Carbon Dioxide is the Natural and Safest ph control substance.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Carbon Dioxide is the Natural and Safest ph control substance."

Transcription

1

2 Eko 3 Systems, Inc. carbon dioxide feed systems are unique in that CO 2 consumption is reduced by as much as 50% over conventional CO 2 feed systems. A booster pump is employed to drive a mass transfer system followed by a contact chamber all of which assure total absorption and utilization of CO 2. Natural bicarbonate buffers are generated during the mass transfer process and contact time provision. These buffers generated by the Eko 3 ph-mts provides for ph stability. Easy to install, automatic in it s operation. Powered by 110 volts and controlled by 24 VAC. The Eko 3 ph-mts feed system is easy to install. All materials necessary for installation and hook-up are included. The ph-mts can be manually controlled, but, ideally will be connected to an automatic swimming pool water chemical controller, where ph level is continually monitored and controlled at optimum level. The Eko 3 ph-mts feed system is connected to the pressure regulator of a single or dual CO 2 gas cylinder, or a more economical low pressure bulk liquid CO 2 storage system. Carbon Dioxide is the Natural and Safest ph control substance. Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) is the only chemical of choice for safe ph control. Carbon dioxide is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas, which makes up a percent of the air we breathe. Carbon dioxide molecules contain one atom of carbon and two of oxygen. The chemical formula for carbon dioxide is CO 2. Municipal water treatment plants use carbon dioxide for lowering ph. Innovations within the swimming pool industry in years past have proven that CO 2 does effectively replace Muriatic or dry acid for lowering the ph of swimming pool water, as well. Swimming Pool water treated with CO 2 is much safer for bathers, and will extend the life of equipment, and swimming pool structures. Mild carbonic acid forms when CO 2 is dissolved into water. Being a milder acid than Muriatic it is nearly impossible for even a runaway CO 2 feeder to lower pool water to dangerously low ph levels CO 2 generates a natural bicarbonate buffer that makes the water more stable and prevents the ph from fluctuating widely. With total alkalinity at the proper level, ph changes are very gradual, making ph is easier to maintain at recommended levels. Using CO 2 to adjust swimming pool ph eliminates storing and handling dangerous acids. CO 2 does not create corrosive fumes, so it has no damaging effect on equipment or electrical panels. Unlike strong acids, if CO 2 and liquid or dry chlorine were accidentally mixed, no chlorine gas would be release. This removes the possibility of chlorine gas formation in the re-circulation system or pool area. 1

3 What is ph? ph is a number used to indicate the strength of an acid or base. The number is usually on a scale ranging from 0 to 14. A ph below 7 indicates that a solution is acidic, and a ph above 7 indicates that a solution is basic. Strong acids have lower ph s then weak acids, and strong bases have higher ph s than weak bases. A neutral solution, such as pure water, is neither acidic nor basic. Its ph is 7. Without any outside influence, the ph of an isolated body of water will remain stable and not change. However, swimming pool water is exposed to several things that can push ph in one direction or the other. Some of the influencing factors include rain, make-up water, soils, sweat, urine, and chemicals such as chlorine and algaecides. The ph numerical value represents the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen icon concentration of swimming pool water. When calculating swimming pool water balance, ph has a dominant influence. Higher ph values move the balance towards the scale forming side, while lower values move the balance towards the corrosive side. Distributed and Serviced by: Knorr Systems, Inc Standard Avenue Santa Ana, CA (714)

