Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance. Lecture 16"

Transcription

1 Homeostasis: Maintaining an Internal Balance Lecture 16

2 Review of Concepts So Far An increase in energy demand requires an increase in cellular respiration The oxidation of glucose results in an increase in heat energy As temperature of a system increases, the rate of reactions will increase Too high a temperature will cause proteins to denature But there is more

3 What else happens? In order to maintain temperature the body produces sweat to stay cool Salts essential for muscle contraction and nerve function are lost Water loss leads to dehydration and a drop in blood pressure Glucose levels must be maintained by the pancreas for ATP The nervous system monitors oxygen levels and blood flow The body is working hard to maintain a constant internal environment

4 Homeostasis and Control Systems HOMEOSTASIS comes from the greek words homoios (similar; like) and stasis (standing still) The ideal situation for the human body is this: 37 o C, blood ph of 7.35 and blood sugar level of 0.1% Rarely does our external environment meet these criteria

5 Homeostasis and Control Systems All homeostatic control systems have three components: 1. Monitors special sensors in organs that signal the coordinating centre when organs operate outside their normal limits 2. Coordinating Centre relays information to the appropriate regulating centre 3. Regulating Centre organ or other system that restores normal balance

6 Homeostasis and Feedback The control systems in the body operate on NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Negative feedback systems function to counteract any further change in an unwanted direction (ex. thermostats) Positive feedback systems reinforce the change that is occurring and are less common in the body (ex. child birth)

7 Thermoregulation THERMOREGULATION is the maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function All species are adapted to different temperature ranges Ectotherms (cold blooded) rely on air temperature to regulate internal body temperature Endotherms (warm blooded) are able to maintain a constant body temperature regardless of the environment The coordinating centre for thermoregulation in endotherms is the hypothalamus

8 Response to Heat Stress Sensors in the brain detect a rise in body temperature Signals are sent from the hypothalamus to sweat glands The heat energy in the blood evapourates the sweat and the body is cooled

9 Response to Cold Stress Sensors in your skin detect a drop in external temperatures Signals are sent to the hypothalamus Hypothalamus sends signals to decrease blood flow to prevent heat loss

10 Waste Production and Excretion Energy is harnessed by the body through the break down of large, complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones This process will inevitably create waste products that can be harmful to the body Table 1 on page 342 summarizes metabolic wastes of the body

11 Removal of Excess Nitrogen Nitrogen, a key component of amino acids, can accumulate in the body and must be removed DEAMINATION is the removal of amino groups from organic compounds This process occurs in the liver

12 Removal of Excess Nitrogen The byproduct of deamination is ammonia, which is toxic to humans in very small amounts (0.005 mg) To compensate, two molecules of ammonia will combine with CO 2 to form urea Humans can handle up to 33 mg of urea per 100 ml of blood much less toxic

13 Removal of Excess Nitrogen Another byproduct, URIC ACID, is formed through the breakdown of nucleic acids Both urea and uric acid are secreted through the kidneys The kidneys, liver, lungs and large intestine are the main excretory organs of the body

14 The Urinary System Fluid wastes are filtered from the body through the kidneys The wastes are then sent to the bladder where they are stored for a period of time The human bladder can hold up to 200 ml of urine before nerve signals are sent to the brain to begin the excretory process

15 Formation Urine Three processes must take place for the formation of urine: 1. Filtration Fluids move from the blood into the NEPHRONS (functional units of the kidneys) and back 2. Reabsorption Essential fluids move back into the blood 3. Secretion waste products move from blood to nephrons (urea; uric acid)

16 Water Balance in the Body Increased water intake will result in an increased urine output Decreased water intake or increased water loss through exercise results in a decrease in urine output The adjustments for this process are regulated by the nervous system and the endocrine system

17 Regulating Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) OSMOTIC PRESSURE is a measure of the concentration of solutes in the blood The more solutes the blood contains, the more water is required by the body The kidney must decrease the amount of water it absorbs for urine ADH regulates osmotic pressure of body fluids by causing the kidneys to increase or decrease water absorption

