How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (1) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen.

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1 Q1. (a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. (3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) The diagrams show the electron arrangement in nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen Hydrogen Which diagram below, A, B, C or D, represents an ammonia molecule? A B C D Write your answer in the box. Diagram (Total 5 marks) Page 1 of 31

2 Q2. The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride. (a) Use words from the box to answer the questions. compound element hydrocarbon mixture Which word best describes: (i) sodium... (ii) sodium chloride?... (b) When sodium reacts with chlorine the sodium atoms change into sodium ions. The diagrams below represent a sodium atom and a sodium ion. Sodium atom (Na) Sodium ion (Na + ) Use the diagrams to help you explain how a sodium atom turns into a sodium ion. Page 2 of 31

3 (c) (i) The diagram below represents a chlorine atom. When chlorine reacts with sodium the chlorine forms negative chloride ions. Complete the diagram below to show the outer electrons in a chloride ion and show the charge on the ion. (ii) Chloride ions are strongly attracted to sodium ions in sodium chloride. Explain why (Total 7 marks) Q3. This picture shows a sword. The sword is about 3400 years old. It is made of an alloy called bronze. Bronze is made from copper and tin. Photograph O.Louis Mazzatenta / Getty Images Bronze made better swords than pure copper. This is because bronze is harder than pure copper. Page 3 of 31

4 (a) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. metals. An alloy is a mixture of molecules. non-metals. (b) Pure copper can be quite easily bent out of shape. Which two statements in the table explain why copper can be bent? Tick ( ) two boxes. Statements Tick ( ) Copper atoms are arranged in layers. Copper atoms are joined by strong covalent bonds. Copper atoms can slide over each other. Copper is made of small molecules. (c) Which one statement in the table explains why bronze is harder than pure copper? Tick ( ) one box. Statements Tick ( ) Copper and tin atoms are the same size. The layers of atoms are distorted in bronze. The copper and tin atoms are joined by strong covalent bonds in bronze. (Total 4 marks) Page 4 of 31

5 Q4. This barbecue burns propane gas. The diagram represents a propane molecule. (a) What is the formula of propane?... (b) (i) Draw a ring around the name of the particle represented by the symbols and in the diagram. electron neutron proton (ii) Draw a ring around the type of bonding that holds the atoms together in a propane molecule. covalent ionic metallic (c) Under high pressure in the cylinder propane is a liquid. Liquid propane evaporates easily to form a gas when the tap on the cylinder is opened. Draw a ring around the correct answer in each box to explain why propane evaporates easily. Propane has a high low boiling point because it consists of large small molecules. (Total 4 marks) Page 5 of 31

6 Q5. This question is about giant structures. Diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide all have giant structures. (a) The diagrams show the structures of these three substances. Draw a line from each structure to its name. (b) Complete the sentences using words from the box. covalent four hard ionic shiny soft three two (i) Diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide have high melting points because all the (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) atoms in their structures are joined by strong... bonds. In diamond each atom is joined to... other atoms. Diamond can be used to make cutting tools because it has a rigid structure which makes it very... In graphite each atom is joined to... other atoms. Graphite can be used to make pencils because it has a structure which makes it... Page 6 of 31

7 (c) When a diamond is heated to a high temperature and then placed in pure oxygen it burns. Carbon dioxide is the only product. Name the element in diamond.... (Total 8 marks) Q6. This label was on a container of graphite lubricant. Super G Graphite Lubricant Super G forms a thin anti-friction film on metal surfaces. It provides good lubrication when metal parts rub against each other. (a) Give one reason why a lubricant is used when metal parts rub against each other (b) The diagram shows the arrangement of atoms in graphite. (i) Draw a ring around the type of atoms in graphite. aluminium carbon silicon Page 7 of 31