4 ph-mts Operations & Maintenance Manual, rev. #10/10/00 Operating instruction for the Eko 3 Systems Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Feed Device 1. WARNING!: The cryogenic, carbon dioxide, storage tank must not be allowed to run completely out of gas. The tank must be refilled when it is 75% empty. Failure to fill the tank at this time will result in failure of the tank-heating element. 2. The regulated pressure of the CO 2 gas feed at the cryogenic storage tank must be set between twenty (20) and thirty (30) pounds per square inch (p.s.i.), maximum. 3. CO 2 gas will periodically vent from the cryogenic storage tank to atmosphere. Do not be alarmed if and when this episode takes place. On extremely hot days the cryogenic tank-heating element may be unplugged to minimize venting. 4. Operation of the ph-mts CO 2 Feed System is automatically controlled by the Strantrol System 4 water chemistry controller. With a rise in the ph of the water being treated the Strantrol System 4 will call for the reduction of ph by turning on the ph-mts booster pump and opening the electric solenoid valve within the control box of the ph-mts system. CO 2, a mild acid, will be fed through the mass transfer system (injector) into the systems contact tank with the result being a reduction in the ph of the swimming pool water. 5. The feed rate of CO 2 at the ph-mts feed system is to be set between 60 and 160 SCFH (Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour). A SCFH flow meter is provided and mounted on the control box of the ph- MTS feed system. The higher the feed rate the better. The compound, pressure/vacuum gauge supplied with the system, must indicate zero (0) pressure or preferably a vacuum of 1 or greater. Set the feed rate of carbon dioxide at the maximum sustainable, while maintaining the zero to slight vacuum reading at the compound gauge. All feed rate settings must be made while the system is in operation. 3

5 4

6 5

7 6

8 7

WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE

WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE C R6 H A PT E WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should be able to: Understand and list the parameters upon which water balance is based.

More information

Aqua-Clear Pool & Spa

Aqua-Clear Pool & Spa Aqua-Clear Pool & Spa Indoctrination booklet for new pool owners Congratulations on your new swimming pool! You probably have a number of filter system, chemistry and maintenance questions that will hopefully

More information

Adjusting Chemical Levels in a Swimming Pool

Adjusting Chemical Levels in a Swimming Pool Adjusting Chemical Levels in a Swimming Pool When adding chemicals, there are three types of chemical adjustments that can be performed: product label chemical dosage, product label chemical adjustment,

More information

water quality & maintenance

water quality & maintenance water quality & maintenance spa water quality & maintenance It is important to understand water chemistry before filling and operating the spa. Understanding water chemistry is a critical aspect of maintaining

More information

Disinfection of pool water

Disinfection of pool water Disinfection of pool water The purpose of disinfection is to remove the risk of infection rather than to attempt to sterilise the water in the pool. This would be impractical. There are many ways to disinfect

More information

Aqua-Clear Pool & Spa

Aqua-Clear Pool & Spa Congratulations on your new swimming pool! You probably have a number of filter system, chemistry and maintenance questions that will hopefully be clarified in this basic guide. This guide is only a general

More information

Performing Calculations

Performing Calculations Calculations Performing Calculations Practical application of information learned in this program A pool operator must perform calculations regularly in order to properly do his or her job Examples: Conversions

More information

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents summary KS3 Science MyWorks Guide Chemistry KS3 Science: Chemistry Mini zes: 40 Super zes: 5 Extension zes: 4 Skills zes: 6 TOTAL 54 What are MyWorks zes? MyWorks zes are short individual learning tasks

More information

b. Alkalinity make your life easier and get the alkalinity between 80 and 120 PPM. c. ph from 7.2 and 7.8 so that the other chemicals work properly

b. Alkalinity make your life easier and get the alkalinity between 80 and 120 PPM. c. ph from 7.2 and 7.8 so that the other chemicals work properly 1. Adding Chemicals to your water: Chemicals should be added slowly over a period of time. Pool owner/operators need to remember that all chemicals added will have an effect beyond their intended purpose.