18 Kidneys and Blood Pressure Increased fluid loss can lead to a decrease in blood pressure A hormone called ALDOSTERONE causes the nephrons to increase the reabsorption of Na + The increase in solute causes an increase in water into the bloodstream restoring blood pressure to normal levels

19 Kidneys and ph Balance The body requires a ph level of 7.35 for ideal functioning Kidneys can also maintain ph balance in the body by replenishing and releasing buffers (weak acids and bases) Excess H + ions are excreted and HCO 3 - ions are restored by the kidney

20 Kidney Disease Proper functioning of the kidneys is essential for maintaining homeostasis There are many diseases and conditions that can affect proper kidney function or are the result of improper kidney function Many of these disorders can be detected by urinalysis

21 Kidney Disease Diabetes Mellitus inadequate secretion of insulin from the islet cells of the pancreas Diabetes Insipidus destruction of ADH producing cells or ADH pathways causing unregulated urine output Bright s Disease AKA Nephritis inflammation of nephrons that can cause a wide array of problems with kidney function Kidney Stones accumulation of mineral solutes from the blood

22 Dialysis and Transplants DIALYSIS exchange of substances across a semi-permeable membrane Dialysis technology is used to assist people whose kidneys can no longer effectively process bodily wastes Transplants are also used to replace kidneys that can no longer function properly

HOMEOSTASIS 5 AUGUST 2015 Section A: Summary Notes

HOMEOSTASIS 5 AUGUST 2015 Section A: Summary Notes HOMEOSTASIS 5 AUGUST 2015 Section A: Summary Notes All cells in a multi-cellular organism are surrounded by a liquid called tissue fluid Tissue fluid makes up the internal environment of the body. An optimal

More information

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal

Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal Regulating the Internal Environment Water Balance & Nitrogenous Waste Removal 2006-2007 Animal systems evolved to support multicellular life CH CHO O 2 O 2 NH 3 CH CHO O 2 CO 2 NH NH 3 O 2 3 NH 3 intracellular

More information

Chapter 11.3: The Human Excretory System. Title: Jan 7 8:32 AM (1 of 18)

Chapter 11.3: The Human Excretory System. Title: Jan 7 8:32 AM (1 of 18) Chapter 11.3: The Human Excretory System Title: Jan 7 8:32 AM (1 of 18) The Kidneys urethra Title: Jan 7 8:32 AM (2 of 18) Structure of the Kidney Title: Jan 7 8:32 AM (3 of 18) Role of the Kidney in Excretion

More information

Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me

Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me Urinary System: Notes You Gotta be Kidney Me You kidneys are the primary organs of excretion. Excretion is the removal of wastes from the body. The wastes we are referring to here are the products of metabolism.

More information

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below.

Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary

More information

Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance

Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance Chapter 8: Water and Electrolytes-Striking a Balance Fluids are substances composed of freely moving molecules that have the ability to conform to the shape of their container. There are different types

More information

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body.

The digestive system eliminated waste from the digestive tract. But we also need a way to eliminate waste from the rest of the body. Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture 20 Chapter 16 I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system 1

More information

Temperature Homeostasis (thermoregulation)

Temperature Homeostasis (thermoregulation) Homeostasis literally means same state and it refers to the process of keeping the internal body environment in a steady state, when the external environment is changed. The importance of this cannot be

More information

Comes to Life. Biology Teacher Notes. Homeostasis: role of the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems. School of Science and Technology

Comes to Life. Biology Teacher Notes. Homeostasis: role of the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems. School of Science and Technology Biology Teacher Notes Comes to Life Homeostasis: role of the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems By completing a number of common tests used in biomedical science, your students will identify

More information

Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion

Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion ECOL 182 - Spring 2010 Nutrition, Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion Dr. Regis Ferriere Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology University of Arizona Lecture 2 Our main questions in this lecture

More information

For example, a problem with terrestrial animals is water conservation: - water is lost due to respiration, evaporation, urine, etc.

