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1 Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury e. fluorine f. argon g. zinc h. nickel 2.4 a. helium b. phosphorus c. sodium d. magnesium e. calcium f. bromine g. cadmium h. silicon 2.5 a. sodium and chlorine b. calcium, sulfur, and oxygen c. carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen d. calcium, carbon, and oxygen 2.6 a. hydrogen and oxygen b. sodium, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen c. sodium, oxygen, and hydrogen d. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 2.7 a. Period 2 b. Group 8A (18) c. Group 1A (1) d. Period a. Group 1A (1) b. Period 2 c. Group 8A (18) d. Group 7A (17) 2.9 a. alkaline earth b. transition element c. noble gas d. alkali metal e. halogen 2.10 a. noble gas b. alkaline earth metal c. transition element d. halogen e. alkaline earth metal 2.11 a. C b. He c. Na d. Ca e. Al 2.12 a. Be b. P c. Kr d. I e. Ge 2.13 On the periodic table, metals are elements located to the left the heavy zigzag line, while the nonmetals are elements to the right. a. metal b. nonmetal c. metal d. nonmetal e. nonmetal f. nonmetal g. metal h. metal 2.14 a. metal b. metal c. nonmetal d. metal e. nonmetal f. nonmetal g. nonmetal h. metal 2.15 a. electron b. proton c. electron d. neutron 2.16 a. neutron b. proton and neutron c. electron d. electron 2.17 The two most massive subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, are located in a very small region the atom, which is called the nucleus.

2 Chapter 2 Answers and Solutions 2.18 Because protons are present in the nucleus every element and protons are the positively charged subatomic particles Selection b (a proton and an electron) is the only one with a pair particles having opposite charges Selections a (two protons) and c (two electrons) are pairs particles having the same charge Because the hair strands repel one another, there must be like electrical charges on each strand Because the clothes cling to each other, there must be opposite electrical charges on the clothing a. atomic number b. both c. mass number d. atomic number 2.24 a. number protons and electrons, if a neutral atom b. number particles (protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus c. number neutrons d. nothing useful 2.25 a. lithium, Li b. fluorine, F c. calcium, Ca d. zinc, Zn e. neon, Ne f. silicon, Si g. iodine, I h. Oxygen, O 2.26 a. hydrogen, H b. sodium, Na c. potassium, K d. iron, Fe e. bromine, Br f. silver, Ag g. phosphorus, P h. helium, He 2.27 a. 12 b. 30 c. 53 d a. 6 b. 9 c. 20 d Name Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons Aluminum Al Magnesium Mg Potassium K Sulfur S Iron Fe Name Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons Nitrogen N Calcium Ca Strontium Sr Silicon Si Barium Ba Electrons Electrons 2.31 a. Since the atomic number aluminum is 13, every Al atom has 13 protons. An atom aluminum with a mass number 27 and an atomic number 13 has 14 neutrons = 14 n Therefore, 13 protons, 14 neutrons, 13 electrons b. 24 protons, 28 neutrons, 24 electrons c. 16 protons, 18 neutrons, 16 electrons d. 26 protons, 30 neutrons, 26 electrons

