SCIENCE. Chemical Reactions

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1 StudyPacks STUDY. KS4 SCIENCE Chemical Reactions Making Salts This Study Pack aims to cover:. Energy transfer in Reactions. 2. Acid and Alkalis and reactions with metals. 3. Oxides, Hydroxides and Ammonia. 4. Making salts SC6 Study Packs are prepared by Qualified Teachers and Specialists and are a complete range of comprehensive compiled resources based on the UK National Curriculum covering the Primary and Secondary Frameworks including SATs and GCSE examinations. Student Name

2 Contents Chemical Reactions Notes 2-9 Practice questions 0- Exam questions 2-25 Mark scheme 26-29

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8 Neutralisation You need to be able to describe the reactions of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid with metal hydroxides, metal oxides and metal carbonates. Metal hydroxides Metal hydroxides, such as sodium hydroxide, usually dissolve in water to form clear, colourless solutions. When an acid reacts with a metal hydroxide, the only products formed are a salt plus water. Here is the general word equation for the reaction: acid + metal hydroxide a salt + water You usually observe these things during the reaction: there is a temperature rise the ph of the reaction mixture changes Metal oxides Some metal oxides, such as sodium oxide, dissolve in water to form clear, colourless solutions. Many of them are not soluble in water, but they will react with acids. Copper(II) oxide is like this. When an acid reacts with a metal oxide, the only products formed are a salt plus water. Here is the general word equation for the reaction: acid + metal oxide a salt + water You usually observe the same things during the reaction that you observe with metal hydroxides. Metal carbonates Although sodium carbonate can dissolve in water, most metal carbonates are not soluble. Calcium carbonate (chalk, limestone and marble) is like this. When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate, the products formed are a salt plus water, but carbon dioxide is also formed. Here is the general word equation for the reaction: acid + metal carbonate a salt + water + carbon dioxide You usually observe bubbles of gas being given off during the reaction. You can show that the gas is carbon dioxide by bubbling it through limewater: this turns cloudy white when it reacts with carbon dioxide. Naming salts The name of a salt is in two parts: The first part of the name comes from the metal in the metal oxide, hydroxide or carbonate. The second part of the name comes from the acid used to make it. The names of salts made from hydrochloric acid end in chloride, while the names of salts made from sulphuric acid end in sulphate. How salts are named 7

9 metal involved acid salt sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to make sodium chloride potassium hydroxide reacts with sulphuric acid to make potassium sulphate copper oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to make copper chloride zinc oxide reacts with sulphuric acid to make zinc sulphate calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid to make calcium chloride sodium carbonate reacts with sulphuric acid to make sodium sulphate Here are the word equations and balanced formulae equations for the reactions involving hydrochloric acid in the table: sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + water NaOH + HCl NaCl + H 2O copper oxide + hydrochloric acid copper chloride + water CuO + 2HCl CuCl 2 + H 2O calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide CaCO 3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + H 2O + CO 2 Here are the word equations and balanced formulae equations for the reactions involving sulphuric acid in the table: potassium hydroxide + sulphuric acid potassium sulphate + water 2KOH + H 2SO 4 K 2SO 4 + 2H 2O zinc oxide + sulphuric acid zinc sulphate + water ZnO + H 2SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2O sodium carbonate + sulphuric acid sodium sulphate + water + carbon dioxide Na 2CO 3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2 Making salts from acids Soluble bases - alkalis If the base dissolves in water, you need to add just enough acid to make a neutral solution (check a small sample with universal indicator paper), then evaporate the water. You get larger crystals if you evaporate the water slowly Insoluble bases Copper oxide and other transition metal oxides or hydroxides do not dissolve in water. If the base does not dissolve in water, you need an extra step. You add the base to the acid until no more will dissolve and you have some base left over - called an excess. You filter the mixture to remove the excess base then evaporate the water in the filtrate to leave the salt behind. 8

10 Precipitation reactions Soluble salts dissolve in water. Insoluble salts do not dissolve in water. Soluble and insoluble salts soluble insoluble all nitrates none most sulphates lead sulphate, barium sulphate most chlorides, bromides and iodides silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide, lead chloride, lead bromide, lead iodide sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate most other carbonates sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide most other hydroxides Notice that nitrates and most chlorides are soluble. This is why many of the chemicals you use in the laboratory are nitrates or chlorides. If we want to make an insoluble salt, we can react together two soluble salts in a precipitation reaction. Making an insoluble salt Silver chloride is insoluble - you can see this from the table. We need a soluble silver salt and a soluble chloride salt to make it. Silver nitrate and sodium chloride are both soluble. When we mix their solutions together, we make insoluble silver chloride and soluble sodium nitrate. The silver chloride appears as tiny particles suspended in the reaction mixture: it forms a precipitate. The precipitate can be filtered, washed with water on the filter paper and then dried in an oven. Here are the word and balanced formulae equations for the reaction: silver nitrate (soluble) + sodium chloride (soluble) silver chloride (insoluble) + sodium nitrate (soluble) AgNO 3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3 9