More information

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry)

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) UIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) 1. Which would be the best definition of an ionic bond? a. The attraction between the partial positive region of one molecule and the partial negative region

More information

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including:

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: 7-5.5 Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: NaCl [salt], H 2 O [water], C 6 H 12 O 6 [simple sugar], O 2 [oxygen

More information

Understanding basic pool chemistry is one of the most important factors in pool maintenance. Properly balanced water creates an environment that

Understanding basic pool chemistry is one of the most important factors in pool maintenance. Properly balanced water creates an environment that Understanding basic pool chemistry is one of the most important factors in pool maintenance. Properly balanced water creates an environment that optimizes the disinfection process and protects the pool

More information

THE STUDY OF WHICH FACTOR AFFECTS THE PH LEVEL THE MOST

THE STUDY OF WHICH FACTOR AFFECTS THE PH LEVEL THE MOST THE STUDY OF WHICH FACTOR AFFECTS THE PH LEVEL THE MOST Rohan Sachdev Cary Academy ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to find out which factors affected the ph level in soda the most. ph is the measurement

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy. What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy.

Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy. What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy. Physical Sciences: Matter & Energy What is physical science? A. Physical science is a field of science that studies matter and energy. B. Physical science has 2 main branches: 1. PHYSICS: the study of

More information

1 Test & Balance 2 Disinfection & Oxidation 3 Filtration & Circulation

1 Test & Balance 2 Disinfection & Oxidation 3 Filtration & Circulation Honest Pool Care 1-2-3 This method assumes you are familiar with pool chemicals, maintenance and water chemistry. It differs from your current method, but it is effective and easy to use. It works best

More information

Boiler Water Chemical Treatment

Boiler Water Chemical Treatment Boiler Water Chemical Treatment 1 Agenda 2 Nalco Introduction General Water Chemistry Overview Boiler Internal Training Quick checks for Plant Visit Plant Visit Update Questions? 3 BOILER WATER TREATMENT

More information

CO2 applications. for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment

CO2 applications. for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment CO2 applications for drinking water production, process water treatment and waste water treatment Dr. Dr. Hermans Hermans 03.2013 11.2009 Carbon dioxide in water is -a natural food additive, non poisonous

More information

MC4-50 Feeding System

MC4-50 Feeding System MC4-50 Feeding System Dry Calcium Hypochlorite For Municipal Applications The smarter way to water quality PATENTED SPRAY TECHNOLOGY DELIVERS UNPARALLELED CONSISTENT RESULTS The Constant Chlor Plus MC4-50

More information

Chapter 3: Water and Life

Chapter 3: Water and Life Name Period Chapter 3: Water and Life Concept 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water result in hydrogen bonding 1. Study the water molecules at the right. On the central molecule, label oxygen (O) and hydrogen

More information

The Chemical Adjustment Reference Cheat Sheet

The Chemical Adjustment Reference Cheat Sheet The Chemical Adjustment Reference Cheat Sheet By Terry Duff Howdy! I hope this information finds you well. In this easy to read, short report, you ll find a few charts that will show you what to add and

More information

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS Sections in this module I. Water is a polar molecule II. Properties of water III. ph IV. Acids and bases V. Buffers I. Water

More information

Acids, Bases and Concentrations

Acids, Bases and Concentrations 61 Chapter 7 Acids, Bases and Concentrations Thoughts or pictures of a shark usually evoke fear. But most sharks are not harmful to humans and shark attacks while dangerous and sometimes fatal are extremely

More information

Pool Instruction Handbook

Pool Instruction Handbook Serving the Omaha Metro for more than 30 Years In-Ground Pool Instruction Handbook Water Testing Test at least two times a week. More testing might be necessary due to weather changes and bather loads.

More information

Prepared by: Htec Systems, Inc. 561 Congress Park Drive Dayton, Ohio 45459 937 438-3010

Prepared by: Htec Systems, Inc. 561 Congress Park Drive Dayton, Ohio 45459 937 438-3010 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY AFFECTING PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGE STILL WATER Prepared by: Htec Systems, Inc. 561 Congress Park Drive Dayton, Ohio 45459 937 438-3010 December 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 SUMMARY... 1

More information

Physical Science Refresher. Self Study Physical Science Refresher

Physical Science Refresher. Self Study Physical Science Refresher Self Study Physical Science Refresher Table of Contents 1. Three phases of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases 2. The effect of heat and pressure on the phases of matter a) expanding and contracting 3. Changing

More information

Technical Service Bulletin October 2013 TSB340.02

Technical Service Bulletin October 2013 TSB340.02 Technical Service Bulletin October 2013 TSB340.02 Procedure for Chemically Cleaning HYDRAcap MAX Module(s) This Technical Service Bulletin provides information for chemically cleaning HYDRAcap MAX module(s).

