Harmonic Formulas for Filtering Applications

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1 Harmonic Formulas for Filtering Applications Trigonometric Series Harmonic Analysis The history of the trigonometric series, for all practical purposes, came of age in 1822 with Joseph De Fourier s book that developed the concept. The basic idea of trigonometric series is to represent periodic functions by series of particular (trigonometric) period functions. Series of functions in which the general term is, with constant coefficients of a n b n, are called trigonometric series. Trigonometric series will converge in an interval of length, 2, since this is true the functions are periodic will converge for all x represents a periodic function. This function is not necessary continuous however. We only consider series that converges uniformly, then its sum in electrical systems. is continuous. This is what we have for harmonic analysis In our case a connection can be established between coefficients a n b n the sum function of. The multiplication of the series looks something like this Factors bounded by cos(px) or sin(px), where p is a positive integer allows us to calculate Integration of the series or for the integrals over the interval. When p these integrals have a value of 0. For p=n they are for n>0 for n=0

2 Because n=0 behaves like it does it is now conventional to write the trigonometric series as The Euler-Fourier formulae for n 0 looks like this Harmonic Analysis Formulas Let look back at basic circuits for a moment. We learned from Ohms law V = IR P=VI P=I 2 R. So the power delivered by an a-c circuit at any given time is (1) Now we need the trigonometric identity we learned years ago (2) But the average power delivered by a a-c source is the first term only, since the average value of a cosine wave is zero. It may have twice the frequency of the original input current waveform. Equating the average power of an a-c generator to that delivered by a d-c source: P av(a-c) = P d-c, leaves us with (3) So the effective values give us (4)

3 The effective value of any quantity plotted as a function of time can be found by using the following equation: or (5) This finally takes us to where we always wanted to go. By applying this equation to the following Fourier series we get (6) Then form (5) after performing the indicated operations we have the following: (7) but, since (8) Similarly, for (9) (10) (11) Looking what is called in mathematics as odd functions, this means x, x3, x5, x7 the like for which we have

4 Underst that even functions have nothing to do with even harmonics, nor odd functions with odd harmonics. An odd function is simply a function with odd powers of x an odd harmonic has an odd multiple of the fundamental frequency. This being state it is obvious that the sine wave is odd the cosine wave is even. Therefore, the sum of sine waves will be odd, a Fourier series containing only sine components represents an odd function. Just an aside when even odd functions are added the sum will be neither odd nor even. We will not get into that in this paper. Plotting three sine waves, 60 hertz as fundamental, the 5th 7th harmonic of 60 hertz. Using 360 degrees for the fundamental, we get 1800 degrees for the 5th 2520 degrees for the 7th. The individual sine waves look like this. We allowed the amplitude to 20 for the fundamental, 10 for the 5 th harmonic 5 for the 7 th harmonic. Adding these simultaneously we get the following distorted wave.

5 Assuming these are currents from (8), we get = amps This is known as the Total Harmonic Distortion Current or THDI. Series Resonant Circuit For the series R-L-C circuit resonance will occur when the total impedance is purely resistance. This occurs when X L = X C With this we can exp this

6 or where (1) (2) We already know, from earlier discussions, that we allow H to be a multiple of "f" we can force (2) to look like this then changing this to Reducing this we get (3) H will be the harmonic multiple to the fundamental From an earlier paper we showed the following:

7 From (3) we can come up with the systems harmonic resonance (4) Where: H = harmonic order MVA sc = = available short circuit at the capacitor bank. MVAR = capacitor bank size.

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