3 Atoms and Elements 2.32 a. 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron b. 7 protons, 7 neutrons, 7 electrons c. 14 protons, 12 neutrons, 14 electrons d. 30 protons, 40 neutrons, 30 electrons 2.33 a. 31 P b. 80 Br c. 27 Al d. 35 Cl a. 18 O b. 9 Be c. 56 Fe d. 24 Na a. 32 S 33 S 34 S 36 S b. They all have the same atomic number, (the same number protons and electrons). c. They have different numbers neutrons, which is reflected in their mass numbers. d. The atomic mass sulfur on the periodic table is the average atomic mass all the naturally occurring isotopic masses To calculate the average atomic mass an element, I would need the actual mass and the percent abundance each naturally occurring isotope a. 84 Sr 86 Sr 87 Sr 88 Sr b. They all have the same atomic number, (the same number protons and electrons). c. They have different numbers neutrons, which is reflected in their mass numbers. d. The atomic mass strontium on the periodic table is the weighted average all the naturally occurring isotopic masses (60.1/100) = (39.9/100) = 28.3 thus = 69.8 amu (average mass) (0.0056) = (0.0986) = (0.0700) = ( ) = 72.7 total = = The electrons surrounding a nucleus have specific energies. Electrons with similar energies will be found grouped together within a specific energy level The first energy level is filled with two electrons. The second energy level can hold a maximum eight electrons. Because we are only considering the first twenty elements, the third energy level will have eight electrons present and the fourth energy level will have only two electrons in it a. 8 b. 5 c. 8 d. 0 e a. zero b. six c. five d. eight e. zero 2.45 a. 2, 4 b. 2, 8, 8 c. 2, 8, 6 d. 2, 8, 4 e. 2, 8, 3 f. 2, a. 2, 8, 5 b. 2, 8 c. 2, 6 d. 2, 8, 8 e. 2, 8, 3 f. 2, 8, a. Li b. Mg c. H d. Cl e. O 2.48 a. N b. S c. C d. Ar e. Al 2.49 a. gain b. emit 2.50 a. X-rays have higher energies than microwaves and radio waves. b. We shield ourselves from unnecessary exposure to x-rays because our tissues are damaged by high energies.

4 Chapter 2 Answers and Solutions 2.51 a. boron: 2, 3 aluminum: 2, 8, 3 b. Three c. Group 3A (3) 2.52 a. fluorine: 2, 7 chlorine: 2, 8, 7 b. Seven c. Group a. 2 e, Group 2A (2) b. 7 e, Group 7A (17) c. 6 e, Group 6A (16) d. 5 e, Group 5 A (5) e. 2 e, Group 2A (2) f. 7 e, Group 7A (17) 2.54 a. 1 e -, Group 1A (1) b. 4 e -, Group 4A (4) c. 8 e -, Group 8A (18) d. 8 e -, Group 8A (18) e. 4 e -, Group 4A (4) f. 1 e -, Group 1A (1) 2.55 Mg, Ca, and Sr have similar properties because they are members the same group (family) in the periodic table. Chemical properties are related to the number electrons in the outermost occupied energy level, and these three elements all have two electrons in their outermost shell Bromine and iodine (you could also have selected fluorine or astatine) would exhibit physical and chemical properties similar to chlorine An s subshell holds up to 2 electrons, a p subshell up to 6 electrons, a d subshell up to10 electrons, and an f subshell up to 14 electrons. An orbital holds up to two electrons. There is one orbital in an s subshell, 3 orbitals in a p subshell, 5 orbitals in a d subshell, and 7 orbitals in a f subshell. a. 2 electrons (orbital) b. 6 electrons c. 10 (s + p) d. 2 electrons 2.58 a. 2 electrons b. 2 electrons c. 18 (s + p + d) d. 2 electrons 2.59 a. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 b. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 c. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 d. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 e. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 f. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 h. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p a. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 b. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 c. 1s 2 2s 2 d. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 e. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 f. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 g. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 h. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s a. hydrogen (H) b. nitrogen (N) c. sodium (Na) d. neon (Ne) e. silicon (Si) f. bromine (Br) 2.62 a. carbon (C) b. lithium (Li) c. sulfur (S) d. calcium (Ca) e. sulfur (S) f. strontium (Sr) 2.63 Any element with a two-letter symbol has the first letter capitalized and the second letter in lower case. CO would indicate a compound made the two elements carbon and oxygen a. Incorrect. The symbol for copper is Cu b. Incorrect. The symbol for silicon is Si. c. Correct as written d. Incorrect. The symbol for fluorine is F. e. Incorrect. The symbol for potassium is K f. Correct as written g. Correct as written h. Incorrect. The symbol for lead is Pb a. Mg, magnesium b. Br, bromine c. Al, aluminum d. O, oxygen 2.66 a. Group 1, period 4 b. Group 5, period 3 c. Group 4, period 2 d. Group 8, period a. The proton is a positive particle. b. Electrons are found outside the nucleus. c. The nucleus is the smallest part the atom. d. The electron has a negative charge. e. Most the mass the atom is due to its protons and neutrons a. 1 proton, 1 neutron b. 17 protons, 20 neutrons c. 48 protons, 58 neutrons d. 83 protons, 126 neutrons