For example, a problem with terrestrial animals is water conservation: - water is lost due to respiration, evaporation, urine, etc. Osmoregulation and excretion (kidney function): Two basic ideas: 1) keep a balance of salts in your body. For example, a problem with terrestrial animals is water conservation: - water is lost due to respiration,

More information

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION

LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION LECTURE 1 RENAL FUNCTION Components of the Urinary System 2 Kidneys 2 Ureters Bladder Urethra Refer to Renal System Vocabulary in your notes Figure 2-1,page10 Kidney Composition Cortex Outer region Contains

More information

Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1

Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 1. Removing part of gland D would most likely result in A. a decrease in the secretions of other glands B. a decrease in the blood calcium level C. an increase in

More information

Exampro GCSE Biology. B3.3 Homeostasis. Name: Class: Higher tier. Author: Date: Time: 83. Marks: 83. Comments: Page 1 of 26

Exampro GCSE Biology. B3.3 Homeostasis. Name: Class: Higher tier. Author: Date: Time: 83. Marks: 83. Comments: Page 1 of 26 Exampro GCSE Biology B3.3 Homeostasis Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 83 Marks: 83 Comments: Page of 26 Q. The pancreas and the liver are both involved in the control of the concentration

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

Homeostasis. Sensor (e.g. hypothalamus in brain) detects the change and. initiates the. corrective action

Homeostasis. Sensor (e.g. hypothalamus in brain) detects the change and. initiates the. corrective action Homeostasis same state Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal conditions within the body Examples of conditions, which need to be maintained: - body temperature - oxygen concentration - carbon

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Essential Question: How do your body s digestive and excretory systems work?

Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Essential Question: How do your body s digestive and excretory systems work? Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Essential Question: How do your body s digestive and excretory systems work? Lesson 4 Key Terms The Digestive and Excretory Systems Digestive system

More information

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Water Homeostasis. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Water Homeostasis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 1. Water Homeostasis The body maintains a balance of water intake

More information

2. Describe how this phrase shows that the lynx and snowshoe hare (in part C) example is an example of negative feedback.

2. Describe how this phrase shows that the lynx and snowshoe hare (in part C) example is an example of negative feedback. Biological Feedback Loops and Homeostasis Name: Per: # Background: Today, you will learn about two forms of feedback that biological systems use to both maintain homeostasis and to amplify, or increase,

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L.

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Chapter 15. The Urinary System. Slides 15.1 15.20. Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 15 The Urinary System Slides 15.1 15.20 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Functions of the Urinary System Elimination

More information

Endocrine Function & Homeostasis

Endocrine Function & Homeostasis Endocrine Function & Homeostasis Session Objectives. What you will cover Location of endocrine glands Endocrine Function Hormone Function Homeostasis Your objectives are Locate endocrine glands in the

More information

Circulatory System Quiz. Multiple Choice (2 pt each)

Circulatory System Quiz. Multiple Choice (2 pt each) Biology I Ms. Chen Name: Date: Circulatory System Quiz Directions: Circle the best answer. Multiple Choice (2 pt each) 1. Laboratory tests can be used to evaluate how well a person s liver is working.

More information

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis

Human Body Systems. Body Organization and Homeostasis Human Body Systems Body Organization and Homeostasis Objectives Describe how the human body is organized Explain homeostasis Organization of the Body Every cell in the human body is both an independent

More information

Function. Renal (Urinary) System. Anatomy. Anatomy. Nephron. Anatomy

Function. Renal (Urinary) System. Anatomy. Anatomy. Nephron. Anatomy Function Renal (Urinary) System Chapter 17 Maintains homeostasis in ECF Removing metabolic waste (except CO 2 ) e.g. ammonia, urea, uric acid Removing foreign compounds e.g. drugs, food additives, pesticides

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM

Unit 3 Lecture 11 METABOLISM Unit 3 Lecture METABOLISM Anabolism is defined as the chemical reactions that combine simple substances into more complex molecules (requires energy). Examples of anabolism include glycogenesis (conversion

More information

Ch. 1: An Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Ch. 1: An Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 1: An Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I. The Human Body - An Orientation A. Anatomy 1. Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts B. Physiology 1. Study of how the body

More information

SBI4U. Grade 12, University Preparation Biology. Unit 4 Homeostasis

SBI4U. Grade 12, University Preparation Biology. Unit 4 Homeostasis SBI4U Grade 12, University Preparation Biology Unit 4 Homeostasis SBI4U Biology Unit 4 - Introduction Introduction In the last unit, you examined the role of DNA in the living organism and studied the