More information

Chapter 6 Student Reading

Chapter 6 Student Reading Chapter 6 Student Reading What is a chemical reaction? There are many common examples of chemical reactions. For instance, chemical reactions happen when baking cookies and in your digestive system when

More information

Specific Volume of Liquid (Column 7). The volume per unit of mass in cubic feet per pound.

Specific Volume of Liquid (Column 7). The volume per unit of mass in cubic feet per pound. Steam Tables What They Are How to Use Them The heat quantities and temperature/ pressure relationships referred to in this Handbook are taken from the Properties of Saturated Steam table. Definitions of

More information

VACUUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

VACUUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS VACUUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS CHILL VACTOR The Croll-Reynolds CHILL-VACTOR is a chiller that uses a vapor flashing process. Water has a pressure-temperature relationship which is its boiling point. If its

More information

Liquid Aluminum Sulfate

Liquid Aluminum Sulfate Liquid Aluminum Sulfate Storage and Handling 2601 Cannery Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21226 410-918-2230 FAX: 410-918-2240 www.usalco.com Table of Contents A. Physical Properties 3 B. Shipments 3 C. Storage

More information

DISINFECTING COMPOSITIONS FOR POTABLE WATER

DISINFECTING COMPOSITIONS FOR POTABLE WATER DISINFECTING COMPOSITIONS FOR POTABLE WATER Water treatment professionals want a disinfectant that is safe, effective and easy to use. That is why OxyChem s ACL chlorinated isocyanurates are available

More information

Chemistry 19.2. Slide 1 of 50

Chemistry 19.2. Slide 1 of 50 Chemistry 19.2 1 of 50 19.2 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity To test a diagnosis of diabetic coma, a doctor orders several tests, including the acidity of the patient s blood. Results from this test will be expressed

More information

Chapter 13: Compressed Gas Safety

Chapter 13: Compressed Gas Safety Chapter 13: Compressed Gas Safety Guidelines for Compressed Gas Cylinders The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) wants to ensure the safety of employees who handle compressed gases on campus. In order

More information

Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems. Lesson 8: Using Pneumatic Systems

Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems. Lesson 8: Using Pneumatic Systems Unit C: Agricultural Power Systems Lesson 8: Using Pneumatic Systems Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Define pneumatics

More information

National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure

National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure National 4/5 Chemistry Learning Outcomes (what you need to know ) 123 Ah! (280) The Element of Surprise! Unit 1 Chemical Changes and Structure Unit 1 Revision Planner Topic Mini-test result /10 Topic revised

More information

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Biology is the study of living things, and it is important to understand their chemical nature. The processes that allow life to exist follow

More information

why use a deaerator? longer equipment life Total Boiler Evaporation Rate: 1Bhp = 34.5 lb/hr 1Bhp = gpm 1000 lb/hr Steam = 2.

why use a deaerator? longer equipment life Total Boiler Evaporation Rate: 1Bhp = 34.5 lb/hr 1Bhp = gpm 1000 lb/hr Steam = 2. s and boiler feed systems Compare to the competition and see the the sellers advantage versatility Options to meet every application or budget Single Tank or ressurized or Atmospheric.005 to.03 Deaeration

More information

Calcium Hypochlorite Revised June 2010 Brought to you by the APSP Recreational Water Quality Committee

Calcium Hypochlorite Revised June 2010 Brought to you by the APSP Recreational Water Quality Committee Calcium Hypochlorite Revised June 2010 Brought to you by the APSP Recreational Water Quality Committee I. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide a generic technical overview of the chemical

More information

1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM

1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM 1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM Chapter 16 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday December 1 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

