Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1"

Transcription

1 Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

2 The Elements Remember, elements are combined to form molecules the way letters are combined to form words. Presently there are about 115 known elements. Only 88 occur naturally, the rest are made in laboratories. Only 9 elements account for most of the compounds found in the Earth s crust. 3-2

3 Table

4 All living things are made up, mainly, of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. 3-4

5 Symbols For The Elements Just as each state has a two-letter abbreviation, each element has a one- or two-letter symbol to make life simple for chemists. Some elements found in the human body are: As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, & V. Notice the first letter is ALWAYS capitalized and the second letter, if present, is Not capitalized. 3-5

6 Symbols For The Elements Some symbols make sense like O for oxygen and H for hydrogen or Ni for nickel. Others, like Pb for lead or Fe for iron, don t automatically make sense; they originated from the Greek or Latin names of plumbum (Pb) and ferrum (Fe). 3-6

7 Dalton s Atomic Theory Scientists studying matter in the eighteenth century made the following observations: Most natural materials are mixtures of pure substances. Pure substances are either elements or combinations of elements called compounds. A given compound always contains the same proportions (by mass) of the elements. John Dalton attempted to explain these observations in

8 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical. 3. The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element. 4. Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms. 5. Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together. 3-8

9 Formulas of Compounds The types of atoms and the number of each type in each unit (molecule) of a given compound are conveniently expressed by a chemical formula. The atoms are indicated by their symbols and the number of each type is indicated by a subscript (unless there is only one). Ex) C 6 H 12 O 6 or H 3 PO 4 3-9

10 Practice Write the formula for each of the following compounds, listing the elements in the order given: a. A molecule contains four phosphorous atoms and ten oxygen atoms. b. A molecule contains one uranium atom and six fluorine atoms. c. A molecule contains one aluminum atom and three chlorine atoms. 3-10

11 What is inside an atom? 3-11

12 Modern Atomic Structure Every atom is composed of the three basic subatomic particles. (Protons, electrons, neutrons) Different elements have different numbers of each of these subatomic particles. The reason one element behaves differently than another lies in the number and arrangement of their electrons. When atoms get close to each other their electron clouds can overlap and interact. 3-12

13 Figure 3.9: A nuclear atom viewed in cross section. 3-13

14 In any box on the Periodic Table, what information can you find? 6 C Average Atomic Mass = Protons + Neutrons the weighted average of all the mass numbers for each isotope of the element Atomic number = number of protons, unique for every element, no 2 elements have the same atomic # Element symbol = can be 1,2 or 3 letters, first letter is always capitalized, and succeeding letters are always lower case 3-14

15 Isotopes Two atoms of the same element (same number of protons) with different numbers of neutrons. 3-15

16 Figure 3.10: Two isotopes of sodium. 3-16

17 Isotopes There are two important numbers associated with any given element: 1. Atomic Number The number of protons in a nucleus. 2. Mass Number The SUM of the number of protons AND neutrons (a.k.a. nucleons) in a nucleus (NOT the sum of their masses). We should note that two different isotopes will have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. 3-17

18 Isotopes The two previous examples of isotopes of sodium would be: 23 Na Na 11 The example on the left would contain 11 protons and 12 neutrons (23-11=12). The example on the right would contain 11 protons and 13 neutrons (24-11=13). 3-18

19 Practice Problems Write the symbol for each of the following atoms, and list the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for each. 1) The cesium atom with a mass number of ) The iron atom with a mass number of 56. 3) The krypton atom that has 48 neutrons. 4) The nitrogen atom that has 6 neutrons. 3-19

20 Weighted Average Atomic Mass Remember elements can have different isotopes which means that they vary in their number of neutrons. If you have 3 different isotopes of the same element: 15 atoms have a mass of 21 8 atoms have a mass of 23 2 atoms have a mass of 19 We can calculate the weighted average by multiplying the number of atoms by their mass: (15) (21) = = (8) (23) = (2) (19) =+ 38 average atomic mass

21 Using % to find Average Atomic Mass Usually we only know the percents of various isotopes that make up different elements, we can use this to calculate the average atomic mass. If we have 100% chlorine: 75.77% of mass is 35 ->.7577x35 = % of mass is 37->.2423x37= 8.96 Add the 2 together to get the atomic mass: =