More information

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS A. Organ a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function that can any

More information

Homeostasis and Heart Rate Lab developed by Kelly Perry

Homeostasis and Heart Rate Lab developed by Kelly Perry Homeostasis and Heart Rate Lab developed by Kelly Perry Homeostasis (Greek for staying the same ) is a process by which the body maintains a stable internal environment. The hypothalamus is a part of the

More information

BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES

BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. A. ANATOMY = the study of

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance. Chapter 26 Balance. Electrolyte Balance. Fluid Balance. Acid Base Balance. Water

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance. Chapter 26 Balance. Electrolyte Balance. Fluid Balance. Acid Base Balance. Water Chapter 26 Balance Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance The body must maintain normal volume and composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) and the intracellular fluid (ICF) Part 1. Fluid and Electrolyte

More information

Executive Summary Report

Executive Summary Report Glucose 65-99 mg/dl Glucose measures the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is the primary energy source in your body. Insulin (a natural hormone produced by the pancreas) controls how glucose is used

More information

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases

Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases Renal Topics 1) renal function 2) renal system 3) urine formation 4) urine & urination 5) renal diseases 1/9/2015 Renal Biology - Sandra Hsu 1 Renal Functions 1) excrete metabolic wastes (blood cleaning)

More information

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine

Chapter 23. Composition and Properties of Urine Chapter 23 Composition and Properties of Urine Composition and Properties of Urine urinalysis the examination of the physical and chemical properties of urine appearance - clear, almost colorless to deep

More information

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by

The human respiratory system includes the nose, the larynx, and the lungs. This body system helps maintain homeostasis by Study Island 1. During heatstroke, the body can't dispose of excess heat. As a result, the homeostatic balance is disturbed, and internal body temperatures can reach as much as 110. Heatstroke is dangerous

More information

Friday 11 January 2013 Afternoon

Friday 11 January 2013 Afternoon Friday 11 January 2013 Afternoon A2 GCE BIOLOGY F214/01 Communication, Homeostasis and Energy *F210040113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: None Other materials required:

More information

The Human Body - Common Exam Review

The Human Body - Common Exam Review The Human ody - ommon Exam Review Name: ate: 1. Which list shows different levels or organization within a population ordered from least to most complex? 3.. organ systems, organs, organelles, organisms.

More information

Time Estimate for Entire Lab: 1.5 hours

Time Estimate for Entire Lab: 1.5 hours Laboratory 12 Homeostasis (LM pages 157 171) Time Estimate for Entire Lab: 1.5 hours Seventh Edition Changes This was lab 11 in the previous edition. Section 12.3 Kidneys was reorganized; Nephron Structure

More information

Disruption of homeostasis

Disruption of homeostasis Unit 3A Human Form & Function Cells, metabolism & regulation Disruption of homeostasis Read: Study Guide Our Human Species (3 rd edtn) Chapter 12, section 9.3; Chapter 15, section 4.5 Chapter 5, section

More information

Human Body Test. 4. Which sequence shows the pathway that food takes in the digestive system?

Human Body Test. 4. Which sequence shows the pathway that food takes in the digestive system? Human ody Test Name: ate: 1. difference between the human nervous system and the endocrine system is that 4. Which sequence shows the pathway that food takes in the digestive system?. nerve responses are

More information

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Paramedic Program Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Define the terms anatomy and physiology. List and discuss in order of increasing complexity, the body from the cell to the whole organism. Define the

More information

Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance

Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance VIII. Distribution of Body s Fluids A) Fluid Compartments Summary of Water, Electrolyte, & ph Balance - Water occupies three main locations within the human body: 1. Intracellular Fluid (ICF) 2. & 3. Extracellular

More information

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4)

Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Acid/Base Homeostasis (Part 4) Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) 5. The newly formed bicarbonate moves into the plasma.

More information

Name Date Period. Specialized muscle found only in the heart. Acts involuntarily.