20.2 Chemical Equations

20.2 Chemical Equations All of the chemical changes you observed in the last Investigation were the result of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms in one or more reactants to form one or more

More information

The Control of ph and Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) in Cooling Tower Applications By Charles T. Johnson, Walchem Corporation

The Control of ph and Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) in Cooling Tower Applications By Charles T. Johnson, Walchem Corporation The Control of ph and Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) in Cooling Tower Applications By Charles T. Johnson, Walchem Corporation Introduction The importance of keeping cooling tower water in proper chemical

More information

Chemical Reactions Conservation of Matter

Chemical Reactions Conservation of Matter Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions Teacher Pages Purpose The purpose of this station is to reinforce students ability to compare and analyze the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical reaction. Students

More information

Article 510 CORROSION PROTECTION Adopted by the CGA Board of Directors on October 14, 2006

Article 510 CORROSION PROTECTION Adopted by the CGA Board of Directors on October 14, 2006 California Groundwater Association An NGWA Affiliate State PO Box 14369 * Santa Rosa * CA 95402 707-578-4408; FAX: 707-546-4906; email: wellguy@groundh2o.org Article 510 CORROSION PROTECTION Adopted by

More information

DIGESTERS ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

DIGESTERS ANAEROBIC DIGESTION DIGESTERS Sludge digestion is the primary means of stabilizing the volatile organic material in the sludge. Biologically degradable organics account for 60-65% of the total solids in the sludge. The organic

More information

Chemistry Ch 9 Chemical Reactions Glencoe

Chemistry Ch 9 Chemical Reactions Glencoe Chemistry Ch 9 Chemical Reactions Glencoe Section 9.1 Reactions and Equations Chemical Reaction -is the process by which one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances. Five Evidences

More information

Index 11.1. Page. Pumping Systems...11.2-11.4 Intensifiers...11.5 Gas Boosters...11.6-11.7 High Pressure Generators...11.8-11.9

Index 11.1. Page. Pumping Systems...11.2-11.4 Intensifiers...11.5 Gas Boosters...11.6-11.7 High Pressure Generators...11.8-11.9 Pumping Systems, Intensifiers, Gas Boosters and High Pressure Generators High Pressure Equipment Company produces a number of components and systems for general industrial, elevated pressure applications.

More information

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and

More information

The role of CO 2 in pool water

The role of CO 2 in pool water The role of CO 2 in pool water A series of e-mail articles from the research group onbalance, January 2006 The role of CO 2 in pool water #1 While some service techs go about their business taking care

More information

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0

Lime Softening LIME ADDITION. Hardness Lime Precipitate CO 2. + Ca(OH) 2 -> CaCO 3 + H 2 O. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 -> 2CaCO 3 + 2H 2 0 Lime Softening Chemical precipitation is one of the more common methods used to soften water. Chemicals normally used are lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 ) and soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 ).

More information

Importance of ph. ph plays an important role in everyday life. Water Treatment. many treatment processes are ph dependent

Importance of ph. ph plays an important role in everyday life. Water Treatment. many treatment processes are ph dependent ph Adjustment Importance of ph ph plays an important role in everyday life blood in our bodies growing vegetables plating chrome on car bumpers Water Treatment many treatment processes are ph dependent

More information

Basic Pool & Spa Care

Basic Pool & Spa Care Basic Pool & Spa Care Module 2: Water Balance Exceptional People. Proven Methods Table of Contents MODULE 2: Water Balance Objective. 4 Purpose.. 4 ph Objectives.. 5 Topic Introduction. 5 Water Balance.