22 Practice Oxygen has 3 isotopes 16 O, 17 O, 18 O 99.76% of mass is 16 O 0.04% of mass is 17 O 0.20% of mass is 18 O What is the average atomic mass? Find the atomic mass if 99.64% of mass is 14 N and 0.36% is 15 N. 3-22

23 A Simple Version of the Periodic Table 3-23

24 Periodic Table When looking at periodic table elements are arranged in horizontal rows by increasing atomic number. Horizontal rows are called Periods Periods go left to right 3-24

25 Periodic Table The vertical columns are called Groups or Families Elements in families share similar properties 3-25

26 Metals, Semimetals, Non-Metals All elements on the periodic table are grouped as metals, semimetals or metalloids, or non-metals. Due to the arrangement of the periodic table, it is easy to identify each type of element. 3-26

27 Figure 3.12: Elements classified as metals and nonmetals. 3-27

28 Metals: Fall to left and under the stairs Properties of Metals: Efficient conduction of heat and electricity Malleability Ductility A lustrous appearance Positively charged ions 3-28

29 Non-Metals: Right and above the stairs Dull, Brittle Negatively charged ions Nonconductors -insulators 3-29

30 Semimetals or Metalloids: Makeup the stairs Properties of both metals and nonmetals Semiconductors 3-30

31 Lanthanide and Actinide Series Mostly human made elements Radioactive elements 3-31

32 Group 1A Alkali Metals 3-32

33 Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals 3-33

34 Group 7A or 17: Halogen Family 3-34

35 Group 8A or 18: Noble Gases Do not react easily with anything, due stable electron configuration All other elements strive to reach noble gas configuration for maximum stability by reacting with other elements. 3-35

36 Transition Metals: Group 3B-12B 3-36

37 Who is a solid, liquid or gas? When we look at the elements on the periodic table, who is a solid, liquid or gas in their natural state? Most elements are not found in their elemental state, most elements are found in compounds with other elements. Most elements on the periodic table are solids, so we will point out those who are gas or liquid. 3-37

38 Liquids Only 2 elements in their elemental form are a liquid at 25 degrees Celsius: Mercury and Bromine 3-38

39 Gases More elements exist in their elemental form as a gas, but there are some important distinctions to make about these gases. The noble gases are a gas, called monatomic gas. This means that the prefix mono- means one. And monatomic gases exist as individual atoms. Figure 3.13: A collection of argon atoms. 3-39

40 Gases There is another group of gases called diatomic gases. The prefix di- means two. These elements travel in pairs as molecules. Figure 3.14: Nitrogen gas contains NXN molecules. Figure 3.14: Oxygen gas contains OXO molecules. 3-40

41 Diatomic molecules There are 7 elements that exist as diatomic molecules, you will simply need to find a way to memorize these. If you notice, all of the halogens fall in this category, and then hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. 3-41

42 What is an ion? When we discussed atoms before, we were always looking at a neutral atom. Neutral atoms always have equal numbers of protons and electrons. protons = +1 charge electrons = -1 charge When atoms have unequal numbers of protons and electrons, then the atom is a charged particle called an ion. 3-42

43 Ion Facts Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge. The charge is created by different numbers of protons and electrons. In an atom ONLY electrons can move. Atoms gain or lose electrons to become ions. 3-43

44 Cations and Anions There are 2 types of ions: cations and anions. Cations are ions with a (+) positive charge. To form a cation, an atom has lost electrons. Example: Na loses an electron and becomes Na + Anions are ions with a negative charge. To form an anion, an atom has gained electrons. Example: Cl gains an electron and becomes Cl

45 Basic Names for Ions Cations do not change names from their neutral atoms. Example: Magnesium loses 2 electrons and becomes Mg 2+ which is named magnesium ion. Anions change the end of their name to ide. Example: Chlorine gains an electron and becomes Cl -. We would change the name from chlorine to chloride. 3-45