Name Date Period. Specialized muscle found only in the heart. Acts involuntarily. Questions 1-28 Questions 29-45 Mrs. Keadle Name Date Period 1 Microtubules help provide support for the cell. What body system has the same function? A skeletal system B digestive system C circulatory

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best Biology 12 Name: Metabolism Practice Test Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only 1

More information

30.3 The Digestive System

30.3 The Digestive System 30.3 The Digestive System Lesson Objectives Describe the organs of the digestive system and explain their functions. Explain what happens during digestion. Describe how nutrients are absorbed into the

More information

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions

7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions 7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration

More information

Exampro GCSE Biology. B3.3 Homeostasis. Name: Class: Foundation tier. Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 35

Exampro GCSE Biology. B3.3 Homeostasis. Name: Class: Foundation tier. Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 35 Exampro GCSE Biology B3.3 Homeostasis Foundation tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 35 Q. People with kidney disease may be treated by dialysis. The diagram shows a dialysis

More information

Renal failure. Renal failure

Renal failure. Renal failure Renal failure Renal failure Kidney diseases Can be Acute / Chronic The earliest clinical evidence of nephropathy is the appearance of low but abnormal levels ( >30 mg/day or 20 µg/min) of albumin in urine,

More information

Barrier between plasma and. ECF and ICF. Homeostasis: process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid

Barrier between plasma and. ECF and ICF. Homeostasis: process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid : process of maintaining consistent composition of body s extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid (ECF) Fluid in which the cells live (fluid outside the cells) Major components: Plasma interstitial fluid

More information

PSI Biology Anatomy & Physiology

PSI Biology Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy & Physiology Tissues Classwork 1. Arrange the following in order from least complex to most complex: organ, tissue, cell, organism, organ system. 2. List the four major groups of tissues in animals.

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation SP 12

Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation SP 12 Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Marieb/Hoehn) Hazlewood Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation SP 12 Matching Questions Figure 24.1 Using Figure 24.1, match the following: 1)

More information

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals Chapter 2: Hormones Learning Objectives This chapter covers how the body responds to the demands of exercise at the cellular level and the

More information

Select the one that is the best answer:

Select the one that is the best answer: MQ Kidney 1 Select the one that is the best answer: 1) n increase in the concentration of plasma potassium causes increase in: a) release of renin b) secretion of aldosterone c) secretion of H d) release

More information

UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES

UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES UNIT IV MAJOR INTRA AND EXTRA CELLULAR ELECTROLYTES J.KAVITHA, M.Pharm., Lecturer, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, SRM College of Pharmacy SRM University. An electrolyte is any substance that dissociates

More information

B3 3 Homeostasis. 180 minutes. 179 marks. Page 1 of 58

B3 3 Homeostasis. 180 minutes. 179 marks. Page 1 of 58 B3 3 Homeostasis 80 minutes 79 marks Page of 58 Q. Waste products, such as carbon dioxide and urea, have to be removed from the body. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. breathing

More information

Human Body System Review

Human Body System Review Human ody System Review Name: ate: 1. In humans, the exchange of respiratory gases occurs within the 3. Which sequence correctly indicates the branching pattern of the human respiratory system?. nose.

More information

Correlation of Ingested Fluids to Urine Flow Rate and Urine Specific Gravity. Sonia Malhotra March 14, 2011

Correlation of Ingested Fluids to Urine Flow Rate and Urine Specific Gravity. Sonia Malhotra March 14, 2011 Correlation of Ingested Fluids to Urine Flow Rate and Urine Specific Gravity Sonia Malhotra March 14, 2011 Introduction: The kidneys are a two bean shaped structure, located in the back of the abdomen.

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic

More information

All the organ systems have to work together in order to maintain.

All the organ systems have to work together in order to maintain. Unit 11 Test Review Chapter 28 a. List and describe the systems of the body and their functions (Respiratory, circulatory, digestive, immune, reproductive, excretory, nervous, integumentary, muscular,

More information

Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology The Biology Corner Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: Structure of Body Parts. Morphology Physiology: Function of body parts. What they do and how.

More information

HEMOGLOBIN Hemoglobin measures the protein found in a red blood cell. It contains iron and carries oxygen from lungs to body tissues.