8 (ii) Graphite is a good lubricant because it is slippery. Use the diagram to explain why graphite is slippery. (Total 4 marks) Q7. This question is about oxygen atoms. The periodic table on the Data Sheet may help you to answer this question. (a) (i) Oxygen atoms have 8 electrons. Complete the diagram to represent the arrangement of electrons in an oxygen atom. Use crosses ( ) to represent the electrons. (ii) Name the part of the oxygen atom that is labelled A on the diagram. (b) Two isotopes of oxygen are oxygen-16 and oxygen O 8 8 O oxygen-16 oxygen-18 Page 8 of 31

9 Explain, in terms of particles, how the nucleus of an oxygen-18 atom is different from the nucleus of an oxygen-16 atom (Total 4 marks) Q8. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2 ) with chlorine (Cl 2 ). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule of hydrogen chloride (HCl). You need show only the outer energy level (shell) electrons. (b) The word equation for the reaction of hydrogen with chlorine is shown below. hydrogen + chlorine hydrogen chloride Write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction.... (c) Hydrogen chloride gas reacts with magnesium to form the ionic compound called magnesium chloride. Use the table of ions on the Data Sheet to help you to write the formula of magnesium chloride.... Page 9 of 31

10 (d) Why does magnesium chloride have a much higher melting point than hydrogen chloride? (Total 6 marks) Q9. (a) A tin of red kidney beans contains calcium chloride as a firming agent. Calcium chloride is an ionic compound which contains calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) and chloride ions (Cl ). (i) The diagram on the left represents the electronic structure of a chlorine atom. Complete a similar diagram on the right to represent a chloride ion. (ii) Explain how a calcium atom changes into a calcium ion which has a 2+ charge. Page 10 of 31

11 (b) Cola drinks contain phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4. The two equations show how phosphoric acid can be made from phosphorus. Balance these two equations. (i) P O 2 P 4 O 10 (ii) P 4 O H 2 O 4H 3 PO 4 (Total 6 marks) Q10. This question is about sodium chloride (common salt) which is an important chemical. Sodium chloride can be made by burning sodium in chlorine gas. (a) Balance the symbol equation for the reaction of sodium with chlorine. Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) NaCl(s) (b) (i) Complete the diagrams below to show the electronic structures of a sodium and a chlorine atom. (Atomic number of sodium = 11 and chlorine = 17.) (3) Page 11 of 31

12 (ii) When sodium reacts with chlorine the sodium atoms are changed into sodium ions (Na + ) and the chlorine atoms are changed into chlorine ions (Cl ). Explain how: 1. a sodium atom changes into a sodium ion; 2. a chlorine atom changes into a chloride ion. (c) The element potassium is in the same group of the Periodic Table as sodium. Potassium reacts with chlorine to make potassium chloride which is sometimes used instead of common salt in cooking. (i) Predict the formula of potassium chloride. By reference to the electronic structures of potassium and sodium explain: (ii) Why the reaction of potassium with chlorine is similar to the reaction of sodium with chlorine. (d) The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution is an important industrial process. The diagrams below show two experiments set up during an investigation of the electrolysis of sodium chloride. (i) What would be the reading on the ammeter in experiment 1?... A Page 12 of 31

13 (ii) Explain your answer. (3) (e) The equations below show the reactions which take place in experiment 2. H 2 O H + (aq) + OH (aq) 2H + (aq) + 2e H 2 (g) 2Cl (aq) 2e Cl 2 (g) (i) Which substance provides hydrogen ions? (ii) Name the product formed at: (A) the positive electrode; (B) the negative electrode. (Total 15 marks) Q11. This question is about sodium chloride (common salt) which is an important chemical. Sodium chloride can be made by burning sodium in chlorine gas. (a) Balance the symbol equation for the reaction of sodium with chlorine. Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) NaCl(s) Page 13 of 31

