movement. Joints in other parts of your body allow only certain kinds of movements.

9 The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts: The axial skeleton consists of bones that form the axis of the body and support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk The Skull The Sternum The Ribs The Vertebral Column

10 The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts: The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. The Upper Extremities The Lower Extremities The Shoulder Girdle The Pelvic Girdle (the sacrum and coccyx are considered part of the vertebral column)

11 Types of Bone! 1. Long bones: are longer than they are wide and work as levers. 2. Short bones: are short, cubeshaped, and found in the wrists and ankles

12 3. Flat bones: have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles (ex. ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle). 4. Irregular bones: have varied shapes, sizes, and surfaces features and include the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the skull

13 Bones are covered with a tough, tight fitting membrane, called the periosteum.

14 2. Compact bone contains bone cells, blood vessels, protein and minerals.

15 3.Spongy bone contains small open spaces that make it light weight.

16 4. Openings in the center of the long bones are filled with fatty tissue called bone marrow. This tissue produces many red blood cells and few white blood cells.

17 5.Cartilage: Located at the end of bones. Allows bones to move smoothly at joints. Cartilag

18 Joints in the Human Body PIVOT JOINT GLIDING JOINT HINGE JOINT BALL & SOCKET JOINT NECK & ELBOW WRIST, ANKLE & VERTBRAE KNEE, ELBOW, FINGERS & TOES SHOULDE R & HIPS BONES ROTATE AROUND EACHOTHER BONES SLIDE OVER EACHOTHER BACK & FORTH ROTATIONAL OR CIRCULAR

19 Fixed Joints Fixed Joints do not move

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21 A. Bones are covered with a tough, tight-fitting membrane, called the periosteum. B. Compact bone contains bone cells, blood vessels, protein and minerals. C. Openings in the center of long bones are filled with fatty tissue called marrow. This tissue produces many red blood cells and a few white blood cells D. Spongy bone contains small open spaces that make it light weight. E. Cartilage smooth,flexible tissue at end of bones. E.CARTILAGE D. SPONGY B. COMPACT BONE C. MARROW A. PERIOSTEUM

22 The muscular system determines the shape of our body, and it protects our organs! It works closely together with the skeletal system to allow us to move!

23 Works mainly with 2 other Body Systems!! Allows movement, the bones and joints of the skeletal system must work with the muscular system. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system.

24 Muscles A muscle is an organ that contracts and gets shorter! animation

25 Muscles Work in a Simple Way! Muscles are bundles of cells and fibers. Muscles work in a very simple way, they tighten up by contracting. animation

26 Muscles Work in a Simple Way! You have two sets of muscles attached to many of your bones which allow them to move. There are 630 active muscles in your body and they act in groups. Muscles can only pull. They never push. The Muscular System

27 The muscular system includes 3 types of muscle: Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle

28 Skeletal Muscles contains many nuclei, and is crossed by alternating light and dark bands called striations. Thus, skeletal muscles are composite structures composed of many muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Smooth Muscles form the muscle layers in the walls of the digestive tract, bladder, various ducts, arteries and veins, and other internal organs. Smooth- muscle cells are elongated and thin, not striated, have only one nucleus, and interlace to form sheets rather than bundles of muscles. Cardiac (or heart) Muscles are a cross between the smooth and striated muscles, comprising the heart tissue.

29 Voluntary Muscles: Skeletal muscles contract to move bones. Tough cords of connective tissue called tendons attach skeletal muscle to bones. Skeletal muscles often work in pairs to bend and straighten parts of your body. When one muscle contracts, the other relaxes, and vice versa.

30 Involuntary Muscles: Muscles not under your control! Smooth muscles are found in the walls of many organs. Cardiac Muscles are only found in the heart.

31 SKIN! SKIN is the largest organ of your body!

32 SKIN has 5 functions: 1) Protection 2) Sensory response 3) Formation of vitamin D 4) Regulates body temperature 5) Excretion of wastes

33 SKIN The surface of your SKIN is the epidermis. The cells of this layer are DEAD! Cells in this layer produce melanin

34 Melanin! Melanin is a pigment which gives your SKIN color the more you have, the darker your SKIN color is!

35 HAIR SHAFT NERVE ENDINGS EPIDERMIS DERMIS BLOOD ESSSELS FAT DEPOSITS SWEAT GLAND HAIR OIL GLAND FOLLICLE

36 Function of Sweat: Homeostasis Sweat is produced by glands in the deeper layer of the skin, the dermis. Sweat glands occur all over the body, but are most numerous on the forehead, the armpits, the palms and the soles of the feet. Sweat is mainly water, but it also contains some salts. Its main function is to control body temperature. As the water in the sweat evaporates, the surface of the skin cools.

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