HEMOGLOBIN Hemoglobin measures the protein found in a red blood cell. It contains iron and carries oxygen from lungs to body tissues. WBC 4.00-10.50 WBC measures the total number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood. Since white blood cells kill bacteria, this count is a measure of the body s response to infection. In general,

More information

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingested food is not technically in the body until it is absorbed so it needs to be: Mechanically and chemically reduced Transported by the blood to the cells Large portions are not

More information

acid-base balance in the body

acid-base balance in the body acid-base balance in the body 1 why acid/base balance is important a major homeostatic challenge is keeping [H+] (ph) of body fluids at an appropriate level. maintenance of acidbase balance is of critical

More information

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals Week 30 Water Balance and Minerals Water: more vital to life than food involved in almost every body function is not stored--excreted daily largest single constituent of the human body, averaging 60% of

More information

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM

CHAPTER 20: URINARY SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the major function of the urinary system, and name and locate (on a diagram) the organs that compose the system. 2. Explain what the term renal refers to. 3. Define the term retroperitoneal.

More information

Study Guide for the Urinary System (Online version)

Study Guide for the Urinary System (Online version) Study Guide for the Urinary System (Online version) Glomerular Filtration (Page 1007 - ) Filtration Membrane Glomerulus Net Filtration Pressure - -page 1008 Or PP Total of the pressures which drive the

More information

Homeostasis & Cell Transport

Homeostasis & Cell Transport In order to maintain life, organisms must regulate the balance of materials inside and outside of the cell. This is accomplished by the transport of materials through the plasma membrane. Homeostasis &

More information

North Bergen School District Benchmarks

North Bergen School District Benchmarks Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living

More information

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.

The chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function. 12.1 What are animals and plants built from? All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. to relate the structure of different types

More information

Introduction to Animal Systems

Introduction to Animal Systems Human Body Systems Introduction to Animal Systems Recurring Themes in Biology 1. Correlation between structure and function( seen at many levels) 2. Life is organized at many levels from Smallest ----

More information

Chapter 23. Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration

Chapter 23. Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration Chapter 23 Urine Formation I Glomerular Filtration Urine Formation I: Glomerular Filtration kidneys convert blood plasma to urine in three stages glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption and secretion

More information

Human Body Systems Detailed Outline

Human Body Systems Detailed Outline Human Body Systems Detailed Outline Unit One - Identity Time Days (26 Days) Lesson 1: Identity: Human (4 Days) Understandings Addressed in Lesson 1. The human body is made up of complex systems functioning

More information

LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK. Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy

LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK. Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy LESSON 2.3 WORKBOOK Part one: Glucose homeostasis in the blood storing energy Glucose metabolism takes place in all cells to make ATP. The liver plays an important role in regulating the levels of glucose

More information

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

More information

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

More information

Unit 3: Biology 3. B3.1 Movement of molecules in and out of cells

Unit 3: Biology 3. B3.1 Movement of molecules in and out of cells Unit 3: Biology 3 B3.1 Movement of molecules in and out of cells The cells, tissues and organs in plants and animals are adapted to take up and get rid of dissolved substances. Different conditions can

More information

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance

Fluid, Electrolyte & ph Balance , Electrolyte & ph Balance / Electrolyte / AcidBase Balance Body s: Cell function depends not only on continuous nutrient supply / waste removal, but also on the physical / chemical homeostasis of surrounding

More information

1. General a. Animals obtain energy by breaking food molecules into smaller molecular subunits. Hydrolysis

1. General a. Animals obtain energy by breaking food molecules into smaller molecular subunits. Hydrolysis Unit 4 - Digestive System 1. General a. Animals obtain energy by breaking food molecules into smaller molecular subunits. Hydrolysis b. These basic subunit molecules are amino acids, 3 fatty acids and

More information

DIABETES. Eyes, Heart, Nerves, Feet, and Kidneys. www.kidney.org

DIABETES. Eyes, Heart, Nerves, Feet, and Kidneys. www.kidney.org DIABETES Eyes, Heart, Nerves, Feet, and Kidneys www.kidney.org About the Information in this Booklet Did you know that the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) offers guidelines and commentaries that help