11 Making salts Aims Salts are a type of substance made by neutralising an acid. There are many salts other than the sodium chloride you put on your food. There are several ways to make salts. By completing this task you will show that you know how salts can be made by chemical reactions. Questions The equations to make a salt have been mixed up. Draw arrows to join up the word equations correctly. Reactants Products acid base a salt w ater carbon dioxide acid metal a salt w ater acid carbonate a salt hydrogen A salt always has two parts to its name. The first part is always a metal. The second part comes from the acid the salt was made from. Here are the names of some acids: nitric acid hydrochloric acid phosphoric acid sulfuric acid 2 Which acid could be used to make a salt called lithium sulfate?... 3 Which acid could be used to make magnesium nitrate?... 4 Which acid could be used to make calcium chloride?... Notice in Questions 2, 3 and 4 that the first part of a salt name is always a metal. When you are looking at an equation, look for the name of a metal to help you work out what the salt will be. 5 If copper carbonate reacts with sulfuric acid, what is the name of the salt that is made? Circle the correct salt in this list. copper chloride carbon sulfate copper sulfate magnesium sulfate 6 Complete the word equations for these reactions. Remember to look at your answer to Question before you start. Also remember that a base usually ends in oxide or hydroxide. sodium hydrochloric acid... 0

12 sodium carbonate nitric acid... potassium oxide sulfuric acid... Sometimes you know the salt you want but you have to work out how to make it. You will need this list of chemicals, and the acids you already know, to complete the equations in Questions 7, 8 and 9. lithium hydroxide potassium hydroxide sodium oxide copper oxide potassium carbonate copper carbonate lithium sodium carbonate 7... copper nitrate w ater 8... lithium chloride w ater 9... potassium sulfate w ater carbon dioxide

13 Exam Questions Q. Distress flares are used to attract attention in an emergency. Flares often contain magnesium. Magnesium burns to form magnesium oxide. (a) The distress flare burns with a bright flame because the reaction is very exothermic. Complete the following sentence using the correct words from the box. gives out heat stores heat takes in heat An exothermic reaction is one which... () (b) The diagram shows the electronic structure of a magnesium atom. The atomic (proton) number of magnesium is 2. Magnesium atom The atomic (proton) number of oxygen is 8. Which diagram, A, B, C or D, shows the electronic structure of an oxygen atom? Diagram... () 2

14 (c) Magnesium ions and oxide ions are formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen. The diagram shows the electronic structure of an oxide ion. Oxide ion Which diagram, J, K, L or M, shows the electronic structure of a magnesium ion? Diagram... () (d) Indigestion tablets can be made from magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide neutralises some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Draw a ring around the name of the salt formed when magnesium oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. magnesium chloride magnesium hydroxide magnesium sulfate () (Total 4 marks) Q2. An indigestion tablet contains sodium hydrogencarbonate and citric acid. When the tablet is added to cold water a chemical reaction takes place and there is a lot of fizzing. (a) The formula of the gas that causes the fizzing is CO 2 Name this gas.... () (b) This chemical reaction is endothermic. 3

15 (i) Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the temperature of the solution. Statement Tick ( ) The temperature of the solution will increase. The temperature of the solution will decrease. The temperature of the solution will stay the same. () Tick ( ) the statement which describes what happens to the energy during the reaction. Statement Tick ( ) Energy is given out to the surroundings. Energy is taken in from the surroundings. No energy is given out to or taken from the surroundings. Q3. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. () (Total 3 marks) (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place in the first reaction vessel. ammonia +... nitrogen monoxide + water () (b) (i) What is the use of the platinum gauze in the reaction vessel? () 4

16 At first, the platinum gauze is electrically heated. However, as the reaction continues, no further heating is necessary. Explain why. () (c) Explain why the heat exchanger is used. d) To convert nitrogen monoxide into nitric acid, two further reactants are needed. What are they?... and... (2) () (e) In an old method, nitrogen monoxide was produced from nitrogen instead of ammonia. The reaction was carried out at a high temperature (3000 C). Suggest two reasons for this (2) (f) Complete the word equation below, to show how to make the fertiliser, ammonium nitrate ammonium nitrate + water (2) (Total 0 marks) Q4. A student investigated some instant soup. (a) Instant soup contains a food additive which has the formula: NaH 2PO 4 Give the names of all the elements in this compound. The periodic table on the Data Sheet may help you to answer this question. (b) The student investigated the reaction which takes place when soup powder is added to cold water. (2) 5