More information

When water ionizes, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred from one water molecule to another, resulting in a hydrated hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion

When water ionizes, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred from one water molecule to another, resulting in a hydrated hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion Inorganic Carbon ph When water ionizes, a proton (hydrogen ion) is transferred from one water molecule to another, resulting in a hydrated hydrogen ion and a hydroxyl ion H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - Lowry-Bronsted

More information

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules Biology Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules 1 Atoms Smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substances Cannot

More information

www.klmtechgroup.com TABLE OF CONTENT

www.klmtechgroup.com TABLE OF CONTENT Page : 1 of 38 Project Engineering Standard www.klmtechgroup.com KLM Technology #03-12 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor Bahru Malaysia CAUSTIC AND CHEMICAL TABLE OF CONTENT

More information

Neutralizing an Acid and a Base

Neutralizing an Acid and a Base Balancing Act Teacher Information Objectives In this activity, students neutralize a base with an acid. Students determine the point of neutralization of an acid mixed with a base while they: Recognize

More information

WHAT DOES A SWIMMING POOL OPERATOR NEED TO KNOW?

WHAT DOES A SWIMMING POOL OPERATOR NEED TO KNOW? WHAT DOES A SWIMMING POOL OPERATOR NEED TO KNOW? 1. POOL VOLUME The volume of your pool is the most important number you need to know. The volume is the number of gallons of water in your pool. a. The

More information

The Nature of Organic Molecules

The Nature of Organic Molecules The Nature of Organic Molecules Organic chemistry: The study of carbon compounds. Carbon is tetravalent; it always forms four bonds. In methane carbon is connected to four hydrogen atoms. Copyright 2010

More information

Severn Trent Services Drinking Water Solutions End-to-End Water Treatment Solutions

Severn Trent Services Drinking Water Solutions End-to-End Water Treatment Solutions Severn Trent Services Drinking Water Solutions End-to-End Water Treatment Solutions 999C1300EU.2 MAY/09 Complete Solutions for Drinking Water Treatment Severn Trent Services, one of the UK s leading suppliers

More information

Revision 1. Calvin College Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy Prepared by: Date: Environmental Health and Safety 9/27/10. Cabinet

Revision 1. Calvin College Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy Prepared by: Date: Environmental Health and Safety 9/27/10. Cabinet Calvin College Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy Prepared by: Date: Environmental Health and Safety 9/27/10 Approved by: Cabinet Revision 1 Date: 1.0 POLICY It is the policy of Calvin College that special

More information

3 Solutions of Acids and Bases

3 Solutions of Acids and Bases CHAPTER 3 3 Solutions of Acids and Bases SECTION Chemical Compounds BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are strong and weak acids? What are strong

More information

Ozone Generator Systems

Ozone Generator Systems PZ2-4 Thru PZ2-16 - Commercial and Residential Pools Ozone Generator Systems INSTALLATION GUIDE and OPERATION MANUAL T. O3 NATURAL TECHNOLOGY Reduces Chemical Usage, Improves Sanitation Produces Crystal

More information

The Properties of Water

The Properties of Water The Properties of Water A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom. Each end of a water molecule has a slight electric charge. A molecule that has electrically charged areas

More information

Energy Levels, Electrons and Covalent Bonding Sharing is caring!

Energy Levels, Electrons and Covalent Bonding Sharing is caring! Energy Levels, Electrons and Covalent Bonding Sharing is caring! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference between an ionic and

More information

Water Chemistry Guide

Water Chemistry Guide in this guide will help you keep your pool water crystal clear, safe for swimmers, and friendly to its plaster surface. Water Chemistry Guide water test The water chemistry information provided the clear

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to determine the equilibrium line,

More information

Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry

Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry Water is a powerful solvent and we have it everywhere the hydrological cycle About solutions and mixtures A solution is made of two components, with uniform (meaning the same

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section

CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I September 25, 2006 Adams/Le Name KEY Signature Section Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the

More information

Acid Rain Experiments

Acid Rain Experiments Environmental Inquiry Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 EnvInquiry@cornell.edu http://ei.cornell.edu Background Acid Rain Experiments Acid precipitation is defined to have a ph lower than 5.6. In New

More information

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet)

The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) The Properties of Water (Instruction Sheet) Property : High Polarity Activity #1 Surface Tension: PILE IT ON. Materials: 1 DRY penny, 1 eye dropper, water. 1. Make sure the penny is dry. 2. Begin by estimating