More information

Regents Review # 3: Levels of Organization & Cell Structures and Functions

Regents Review # 3: Levels of Organization & Cell Structures and Functions Name: Due Date: Regents Review # 3: Levels of Organization & Cell Structures and Functions The Big Ideas: Important levels of organization for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues,

More information

Biology 12 August 2000 Provincial Examination

Biology 12 August 2000 Provincial Examination Biology 12 August 2000 Provincial Examination ANSWER KEY / SCORING GUIDE CURRICULUM: Organizers 1. Cell Biology 2. Cell Processes and Applications 3. Human Biology Sub-Organizers A, B, C, D E, F, G, H

More information

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action.

1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY. Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. 1. DEFINITION OF PHYSIOLOGY Study of the functions of the healthy human body. How the body works. Focus on mechanisms of action. Anatomy & Physiology: inseparable & complementary They are complementary

More information

Renal Function Test. Department of Biochemistry

Renal Function Test. Department of Biochemistry Renal Function Test Department of Biochemistry Anatomy of Kidneys Definition: Pair of excretory organs situated on the posterior abdominal wall Location: T 12 to L 3 Hilum: Renal rein, renal artery, renal

More information

Clark Skeleto-Muscular System

Clark Skeleto-Muscular System Clark Skeleto-Muscular System - Supports the body, keeps it upright - Makes red blood cells - Protects internal organs - Stores calcium and other nutrients - Allows the body to move Parts and Functions(s)

More information

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2 Chapter 8 Metabolism Chapter Outline I. Energy: Fuel for Work. *Energy is necessary to do any kind of work. The body converts chemical energy from food sources carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into a

More information

Pancreas Fox Chapter 18 part 2 (also Chapter 19.3 & 19.4)

Pancreas Fox Chapter 18 part 2 (also Chapter 19.3 & 19.4) Vert Phys PCB3743 Pancreas Fox Chapter 18 part 2 (also Chapter 19.3 & 19.4) T. Houpt, Ph.D. 1 Exocrine Pancreas and digestive secretions [endocrine =Islets of Langerhans - alpha & beta cells, secrete glucagon

More information

Metabolism Practice Test KEY

Metabolism Practice Test KEY Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only

More information

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules.

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. 1. In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. A)

More information

BI 231: Human Anatomy & Physiology. 1. Business 2. Introductions 3. Syllabus 4. Lecture

BI 231: Human Anatomy & Physiology. 1. Business 2. Introductions 3. Syllabus 4. Lecture BI 231: Human Anatomy & Physiology 1. Business 2. Introductions 3. Syllabus 4. Lecture Homework Due in lab this week 1. Homework #1 What Does the Syllabus Say? 2. Basic Principles 9 & 10 Anatomical Terms

More information

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

More information

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct.

Quiz Urinary System. 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. Quiz Urinary System 1. The kidneys help regulate blood volume. help control blood pressure. help control ph. All of the above are correct. 2. The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal

More information

2161-1 - Page 1. Name: 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. Questions 10 and 11 refer to the following:

2161-1 - Page 1. Name: 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. Questions 10 and 11 refer to the following: Name: 2161-1 - Page 1 1) Choose the disease that is most closely related to the given phrase. a disease of the bone marrow characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells A) meningitis B)

More information

Blood Pressure Regulation

Blood Pressure Regulation Blood Pressure Regulation Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction There are two basic mechanisms for regulating

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major functions include: Obtaining oxygen Removing carbon dioxide Maintenance of ph balance Respiration may be accomplished

More information

Introduction to Body Fluids

Introduction to Body Fluids -1- Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of : adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids

More information

Digestive: Practice Questions # 1

Digestive: Practice Questions # 1 Digestive: Practice Questions # 1 1. The end products of digestion enter the cells of a vertebrate by the process of A. absorption B. osmosis C. emulsification D. egestion 2. In humans, structures that

More information

Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Organization

Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Organization Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Organization Objectives: 1. Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions. 2. Explain the principle off complementarity. 3. Name the different levels of structural

More information