17 The student thought that the reaction might be exothermic. (i) What is meant by the term exothermic reaction? (2) Describe an experiment that the student could do to prove that this reaction is exothermic. To gain full marks in this question you should write your ideas in good English. Put them into a sensible order and use the correct scientific words. (4) (Total 8 marks) Q5.Hydrated copper sulphate is a blue solid. When it is heated, white solid anhydrous copper sulphate is made. This is a reversible reaction. hydrated copper sulphate [+ heat energy] (blue) anhydrous copper sulphate + water (white) (a) To make the forward reaction work, the hydrated copper sulphate must be heated all the time. What type of reaction is this? () (b) Anhydrous copper sulphate can be used in a test for water. What two things will happen when water is added to anhydrous copper sulphate? (2) (Total 3 marks) 6

18 Q6. The salt sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2HPO 4) is used as a softening agent in processed cheese. It can be made by reacting phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) with an alkali. (a) Complete the name of an alkali that could react with phosphoric acid to make sodium hydrogen phosphate.... hydroxide () (b) What is the name given to a reaction in which an acid reacts with an alkali to make a salt? () (c) How would the ph change when alkali is added to the phosphoric acid solution? () (d) What ions are present when any acid is dissolved in water? () (e) What ions are present when any alkali is dissolved in water? () (f) Write a chemical equation for the reaction which takes place between the ions you have named in (e) and (f). () (Total 6 marks) Q7. The diagram shows the apparatus for an experiment. Hydrated copper sulphate crystals were heated. They became anhydrous copper sulphate. 7

19 tube A. (a) Name a suitable piece of equipment to heat () (b) Use words from the box to complete the two spaces in the table. You may use each word once or not at all. black blue orange red purple white Name Colour Hydrated copper sulphate crystals... Anhydrous copper sulphate... (2) (c) What is the purpose of the ice and water in the beaker? () (d) Drops of a clear, colourless liquid formed on the inside of tube B. (i) Name the liquid. () Explain how the liquid came to be inside tube B. (2) 8

20 (e) Anhydrous copper sulphate can be turned into hydrated copper sulphate. What would you need to add? Apart from the change in colour, what could you observe? (2) (f) acid. Copper sulphate can be made from black copper oxide by reacting it with an acid. Name the () (Total 0 marks) Q8. Salts can be prepared by the reaction of acids with alkalis. (a) (i) The reactions of acids with alkalis can be represented by the equation below. Choose a substance from the box to complete the equation. carbon dioxide hydrogen oxygen water acid + alkali salt +... () Draw a ring around the word which best describes the reaction. displacement neutralisation oxidation reduction () (b) Sodium sulphate is an important salt. The table gives a list of some substances. Put a tick ( sulphate. ) next to the names of the acid and the alkali that would react to make sodium Substances ( ) Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Potassium sulphate Sodium hydroxide Sodium nitrate Sulphuric acid (2) (Total 4 marks) 9

21 Q9. (i) Which acid from the list should the student add to sodium hydroxide solution to make sodium sulphate? ethanoic acid hydrochloric acid nitric acid sulphuric acid When the acid was added to the alkali the beaker became warm. Name the type of reaction that releases heat. () () (iii) Use the Data Sheet to help you to write the formula of sodium sulphate. Formula:... () (Total 3 marks) Q0. The diagrams show what happens when an acid is added to an alkali. (a) What is present in the solution at stages 2 and 3 apart from universal indicator and water? (i) At stage 2... At stage 3... (3) (b) Write an ionic equation to show how water is formed in this reaction and state the sources of the ions. (3) (Total 6 marks) Q. Neutralisation reactions can be used to make salts. (a) Write an ionic equation for a neutralisation reaction, including state symbols. (2) 20

22 (b) Ammonium nitrate is a salt used as a fertiliser. (i) Ammonium nitrate is made by mixing two solutions. Name these solutions.... and... () Hazard information about ammonium nitrate states: it is not itself a fire hazard (does not burn); it must not be allowed to come into contact with combustible materials such as fuels because it can cause these to catch fire. Suggest why ammonium nitrate helps other substances to burn () (Total 4 marks) Q3. Part of the Periodic Table showing the symbols for the first twenty elements is given below. (a) (i) Draw diagrams showing the arrangement of electrons (electronic structures) in: an aluminium atom; 2