5 2.69 a. 26 protons, 30 neutrons, 26 electrons b. 51 Fe c. 51 Cr Atoms and Elements 2.70 No. The atomic mass is the weighted average the eight naturally occurring isotopic masses a. Atoms are the smallest particles an element that retain the properties that element. Isotopes are atoms an element with a specific mass number (specific number neutrons). b. The atomic number indicates the number protons found in the nucleus an atom. (It is also equal to the number electrons present in a neutral atom.) The mass number indicates the total number particles (protons plus neutrons) present in the nucleus a particular atom a. An elemental symbol is the unique one- or two-letter shorthand notation used for each element found on the periodic table. An atomic symbol specifies a single isotope an element. b. The atomic number indicates the number protons found in the nucleus an atom. (It is also equal to the number electrons present in a neutral atom.) Atomic mass is the actual mass a particular isotope an element a. 16 X 17 X b. 16 X 17 X X All have 8 protons 18 X All are isotopes oxygen c. 16 X 16 X Mass number X 18 X Mass number d. 16 X 18 X Both have 8 neutrons a. 64 Zn 66 Zn 67 Zn 68 Zn 70 Zn b. All these isotopes contain 30 protons and 30 electrons. Zinc-64 contains 34 neutrons, Zinc-66 contains 36 neutrons, Zinc-67 contains 37 neutrons, Zinc-68 contains 38 neutrons, and Zinc-70 contains 40 neutrons Portion mass due to copper-63: (63 amu 0.692) = 43.6 amu Portion mass due to copper-65: (65 amu 0.308) = 20.0 amu Adding these numbers yields the weighted average atomic mass for copper: = 63.6 amu 2.76 Portion mass due to Magnesium-24: (24 amu 0.790) = [ ] 19.0 amu Portion mass due to Magnesium-25: (25 amu 0.100) = [ 2.5 ] 2.50 amu Portion mass due to Magnesium-26: (26 amu 0.110) = [ 2.86 ] 2.86 amu Adding the numbers gives the weighted average atomic mass magnesium: = 24.4 amu in cm 1 atom = atoms 1 in x 10 8 cm cc 11.3 g 1 atom = 6.6 x atoms 1 cc 3.4 x g 2.79 Any two the following in each part are correct responses: a. helium, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium b. oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium c. neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon d. boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium

6 Chapter 2 Answers and Solutions 2.80 a. Atomic mass is the actual mass a particular isotope an element. The average atomic mass is the weighted average all naturally occurring isotopic masses. b. Atoms are the smallest particles an element that retain the properties that element. A nucleus is the very small region within an atom which contains all that atom s protons and neutrons Any two the following in each part are correct responses: a. fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine b. helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon c. lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium d. beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium 2.82 a. metal b. metal c. metal d. nonmetal e. metal f. nonmetal g. metal h. metal 2.83 a. 3 b. 3 c. 10 d a. Ga, gallium b. C, carbon c. Rb, rubidium d. Ti, titanium e. Kr, krypton 2.86 a. phosphorus b. sulfur c. indium d. gallium e. radium f. potassium 2.87 a. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 or [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 b. 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 1 or [Kr] 5s 1 c. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 or [Xe] 6s 2 d. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 or [Ne] 3s 2 3p 2 e. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 or [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p a. F, fluorine b. Al, aluminum c. Fe, iron d. Ar, argon e. Cd, cadmium f. Cs, cesium

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