46 Some Common Anion Names What would the names of the following ions be? Chlorine = Fluorine = Bromine = Iodine = Oxygen = Sulfur = 3-46

47 How to Determine the Charge When determining the charge for an atom we can use the periodic table to help. The number of valence electrons determines the charge. All atoms want 8 valence electrons. If an atom has 1-3 valence electrons the atom will lose them to become positive. If an atom has 6-8 valence electrons the atom will gain electrons to become negative. We can determine the charge by looking at the periodic table. 3-47

48 Figure 3.19: The ions formed by selected members of groups 1, 2, 3, 6, and

49 Practice Determine the name and charge of the following ions: Potassium Bromine Calcium Sulfur Aluminum Strontium Cesium 3-49

50 Ions and Compounds Any time a bond is formed between 2 or more ions, we call this an ionic compound. In an ionic compound the overall charge must be zero. This means there must be cations and anions present. Example: Na + + Cl - -> NaCl Each atom has a charge of +1 or -1, when we add this together it comes out to be zero. 3-50

51 If we add two ions together and they are not equal, then we must add another ion to balance the charge. Example: Mg Cl - -> MgCl

52 IONS Cations lose e- and become positively charged. They keep their name. Anions gain e- and become negatively charged. Change the ending to ide. When combined to form a compound, cationscome first then anion. Net charge on the compound is 0. Ex. Magnesium oxide. What are the ions and what does the compound look like? 3-52

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building

More information

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 4 WORKSHEET PART A Given the following isotopes, determine the atomic number, the mass number, the number of protons, electrons and neutrons. Isotope Symbol

More information

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number

b. How is the modern periodic table arranged? In order of increasing atomic number Unit 3 Review Chapters 4 (Atomic Structure) & 6 (Periodic Table) Part 1: Answer the following questions. 1. a. Which scientist created the first modern atomic theory? John Dalton b. What was his theory?

More information

The Atom and the Periodic Table

The Atom and the Periodic Table The Atom and the Periodic Table Atoms http://library.thinkquest.org/12659/media/solar_system/sun/sun.jpg Everything in the Universe is made of stuff (also known as matter). The building blocks are the

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Atoms, Molecules and Ions. In This Chapter

Atoms, Molecules and Ions. In This Chapter Atoms, Molecules and Ions Chapter 2 In This Chapter History of atoms. Subatomic particles. Atomic numbers, mass numbers. Isotopes and Atomic weights. Compounds, Molecules and Ions. Nomenclature. 2 1 Elements

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements 1 Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes the building blocks of matter listed on the inside

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table.

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS, a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. Periods tell us how many are in the atoms of each element. Groups help us to know how many electrons are in

More information

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element

What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element Date: Science 10 4.1 Atomic Theory & Bonding What is an Atom? smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element An atom = proton(s) + electron(s) + neutron(s) (PEN) Fun Fact:

More information

Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations. Periodic Table. Each element has its own

Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations. Periodic Table. Each element has its own Language of Chemistry includes chemical symbols of elements, chemical formulas, & chemical equations All known elements (ca.100) are arranged in Periodic Table. Sodium Na Potassium K Hydrogen H Each element

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese 1. Which characteristics describe most nonmetals in the solid phase? (1) They are malleable and have metallic luster. (2) They are malleable and lack metallic luster. (3) They are brittle and have metallic

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet

IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet Name: Period: IPS Unit 8 Periodic Table Review Worksheet Directions: Use the terms below to correctly complete the statements. Write the terms in the blanks to the left. Then find and circle each term

More information

Electrons/Periodic Table Review Packet

Electrons/Periodic Table Review Packet http://www.carolina.com/teacher-resources/interactive/online-game-cell-structure-cellcraftbiology/tr11062.tr T. Trimpe 2007 http://sciencespot.net/ Part C: Electron Configuration 12. How many electrons

More information

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages )

Name Date Class THE PERIODIC TABLE. SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages ) 6 THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages 155 160) This section describes the development of the periodic table and explains the periodic law. It also describes the classification

More information

Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table (Chapter 2)

Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table (Chapter 2) Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table (Chapter 2) Atomic Structure 1. Historical View - Dalton's Atomic Theory Based on empirical observations, formulated as Laws of: Conservation of Mass Definite Proportions

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity

CHM1 Review for Exam Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Mendeleev and the first periodic Table 2. Information in the Periodic Table a. Groups (families) i. Alkali (group 1) ii. Alkaline

More information

Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions

Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions Name: Wednesday, January 16, 2008 Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions 1. Which halogen is a solid at STP? 1. fluorine 3. bromine 2. chlorine 4. iodine 2. Element M is a metal and its chloride has the

More information

14A Atomic Structure. What is inside an atom? Modeling an atom. Thinking about the atom. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A.