23 a chlorine atom. (2) (b) (i) Use electronic structures to help you show why the formula of sodium oxide is Na 2O. (3) State why the formation of sodium ions is classified as an oxidation () (Total 6 marks) Q4. (a) The chart shows the reactions of the metal calcium with water, oxygen and dilute hydrochloric acid. Name (i) solution A... solid B... (iii) gas C... (3) (b) The diagrams below show the electronic structure of an atom of calcium and an atom of oxygen. 22

24 Describe fully what happens to its electrons when: (i) a calcium atom forms a calcium ion. State the charge on the calcium ion formed. an oxygen atom forms an oxygen ion. State the charge on the oxygen ion formed. (3) (c) Calcium oxide is an ionic compound. Why do ionic compounds have high melting points? (3) (2) (Total marks) Q5. Acids and bases are commonly found around the home. (a) Baking powder contains sodium hydrogencarbonate mixed with an acid. (i) When water is added, the baking powder releases carbon dioxide. How could you test the gas to show that it is carbon dioxide? Test... Result of test... (2) Complete and balance the chemical equation for the reaction of sodium hydrogencarbonate with sulphuric acid. NaHCO 3 + H 2SO (b) Indigestion tablets contain bases which cure indigestion by neutralising excess stomach acid. (2) 23

25 (i) One type of indigestion tablet contains magnesium hydroxide. This base neutralises stomach acid as shown by the balanced chemical equation. Mg(OH) 2 + 2HCl MgCl 2 + 2H 2O Write a balanced ionic equation for the neutralisation reaction.... (2) How does the ph in the stomach change after taking the tablets?... c) Ammonium sulphate is used as a lawn fertiliser. () Using ammonia solution, describe how you would make the fertiliser ammonium sulphate. (3) (Total 0 marks) Q6. Sodium carbonate reacts with acids. (i) Complete the word equation. sodium carbonate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride water () 24

26 Name the salt produced if sodium carbonate reacts with dilute nitric acid. () (Total 2 marks) Q8. Explain, in terms of ions and molecules, what happens when any acid reacts with any alkali (Total 3 marks) 25

27 Mark scheme M. (a) gives out (heat) (b) D (c) L (d) magnesium chloride [4] M4. (a) sodium hydrogen phosphorus oxygen 2 marks for all 4 mark for 2 or 3 0 marks for 0 or not symbols / formulae 2 M2. (a) carbon dioxide must be name do not accept carbon oxide (b) (i) gives out gets hot(ter) / temperature rises () (b) (i) the temperature of the solution will decrease (list principle) heat / energy independent mark energy is taken in from the surroundings (list principle) [3] Quality of written communication for clearly expressed ideas M3. (a) oxygen / O 2 (do not allow air) for mark take temperature of water at start owtte (b) (i) idea that it is a catalyst / it increases the rate of reaction / lowers activation energy for mark take temperature after adding soup powder plus any one from: the reaction is exothermic or releases energy / heat for mark using a thermometer mix / stir / shake etc (c) idea that in beaker / conical flask / test tube / plastic cup hot gases from the first reaction vessel need to be cooled incoming gases / ammonia / oxygen need to be heated temperature will rise (indicates an exothermic reaction) [8] there is an energy saving / cost saving any two for mark each 2 (d) water and oxygen (need both) (accept H 2O and O 2) for mark M5. (a) endothermic (reaction) accept thermal decomposition (b) gives out heat (energy) accept exothermic (reaction) (e) idea that breaking bonds / breaking up molecules requires a lot of energy / reaction has a high activation energy turns blue accept goes to hydrated copper sulphate [3] gives a better / faster rate of reaction M6. (a) sodium the reaction is endothermic / more energy needed to break existing bonds than to form new ones allow a higher temperature gives a greater yield / pushes the equilibrium position to the right any two for mark each 2 (b) neutralisation (c) increase/inc. number (d) H + (f) ammonia (solution) / ammonium hydroxide (credit NH 3 NH 4OH) nitric acid / HNO 3 in any order for mark each 2 [0] (f) H + + OH H 2O [6] 26