14 (b) (i) Complete the diagrams below to show the electronic structures of a sodium and a chlorine atom. (Atomic number of sodium = 11 and chlorine = 17.) (3) (ii) When sodium reacts with chlorine the sodium atoms are changed into sodium ions (Na + ) and the chlorine atoms are changed into chlorine ions (Cl ). Explain how: 1. a sodium atom changes into a sodium ion; 2. a chlorine atom changes into a chloride ion. (c) The element potassium is in the same group of the Periodic Table as sodium. Potassium reacts with chlorine to make potassium chloride which is sometimes used instead of common salt in cooking. (i) Predict the formula of potassium chloride. By reference to the electronic structures of potassium and sodium explain: (ii) Why the reaction of potassium with chlorine is similar to the reaction of sodium with chlorine. Page 14 of 31

15 (d) The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution is an important industrial process. The diagrams below show two experiments set up during an investigation of the electrolysis of sodium chloride. (i) What would be the reading on the ammeter in experiment 1?... A (ii) Explain your answer. (3) (e) The equations below show the reactions which take place in experiment 2. H 2 O H + (aq) + OH (aq) 2H + (aq) + 2e H 2 (g) 2Cl (aq) 2e Cl 2 (g) (i) Which substance provides hydrogen ions? (ii) Name the product formed at: (A) the positive electrode; (B) the negative electrode. (Total 15 marks) Page 15 of 31

16 Q12. Calcium and magnesium are elements. They are found in the Earth s crust as compounds, often carbonates and sulphates. Magnesium is also found as its chloride. (a) Calcium and magnesium are in the same Group in the Periodic Table. State which Group this is.... (b) Use the Data Sheet to help you to answer this question. (i) Write the chemical formula of magnesium chloride. (ii) Name the type of bonding in magnesium chloride. (Total 3 marks) Q13. (a) A piece of lithium is placed on the surface of some water in a beaker. Hydrogen is given off. Lithium hydroxide is also formed. Write a word equation for this reaction.... Page 16 of 31

17 (b) The diagram shows the structure of a molecule of methane. Write down everything that this diagram tells you about a methane molecule. To gain full marks in this question you should write your ideas in good English. Put them into a sensible order and use the correct scientific words (4) (Total 6 marks) Q14. Ammonia has the formula NH 3 The diagrams show how electrons are arranged in nitrogen and hydrogen atoms. Nitrogen atom Hydrogen atom (a) Draw a diagram to show how the electrons are arranged in an ammonia molecule. You need only show the electrons in the highest energy level. Page 17 of 31

18 (b) Ammonia is a gas at room temperature. Explain why ammonia has a low boiling point. (Total 4 marks) Q15. This barbecue burns propane gas. The structure of propane is shown below. (a) Complete the diagram to show how the outer energy level (shell) electrons of hydrogen and carbon are arranged in a molecule of propane. Page 18 of 31

19 (b) The graph shows how the vapour pressure of propane changes with temperature. The vapour pressure of a liquid is the pressure of the vapour above the liquid. (i) Describe, as fully as you can, how the vapour pressure of propane changes with temperature. (ii) The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapour pressure is equal to the air pressure above the liquid. Use the graph to find the boiling point of propane when the air pressure is 100 kilopascals. Boiling point... C Page 19 of 31

20 (c) Explain, in terms of molecules, why propane has a low boiling point (Total 6 marks) Q16. This drill contains an electric motor. The diagram below shows the main parts of an electric motor. Page 20 of 31

21 The carbon contacts are made of graphite. Springs push the contacts against the copper ring. The contacts conduct electricity to the copper ring. The copper ring rotates rapidly but does not stick or become worn because the graphite is soft and slippery. Graphite has properties which are ideal for making the contacts in an electric motor. Explain, in terms of structure and bonding, why graphite has these properties (Total 4 marks) Q17. The diagram represents the structure of graphite. Page 21 of 31

22 Use your knowledge and understanding of the structure of graphite to explain why graphite can be used: (a) in the leads of pencils; (b) as an electrical conductor (Total 5 marks) Page 22 of 31

23 Q18. Bricks made from silica (silicon dioxide) are used to line furnaces that operate at high temperatures. Part of the structure of silica is shown in the diagram. Suggest and explain why silica is used to make bricks for high-temperature furnaces. In your answer, you should refer to the structure of, and bonding in, silica (Total 4 marks) Page 23 of 31

