# BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Forensic Science

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2 Part one Health & Safety Awareness When scientists work in a laboratory there are certain procedures and practices they have to carry out whether they are involved in routine laboratory analysis or in scientific research. In order for them to carry out these procedures and practices safely they must follow health and safety rules. In the table below enter each Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that has to be used when carrying out a practical at school and when it is used and what it is specifically used to protect you from. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) When it is used and what it is used to protect you from Part two: What are atoms made of? Chemistry In chemistry, you need to know that atoms are made of 3 sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. These particles have mass and charge values which are relative to each other as shown in this table: Particle name Relative charge Relative mass Proton +1 1 Neutron 0 1 Electron -1 0

3 Atomic Number, Mass Number and Isotopes Atomic number = Z. It is also called the proton number as it gives the number of protons in the nucleus. For atoms, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons because atoms have no overall charge. Elements are arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic (proton) number. The mass number is given the symbol A. It gives the total number of neutrons + protons. These are the particles in the atom which have mass, and they are found in the nucleus. 1. Use the periodic table of elements on the last page it gives the atomic number (a whole number) for each element and complete the table below: Element Symbol Z A Number of protons Number of neutrons Number of electrons sodium chlorine chlorine The last two elements are isotopes of chlorine. In general, what are isotopes? Arrangement of Electrons Electrons orbit the nucleus in energy levels (called shells) You always fill innermost levels first The first level can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the second can hold 8 and the third can hold a maximum of 8. Part three: Elements and the periodic table Elements are arranged in groups in the periodic table according to how many electrons they have in their highest energy level (outer shell). You will probably be familiar with groups 1 to 7 (lithium to fluorine) of the periodic table.

4 Use the copy of the periodic table provided to carry out the next tasks. 3. Draw a diagram to show the electron arrangement in shells of each of the following elements- carbon, fluorine, magnesium and sulfur. Carbon Fluorine Magnesium Sulfur Part four: Formation of ions An ion is a charged particle. Ions of opposite charge can bond together. Ions are formed when an atoms gains or loses electrons to get a complete outer shell Group 1 elements have 1 electron in their outer shell. They lose this electron, which means they lose a negative charge, hence end up with a charge of +1. A sodium ion is written as Na + Group 7 elements (fluorine, chlorine etc) have 7 electrons in their outer shell; they gain 1 electron from their surroundings to complete their outer shell. They now have an extra negative charge: they carry a -1 charge. A fluoride ion is written as F -. Group 6 elements have six electrons in their outer shell; they pick up two electrons from their surroundings to complete their outer shell. They now have two extra negative charges: they carry a -2 charge. An oxide ion is written as O 2-

5 4. Draw diagrams to show the electron arrangement in shells of the atoms and ions of the following elements: Sodium atom Sodium ion (Na + ) Chlorine atom Chloride ion (Cl - ) Magnesium atom Magnesium ion (Mg 2+ ) Oxygen atom Oxide ion (O 2- ) When sodium ions bond with chloride ions, we write the formula as NaCl. When sodium ions bond with oxide ions, the formula is Na 2O. 5. Explain why these are the formulas of these two compounds:

6

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