14A Atomic Structure. What is inside an atom? Modeling an atom. Thinking about the atom. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A 14A Atomic Structure What is inside an atom? We once believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter. Then it was discovered that there are even smaller particles

More information

Review- The Periodic Table

Review- The Periodic Table Review- The Periodic Table Name Date Block Matching: Match the description in with the correct term in. Write the letter in the blank provided. Each term matches with only one description, so be sure to

More information

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom

TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom TEST NAME: Chemistry ES 1.3 TEST ID: 61960 GRADE:11 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: My Classroom Chemistry ES 1.3 Page 1 of 10 Student: Class: Date: 1. The electron configuration of an

More information

Dalton s s Atomic Theory

Dalton s s Atomic Theory Dalton s s Atomic Theory 1. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical (not exactly; isotopes) 3. The atoms of a given element are different from those

More information

Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide

Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide I. General organization of table A. Modern periodic table 1. Increasing atomic number B. 3 major blocks 1. Metals a. Mostly solids at room temperature b. Conduct

More information

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Chapter 5 Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Section 5.1 Dalton s Atomic Theory Goal 1 Precursors to John Dalton s atomic theory Law of Definite Composition The percentage by mass of the elements

More information

The Periodic Table elements Dimitri Mendeleev increasing atomic mass periodically Henry Moseley increasing atomic number

The Periodic Table elements Dimitri Mendeleev increasing atomic mass periodically Henry Moseley increasing atomic number 1 The Periodic Table Scientists had identified certain substances as elements and so there were many attempts to arrange the known elements so that there were some correlations between their known properties.

More information

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Name Class Date The Periodic Table ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 6.1 Organizing the Elements Essential Understanding Although Dmitri Mendeleev is often credited as the father of the periodic table,

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

Scientists create models to understand how things work, including atoms.

Scientists create models to understand how things work, including atoms. CHEM100 Week 4 Notes Page 1 of 6 Scientists create models to understand how things work, including atoms. Dalton created a theory for the atom with these 5 postulates 1. Elements consist of one or more

More information

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table I. Introduction to atoms A. Development of atomic models 1. Atom, smallest particle of an element 2. Parts of atom a. Electrons, negatively charged b. Protons,

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. Methane and ethane are both made up of carbon and hydrogen. In methane, there are 12.0 g of carbon for every 4.00 g of hydrogen, a ration of 3:1 by mass. In ethane,

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1 Self study: The history of the development of atomic theory. 9 th Ed: pp. 36-41 or 10 th Ed: pp. 38-42. 2 The Atomic Theory of Matter John Dalton (1766-1844), began

More information

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds

Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Chapter 5 Notes: Ions and Ionic Compounds Sec. 5.1 Simple Ions 1. Relate the electron configuration of an atom to its chemical reactivity. 2. Determine an atom s number of valence electrons, and use the

More information

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 6: THE PERIODIC TABLE Problems: 5,9,11,13,17,27,29,31,33,35,41,43,47,49,59,61,63,65,67,69, 75,77,79 6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS Dimitri Mendeleev (1869) arranged elements in a table in order

More information

Periodic Table. The periodic table organises the elements in a particular way.

Periodic Table. The periodic table organises the elements in a particular way. A quick guide... Periodic Table n The periodic table organises the elements in a particular way. n A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position in the periodic table.