More information

Disinfection and Control Solutions for Aquatic Applications

Disinfection and Control Solutions for Aquatic Applications Disinfection and Control Solutions for Aquatic Applications Water Technologies s Serving the needs of municipal, industrial and aquatic customers globally, Siemens Water Technologies helps customers conserve,

More information

7.2.2 Changing State. 43 minutes. 56 marks. Page 1 of 17

7.2.2 Changing State. 43 minutes. 56 marks. Page 1 of 17 7.2.2 Changing State 43 minutes 56 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. Air is a gas at room temperature. The chemical formulae below show some of the substances in the air. Ar CO 2 H 2 O N 2 Ne O 2 (a) Put these formulae

More information

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph

25.1 Acids, Bases, and ph In the Investigations, you measured several indicators of water quality, including the ph. You may remember that ph values range from 0 to 14. Low values (0 to 6) indicate that a solution is acidic whereas

More information

WHAT YOU DON T KNOW ABOUT ACCUMULATORS CAN KILL YOU!

WHAT YOU DON T KNOW ABOUT ACCUMULATORS CAN KILL YOU! WHAT YOU DON T KNOW ABOUT ACCUMULATORS CAN KILL YOU! Atlanta (Monroe) GA 770-267-3787 gpm@gpmhydraulic.com www.gpmhydraulic.com What You Don t Know About Hydraulic Accumulators Can Kill You TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 6 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 6 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 6 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 6. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

& SIX-STEP PROGRAM. The easy way to make your pool a simple pleasure.

& SIX-STEP PROGRAM. The easy way to make your pool a simple pleasure. & SIX-STEP PROGRAM The easy way to make your pool a simple pleasure. Revised August 2005 1 KILL BACTERIA Kill bacteria continuously by the use of chlorine or bromine. The more common methods of killing

More information

Steam System Best Practices Condensate System Piping

Steam System Best Practices Condensate System Piping Steam System Best Practices Condensate System Piping Summary The best method for improving steam system energy efficiency, reducing chemical costs, and reducing make-up water costs is to return the maximum

More information

Corrosivity of Water Supplies

Corrosivity of Water Supplies WD-DWGB-3-4 2009 Corrosivity of Water Supplies What is meant by Corrosivity? Corrosive water can be defined as a condition of water quality which will dissolve metals from metallic plumbing at an excessive

More information

Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing

Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing Dynamic Soil Systems Part A Soil ph and Soil Testing Objectives: To measure soil ph and observe conditions which change ph To distinguish between active acidity (soil solution ph) and exchangeable acidity

More information

Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry

Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry Page 1 of 7 Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial

More information

Gases and Pressure SECTION 1. Main Ideas

Gases and Pressure SECTION 1. Main Ideas SECTION 1 Gases and Pressure Key Terms pressure millimeters of mercury partial pressure newton atmosphere of pressure Dalton s law of partial pressures barometer pascal In the chapter States of Matter,

More information

BLOW DOWN. PURPOSE: To control the concentration of one or more natural components of boiler water. * * * * * * * * * * * * *

BLOW DOWN. PURPOSE: To control the concentration of one or more natural components of boiler water. * * * * * * * * * * * * * BLOW DOWN PURPOSE: To control the concentration of one or more natural components of boiler water. * * * * * * * * * * * * * Boiler feed water usually contains dissolved or suspended materials introduced

More information

11. 6 C is called carbon 12. It has 6 protons (as do all carbon atoms) and an atomic mass of exactly 12, meaning that this isotope has 6 neutrons.