24 Q19. The extract below was taken from a leaflet on the uses of platinum. One of the uses described was in making electrodes for spark plugs in car engines. The spark plug produces the spark which ignites the fuel in the engine. Spark Plugs The electrodes in a spark plug have to conduct electricity very well. Since they project into the combustion chamber of the engine, they must also be able to withstand extremely high temperatures in a very corrosive atmosphere. Nickel-based plugs have been produced for many years. They only last a fairly short time. As the electrodes wear, combustion becomes less efficient and the petrol is not burnt completely. Platinum and other precious metals can now be used in spark plugs. These last much longer and are more efficient. This can help to reduce air pollution. The table below gives some information about platinum and nickel. MELTING POINT ( C) BOILING POINT ( C) POSITION IN REACTIVITY SERIES COST ( /kg) nickel Higher than gold 2.5 platinum below gold 6110 (a) Compare nickel and platinum for use in making the electrodes in spark plugs. A good answer should give advantages and disadvantages of each metal linking these to the properties of the metals. Marks will be given for the way in which you organise your answer. You will need a sheet of lined paper. (8) (b) (i) Describe the structure and bonding in metals. (3) Page 24 of 31

25 (ii) Explain why metals such as nickel and platinum are good conductors of electricity. (Total 13 marks) Q20. The picture shows sodium reacting with chlorine. The reaction forms sodium chloride, which contains sodium ions and chloride ions. (a) The diagrams show how electrons are arranged in a sodium atom and a chlorine atom. Explain, in terms of electrons, what happens when sodium reacts with chlorine. (3) Page 25 of 31

26 (b) Explain, as fully as you can, why sodium chloride has a high melting point. (3) (Total 6 marks) Q21. (a) Write a balanced symbol equation for the reaction between magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O 2 ) to form magnesium oxide (MgO).... (b) The diagram shows the electronic structure of a magnesium atom. The atomic (proton) number of magnesium is 12. Magnesium atom Draw a similar diagram to show the electronic structure of an oxygen atom. The atomic (proton) number of oxygen is 8. Page 26 of 31

27 (c) Magnesium ions and oxide ions are formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen. The diagram shows the electronic structure of an oxide ion. Oxide ion Draw a similar diagram to show the electronic structure of a magnesium ion. (d) Magnesium oxide is a white solid with a high melting point. Explain how the ions are held together in solid magnesium oxide (e) Indigestion tablets can be made from magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide neutralises some of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Complete the word equation for the reaction between magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid. hydrochloric acid + magnesium oxide... + water. (Total 6 marks) Page 27 of 31

28 Q22. Millions of years ago the Earth formed as a giant ball of molten rock. The outer surface cooled forming a thin, solid outer crust. Volcanic activity on the surface produced an atmosphere containing the compounds carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and water vapour. Describe the bonding in any one of these compounds. You must include electronic structures in your explanation (Total 4 marks) Q23. The diagram shows a model of part of the giant lattice of a metal. Page 28 of 31

29 (a) Name particles X and Y. X... Y... (b) Explain, in terms of the giant structure above, why is it possible to bend a piece of metal (Total 4 marks) Q24. Uranium metal can be produced by reacting uranium hexafluoride with calcium. UF 6 + 3Ca 3CaF 2 + U (a) Describe how calcium and fluorine bond together to form calcium fluoride. The electron arrangement of each atom is shown (5) Page 29 of 31

30 (b) Uranium has two main isotopes, and. Use these as examples to explain what is meant by the word isotope (4) (c) At the start of a reaction there was g of uranium hexafluoride, UF 6. Relative atomic masses: F 19; U 235 (i) Calculate the relative formula mass of uranium hexafluoride, UF 6. Relative formula mass UF 6 =... g (ii) Calculate the mass of uranium that would be produced from g of uranium hexafluoride. Mass of uranium =... g (Total 12 marks) Page 30 of 31

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