More information

The Periodic Table. Bromfield Honors Chemistry

The Periodic Table. Bromfield Honors Chemistry The Periodic Table Bromfield Honors Chemistry Write your answers in your notebook What is a trend? What are some patterns or trends you have observed? Periodic Law Historical development Chemical Periodicity

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

More information

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table

Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

More information

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Chemistry 25 Chapter 4 Atoms and Elements Experiencing Atoms What is ATOM? Atoms are incredibly small, yet they compose everything. Atoms are the pieces of elements. Properties of the atoms determine the

More information

Atomic Structure. Atoms and elements

Atomic Structure. Atoms and elements Atomic Structure Atoms and elements Everything in the world is made up from about 100 elements. Every element is made up of very small particles called atoms. An element is a substance in which all the

More information

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013

Chapter Outline. 3 Elements and Compounds. Elements and Atoms. Elements. Elements. Elements 9/4/2013 3 Elements and Compounds Chapter Outline 3.1 Elements A. Distribution of Elements Foundations of College Chemistry, 14 th Ed. Morris Hein and Susan Arena Copyright This reclining Buddha in Thailand is

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

Periodic Table Extra Practice

Periodic Table Extra Practice Periodic Table Extra Practice 1. Which of the following elements in Period 3 has the greatest metallic character? 1) Ar 3) Mg 2) Si 4) S 2. Which sequence of atomic numbers represents elements which have

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

The Periodic Table. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question:

The Periodic Table. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question: Name: Class: Date:, ID: A The Periodic Table Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question: 1. What are the elements with atomic numbers from 58 to 71 called?

More information

CHAPTER 13 THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 13 THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 13 THE PERIODIC TABLE OVERVIEW The periodic table is usually the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about the subject of chemistry. We have all heard about the periodic table from as

More information

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury

More information

Periodic Table of the Elements

Periodic Table of the Elements Periodic Table of the Elements Where did it come from? 1869 Demitri Mendeleev Russian chemist who discovered a pattern to the elements Wrote properties on cards Arranged cards according to properties

More information

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups Periodicity and the Periodic Table the result Dmitri Mendeleev arranged elements in order of their atomic numbers, such that elements with similar properties fell into the same column or group. The Periodic

More information

1 Arranging the Elements

1 Arranging the Elements CHAPTER 12 1 Arranging the Elements SECTION The Periodic Table BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How are elements arranged on the periodic table?

More information

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles

Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 5 1 Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles The Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element building

More information

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds

Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Topic Using the Periodic Table Metals, Non- Metals & Metalloids I can Explain and identify the periods of the Periodic Table.

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: Hour: Date: Directions: Answer each of the following questions. You need not use complete sentences. 1. Who first published the classification of the

More information

Periodic Table Study Guide

Periodic Table Study Guide Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

More information

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B.

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of A. neutrons in the nucleus B. protons in the nucleus 2. All of the atoms of argon have the same A. mass number B. atomic number C.

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

More information

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

More information

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,

More information

Naming Compunds BASICS Objectives for: Ions, Ionic Compounds & Molecular Compounds

Naming Compunds BASICS Objectives for: Ions, Ionic Compounds & Molecular Compounds Naming Compunds BASICS Objectives for: Ions, Ionic Compounds & Molecular Compounds 1. periodic table layout and the properties of metals, non-metals, and metalloids 2. mono-atomic ions 3. polyatomic ions

More information

The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to. d) Ramsay.

The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to. d) Ramsay. Chemistry I PERIODIC TABLE PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) The idea of arranging the elements in the periodic table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed

More information

Goals Pearson Education, Inc.

Goals Pearson Education, Inc. Goals 1. What is an ion, what is an ionic bond, and what are the general characteristics of ionic compounds? Be able to describe ions and ionic bonds, and give the general properties of compounds that

More information

Chemical Formulas. Chapter 7

Chemical Formulas. Chapter 7 Chemical Formulas Chapter 7 I. Reviewing Ions 1. Ion = atom or a group of bonded atoms with a positive or negative charge. I. Reviewing Ions 2. Cation = ion with a POSITIVE (+) charge. a) Forms when an

More information

Composition and Structure of the Atom. Protons: Positively charged, high mass particle. Neutrons: Neutral (no) charge, high mass

