BI 231: Human Anatomy & Physiology. 1. Business 2. Introductions 3. Syllabus 4. Lecture

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1 BI 231: Human Anatomy & Physiology 1. Business 2. Introductions 3. Syllabus 4. Lecture

2 Homework Due in lab this week 1. Homework #1 What Does the Syllabus Say? 2. Basic Principles 9 & 10 Anatomical Terms & Body Cavities Due Monday 10/1/12, beginning of class 1. Study Guide Introduction Section, Read pages 5 & 6 Complete Page 7 to turn in (also found as HW #2-Studying for Success) 2. Homework #3 (pages 5, 6 & 7) Composition of Matter

3

4 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

5 Anatomy and Physiology Two complementary branches of science Anatomy Structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Physiology Function of the body Events at the cellular or molecular level

6 Basic Concepts 1. Structural-functional relationships 2. Emergent properties 3. Homeostasis

7 Basic Concepts Relationship between structure and function Structure (anatomy) of a component is defined by its function (physiology) Function always reflects structure Principle of complementarity

8 1. Bone 2. Skin 3. Blood vessels Examples

9 1. Bone a) What is it s function? b) How does the structure of bone serve it s function? Examples

10 Bones Joint Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3b

11 2. Skin Examples a) What is/are it s function(s)? b) How does the structure of skin serve it s function(s)?

12 Skin Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3a

13 3. Blood vessels Examples a) What are their function(s)? b) How does the structure of a blood vessel serve it s function(s)?

14 Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.3f

15 Emergent Properties Characteristics that develop or emerge as a result of the organization within the system Living organisms are more than a sum of their parts!

16 Hierarchical Levels of Organization a) Chemical b) Cellular c) Tissue d) Organ e) Organ System f) Organism

17 Atoms Molecule 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 1

18 Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 2

19 Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 3

20 Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 4

21 Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascular system Heart Blood vessels 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 5

22 Atoms Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Smooth muscle tissue Cardiovascular system Heart Blood vessels 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Blood vessel (organ) Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Epithelial tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.1, step 6

23 Homeostasis Ability to maintain an internal environment within defined parameters Example: interstitial fluid Exchange between external and internal environment Stress Dynamic equilibrium

24 Digestive system Takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and eliminates unabsorbed matter (feces) Respiratory system Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide Food O 2 CO 2 All of these organ systems interact and contribute to maintenance of homeostasis Cardiovascular system Blood Heart Nutrients CO 2 O 2 Interstitial fluid Urinary system Nutrients and wastes pass between blood and cells via the interstitial fluid Feces Integumentary system Protects the body as a whole from the external environment Urine Figure 1.2

25 Homeostatic Mechanisms Restore balance of set parameters Example Exercise decreases normal oxygen concentration in blood. How does the body compensate?

26 Sensor (receptor) Controller Effector Homeostatic Feedback

27 01_02 A negative feedback mechanism

28 01_03

29 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. BALANCE Figure 1.4, step 1

30 2 Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. Receptor BALANCE Figure 1.4, step 2

31 3 Input: Information sent along afferent Control pathway to control Center center. Afferent 2 pathway Receptor Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. BALANCE Figure 1.4, step 3

32 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Afferent 2 pathway Receptor Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. Control Center BALANCE Efferent pathway 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Effector Figure 1.4, step 4

33 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center. Afferent 2 pathway Receptor Receptor detects change. 1 Stimulus produces change in variable. Control Center BALANCE Efferent pathway 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector. Effector 5 Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. Figure 1.4, step 5

34 Positive Feedback

35 Types of Feedback Mechanisms Positive Feedback Relatively rare, usually control infrequent events Result or response enhances original stimulus Ex: Childbirth or blood clotting Negative Feedback Most mechanisms are of this type Cause variable to change in direction opposite to that of the initial change Ex: Maintenance of blood pressure or body temperature

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