Impacts of molecular structure on the combustion and emissions characteristics of future diesel fuels

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1 Impacts of molecular structure on the combustion and emissions characteristics of future diesel fuels Paul Hellier and Nicos Ladommatos University College London Brunel University Biodiesel Workshop

2 Outline 1. Future fuels 2. Experimental methodology Ultra low volume fuel system 3. Features of alkyl chains Ignition delay Emissions 4. Fatty acid ester alcohol moiety 5. Genetically modified microorganisms 6. Conclusions

3 Approach Liquid fuel Feedstock Process Product Fossil fuel Organic matter Intense heat and pressure over millions of years Current bio-fuels Future fuels Agricultural crops with food value Lignocellulosic biomass, photosynthetic micro-organisms, waste streams Conversion of sugars, starch, and fatty acids with varying net CO 2 performance Various possible routes of biological and thermo-chemical conversion Refined to meet performance and environmental requirements in ICE Designed to emulate existing fossil fuels?

4 Experimental approach Testing logical series of chemistries in which a specific molecular structural property is incrementally altered while others are kept constant. 1 double bond H 3 C CH 2 Carbon chain length = 12 High assay single component fuels may be of limited supply or require expensive synthesis.

5 Engine facility Single cylinder research diesel engine. Ricardo Hydra with Ford Duratorq 2.0 L head. Common rail (Bosch CP3) with solenoid valve DI injector (Delphi DFI 1.3). Gaseous emissions: Horiba MEXA 9100 HEGR. Particulate emissions: Cambustion DMS 500 Spectrometer.

6 Solution Bypass Free moving pistons High pressure valve Diesel reservoir Fossil diesel Pressure vessel Test fuel Filter Common rail Injector Exhaust High pressure pump Pressure sensor DAQ Emissions analysis Particulates analysis Engine

7 Experimental conditions Constant injection timing: 1200 rpm and 450 bar fuel injection pressure 4 bar IMEP (variable injection timing ~ μs) SOI = 7.5 CAD BTDC Variable SOC Constant ignition timing: 1200 rpm and 450 bar fuel injection pressure 4 bar IMEP (variable injection timing ~ μs) Variable SOI SOC = TDC

8 Experimental conditions Constant ignition delay timing: Addition of 2 EHN to control duration of ignition delay 1200 rpm and 450 bar fuel injection pressure 4 bar IMEP (variable injection timing ~ μs) Fixed SOI SOI = 7.5 CAD BTDC Variable SOC SOC at TDC Variable SOI SOC at TDC SOI

9 n-alkane carbon chain length Constant injection timing Constant ignition timing Increased alkyl chain length reduced peak in-cylinder pressures

10 n-alkane carbon chain length Constant injection timing Constant ignition timing Increased alkyl chain length reduced peak heat release rate

11 Alkyl chain saturation Decrease in saturation increase in ignition delay

12 Alkyl chain methyl branching Increased branching within alkyl chain increased ignition delay

13 % Shift in ID relative to the base fully saturated straight chain molecule (C10) Relative impacts of alkyl chain features Straight Carbon chain length Double bonds Branching % Increase in structural property

14 Ignition delay kinetics Initial alkyl chain low temperature branching reactions: A. C x H y C x Hy-1 + H* CH 3 B. R + O 2 RO 2 H 3 C CH 3 C. R + O 2 QOOH Secondary CH 3 Primary C-H bond strengths: 1. Primary - C-H of a methyl group 2. Secondary - C-H of C bonded to a further 2 C Strength 3. Tertiary - C-H of a C bonded to a further 3 C

15 Carbon-carbon double bond Increased double bonds reduced secondary C-H atoms reduced potential for isomerisation Six and seven member transition state rings require: Alkyl chain length of at least 3 All carbons to be saturated H 3 C CH 3 No. of potential transition rings decreases by 1/3 H 3 C CH 2

16 Effect of ignition delay on combustion phasing Peak heat release rate Premixed burn fraction Duration of ignition delay premixed burn fraction peak heat release

17 NOx and particulate emissions NOx emissions Particulate mass Increased ignition delay increased NOx + reduced particulates

18 Double bond position trans-1-octene trans-2-octene trans-3-octene cis-3-octene

19 Double bond position cis-3-octene trans-3-octene Double bond 1 2 increases ignition delay, 2 3 does not Contrary to studies with heptene isomers

20 Double bond ignition kinetics permits internal H abstraction and isomerisation across a double bond net reactivity

21 Fatty acid ester alcohol moiety

22 Thermo-gravimetric analysis O CN = ~ 100 O OH O CN = 61.7

23 Alcohol moiety particulates Boiling point, viscosity Oxygen content

24 Genetic modification for future fuels Photosynthetic cyanobacteria Compounds secreted from cells Courtesy of Lamya Al-Haj and Dr. Saul Purton, UCL Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology

25 OH Geraniol Nerol OH Linalool OH H Citronellol OH O Geranial (Citral-A) O Citronellene O OH Citral dimethyl acetal 3,7-dimethyloctan-1-ol O O Farnesene Geranyl acetate H H H OH Squalene cis vs trans Alcohol group position Degree of saturation Menthol Functional group Alkenyl chain length

26 Microbial terpene fuels trans 1 DB cis 2 DB 0 DB C15 C30 -OH =O

27 Fuel viscosity Squalene high viscosity poorer mixing increased particulates

28 Design of future fuels in terms of molecular structure Fuel molecular structure determines ignition delay through low temperature reaction kinetics. Ignition delay is most strongly influenced by the reactivity of long alkyl chains. Other elements of molecular structure can: Result in molecule breakdown prior to vaporisation. Impact significantly on ignition delay where the alkyl moiety is of poor ignition quality. Emissions of NOx are thermal and dictated by heat release rates determined primarily by duration of ignition delay. Levels of soot produced increases with removal of fuel O and increasing fuel viscosity. Understanding of effects of molecular structure will inform development of future fuels, eg. from genetically modified organisms

29 Thank you for listening Questions? Acknowledgements: EPSRC UCL Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology All figures and results in this presentation have previously been published in the following journal articles: P. Hellier, L. Al-Haj, M. Talib, S. Purton and N. Ladommatos, Combustion and emissions characterisation of terpenes as biof uels produced by the microalgae Synechocystis, Fuel, Volume 111, September 2013, Pages http://dx.doi.org/ /j.fuel P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos, R. Allan, S. Filip and J. Rogerson, "The importance of double bond position and cis trans isomerisation in diesel combustion and emissions", Fuel, Volume 105, March 2013, Pages P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos, R. Allan, M. Payne and J. Rogerson, "The Influence of Fatty Acid Ester Alcohol Moiety Molecular Structure on Diesel Combustion and Emissions", Energy and Fuels, 2012, 26 (3), pp P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos, R. Allan, M. Payne and J. Rogerson, "The Impact of Saturated and Unsaturated Fuel Molecules on Diesel Combustion and Exhaust Emissions", SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(1): ,

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