Composition and Structure of the Atom. Protons: Positively charged, high mass particle. Neutrons: Neutral (no) charge, high mass Composition and Structure of the Atom Atom: basic unit of an element; smallest unit that retains chemical properties of an element Subatomic particles: Small particles that are the building blocks from

More information

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms & the. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85

Chapter 3 Atoms & the. Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85 Chapter 3 Atoms & the Periodic Table Chapter 3 Section 2 The Simplest Matter Pages 80-85 The Elements There are many different types of atoms. An element is matter made up of only one kind of atom. An

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements

Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements 9 Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements Review Skills 2.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Solids Liquids Gases Internet: The Structure of Matter 2.2 The Chemical Elements Internet: Element

More information

Lesson Outline for Teaching

Lesson Outline for Teaching Lesson Outline for Teaching Lesson 1: Using the Periodic Table A. What is the periodic table? 1. The periodic table is a chart of the elements arranged into rows and columns according to their chemical

More information

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes The Organization of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to organize the elements by their periodic properties. In 1871 he arranged the

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding

1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 1 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is chemical bonding? What are valence

More information

Isotopes. Isotopes are written with the name followed by a hyphen and the mass number. Symbol notation is when we write it like this: and O

Isotopes. Isotopes are written with the name followed by a hyphen and the mass number. Symbol notation is when we write it like this: and O Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses due to different numbers of neutrons. See the example below for two isotopes of oxygen. One has 8 neutrons while the other has

More information

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet.

Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. CHEMISTRY TEST: THE PERIODIC TABLE Directions: Multiple Choice For each of the following questions, choose the answer that best answers the question and place it on your answer sheet. 1. Which of the following

More information

Table of Contents. Chapter 4 Elements and the Periodic Table. Chapter Preview. 4.1 Introduction to Atoms. 4.2 Organizing the Elements. 4.

Table of Contents. Chapter 4 Elements and the Periodic Table. Chapter Preview. 4.1 Introduction to Atoms. 4.2 Organizing the Elements. 4. Table of Contents Chapter Preview 4.1 Introduction to Atoms 4.2 Organizing the Elements 4.3 Metals 4.4 Nonmetals, Inert Gases, and Semimetals 4.5 Radioactive Elements Chapter Preview Questions 1. Groups

More information

Patterns of Behavior of Main Group Elements (Groups 1, 2, and 13-18)

Patterns of Behavior of Main Group Elements (Groups 1, 2, and 13-18) Reading Guide - Chapter 8.1 Periodic Properties of the Elements Section 1 - Main Group Elements Patterns of Behavior of Main Group Elements (Groups 1, 2, and 13-18) 1. Elements in the same group have the

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Science and technology 404

Science and technology 404 Name Date STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 1) DESCRIBE THE RUTHERFORD-BOHR ATOMIC MODEL All matter is made of small particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the

More information

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers

Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Chapter Two Study Guide Answers Concepts 1. Know the law of conservation of mass 2. Know about the structure of the atom and who did what including Thomson, Rutheford, Millikan, Bohr 3. Know the three

More information

Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Chapter 6. Periodic Relationships Among the Elements Student: 1. The nineteenth century chemists arranged elements in the periodic table according to increasing A. atomic number. B. number of electrons.

More information

Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification II. History & Development law of octaves III. Periodic Law

Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification II. History & Development law of octaves III. Periodic Law Periodic Table & Periodic Trends I. Importance of Classification A. Makes large sums of information manageable. B. In chemistry, it reduces the number of reactions that need to be studied. II. History

More information

Organizing the Elements

Organizing the Elements The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year 1700.

More information

Question 1: Did Dobereiner s triads also exist in the columns of Newlands Octaves? Compare and find out. Only one triad of Dobereiner s triads exists in the columns of Newlands octaves. The triad formed

More information

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements

Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements Chapter 4 Page 1 Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements Atoms are EXTREMELY SMALL particles out of which all knownmatter is made. They are the smallest particle of a chemical element that still have the properties

More information

Trends in Periodic Table

Trends in Periodic Table Name: Date: 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing A. atomic number B. mass number C. oxidation number D. valence number 6. As the elements in Group IA are considered

More information