28 M7. (a) Bunsen (burner) accept spirit burner do not credit candle M0. (a) (i) sodium ions and chloride ions (allow sodium chloride/salt) [not chlorine ] for mark (b) blue white credit () if both colours correct but answers are reversed to cool the tube (B) accept answers which anticipate part (d) e.g. to condense the water vapour or gases or vapours sodium ions and chloride ions (allow sodium chloride/salt) for mark for mark H + ions (allow hydrochloric acid) (b) H + + OH H 2O [N.B Na + and Cl may also be present] H + ions from acid OH ions from alkali each for mark 2 (d) (i) water do not credit condensation [N.B First mark lost if changes on ions not shown] 3 [6] (Water) vapour from the crystals (from tube A) accept steam or steam from tube A condenses or cools accept turns to (liquid) water (e) add water gets hot or hotter or warm or warmer turns into solution dissolves or the temperature rises or there is an exothermic reaction accept steams or hisses ignore any reference to colour(s) (f) sulphuric acid accept H 2S0 4 only if correct in every detail M8. (a) (i) water accept H 2O accept correct ringed answer in box 2 [0] M. (a) H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2O(l) or H 3O + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2O(l) mark for correct equation mark for state symbols any other symbols = 0 marks accept correct spectator ions e.g. Na + (aq) + OH (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) + H 2O(l) (b) (i) nitric acid and ammonia (solution) HNO 3 NH 3 / NH 4OH mark for both accept ammonium hydroxide / NH 4OH instead of ammonia do not accept ammonia hydroxide do not accept hydrogen nitrate solution accept correct formulae provides oxygen or oxidising (agent) or oxidant do not accept it contains oxygen alone or rich in oxygen 2 [4] neutralisation accept underlining or any indication, eg tick M2 (b) sodium hydroxide sulphuric acid apply list principletotal M9. (i) sulphuric acid / H 2SO 4 accept sulfuric for one mark exothermic for one mark [4] (a) sodium ions and chloride ions (not chlorine) allow sodium chloride/salt/common salt for mark (b) H + + OH H 2O H + from (hydrochloric) acid OH - from alkali/sodium hydroxide lose mark if no charge shown disregard other ions each for mark 3 [4] (iii) Na 2SO 4 / (Na) 2SO 4 / Na 2(SO 4) / (Na + ) 2SO 4 2 for one mark lower case O(Na 2SO 4) not accepted / tops of subscripted letters should be in line or lower 27

29 than lower case letters of symbols [3] M3. (a) (i) A calcium hydroxide/limewater/ca(oh) 2 not CaOH B calcium oxide/quicklime/cao (iii) C hydrogen/h 2 (accept correct formulae)/ not H 2/H each for mark (b) (i) idea that electrons are lost (by the calcium atom) gains mark but two electrons are lost (by the calcium atom)/lose outer electrons to get full shell gains 2 marks 3 M4. (a) (i) test: limewater accept calcium hydroxide solution result: goes cloudy accept white or milky do not accept misty or chalky test must be correct before result mark can be considered 2 NaHCO 3 + H 2SO 4 Na 2SO 4 + (2) H 2O + (2) CO 2 for mark calcium ions are 2+ correctly balanced electrons are gained (by the oxygen atom) gains mark (b) (i) H + + OH but two electrons are gained (by the oxygen atom)/gain electrons to get full outer shell gains 2 marks oxygen ions are 2 for mark 6 H 2O deduct one mark if incorrectly balanced accept H 3O + instead of H + then 2H 2O needed for balance (b) (i) needs: electron loss/gain number (2) charge (+/ ) (c) idea that they are held together by many/strong forces/bonds a lot of energy/high temperature is required to break these forces/bonds each for mark M7. (i) carbon dioxide (allow CO 2) for mark for mark sodium nitrate (accept correct formula) 2 [] [2] ph increases accept numerical indication (c) addition of sulphuric acid correct use of an indicator accept idea of forming a neutral solution crystallisation (of neutral solution) accept description using evaporation [0] M8. hydrogen ions (from acid) or protons / H + react with hydroxide ions (from alkali) / OH to produce water H + OH H 2O gains all 3 marks ignore state symbols molecules of hydrogen ions and molecules of hydroxide ions produce water = 2 marks if they fail to get any of the above marks they can get mark for neutralisation / product neutral [3] 28

30 Making salts Answers Reactants Products acid base a salt w ater carbon dioxide acid metal a salt w ater acid carbonate a salt hydrogen 2 sulfuric acid 3 nitric acid 4 hydrochloric acid 5 copper sulfate 6 sodium hydrochloric acid sodiumchloride hydrogen sodium carbonate nitric acid sodium nitrate carbondioxide potassium oxide sulfuric acid potassium sulfate water 7 copper oxide nitric acid copper nitrate w ater 8 lithium hydroxide hydrochloric acid lithium chloride water water 9. potassium carbonate sulfuricacid potassium sulfate w ater carbon dioxide 29

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