11. 6 C is called carbon 12. It has 6 protons (as do all carbon atoms) and an atomic mass of exactly 12, meaning that this isotope has 6 neutrons. Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Lecture 2: General Chemistry notes Universe is made of matter (physical substance) + energy Matter is made of atoms Atomic Structure & Isotopes 1. Atom is the smallest whole

More information

Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry

Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry Name: Sunday, October 14, 2007 Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry 1. Two substances, A and Z, are to be identified. Substance A can not be broken down by a chemical change. Substance Z can be broken down

More information

Clean Water Systems Inc

Clean Water Systems Inc Clean Water Systems Inc. 1-831-462-8500 www.cleanwaterstore.com Model 400 Chemical Feeder No messy chemicals. No moving parts. No electricity required. Corrosion-proof construction. Adjustable metering

More information

1 Forming New Substances

1 Forming New Substances CHAPTER 2 1 Forming New Substances SECTION Chemical Reactions BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a chemical reaction? What can you tell that

More information

Above Ground Pool Guide

Above Ground Pool Guide Pool Treatment Chemicals Above Ground Pool Guide Blue Horizons - from the pool people who understand ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ON... Starting up Circulation and filtration Water testing The boast system Chemical

More information

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,

More information

Terms Definition Test Ideal Range. Amount of active chlorine in the water. Measure of the water s acidity

Terms Definition Test Ideal Range. Amount of active chlorine in the water. Measure of the water s acidity Every pool owner wants the same thing: sparkling-clear water they can enjoy all season long. No harsh chemicals, no fuss. With ARM & HAMMER, it s never been easier to get the pool of your dreams. What

More information

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS?

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories Inc. Kearney, NE Commercial fertilizer is a source of plant nutrients that can be applied to soil to nourish crops when the

More information

Why Study Fluids? Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Crystal lattice structure:

Why Study Fluids? Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Solids and How They Respond to Forces. Crystal lattice structure: States of Matter Gas In a gas, the molecules are far apart and the forces between them are very small Solid In a solid, the molecules are very close together, and the form of the solid depends on the details

More information

=.03% CO2 10/4/2012. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety

=.03% CO2 10/4/2012. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Safety Training Topics we ll cover General properties and uses of CO2 Potential risks of exposure and symptoms Handling, storage, and equipment safety features Safety considerations

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

Some Criteria for Choosing a Steam Boiler for a Microbrewery

Some Criteria for Choosing a Steam Boiler for a Microbrewery Some Criteria for Choosing a Steam Boiler for a Microbrewery Jack Coe Rite Engineering and Manufacturing Corporation Breweries rely on steam heating for a number of functions, primarily to heat the brew

More information

Keystone Biology Quiz The Chemical Basis for Life - (BIO.A ) Water Properties Basic Biological Principles -

Keystone Biology Quiz The Chemical Basis for Life - (BIO.A ) Water Properties Basic Biological Principles - Keystone Biology Quiz The Chemical Basis for Life - (BIO.A.2.1.1 ) Water Properties Basic Biological Principles - Student Name: Teacher Name: Rachel Michos Date: Score: 1 ) Volume and Density versus Water

More information

The Centennial Pool Operators Guide

The Centennial Pool Operators Guide The Centennial Pool Operators Guide Presented by: Janice and Scott September 2013 Chlorine Free Chlorine (FC): Ideal 2-4ppm (Must be 1.0 and 5) Free chlorine is the active available disinfectant in the

More information

White Paper Series Water Disinfection: Chlorine vs. Saltwater Systems

White Paper Series Water Disinfection: Chlorine vs. Saltwater Systems White Paper Series Water Disinfection: Chlorine vs. Saltwater Systems Written by: Damon Roberts, EI Original Date: October 3, 2014 Revision Date: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide a response

More information

Nitrogen Blanketing for Methanol Storage and Transportation

Nitrogen Blanketing for Methanol Storage and Transportation Nitrogen Blanketing for Methanol Storage and Transportation Overview Air is the enemy of many materials. Not only can oxygen cause safety concerns and product degradation, but moisture, dirt, hydrocarbons

More information

Using Alternative Energy Sources of Wind and Solar to Biosparge Groundwater

Using Alternative Energy Sources of Wind and Solar to Biosparge Groundwater 19 th International Petroleum Environmental Conference Bioremediation of Groundwater and Soils I Wednesday, October 31, 2012 Morning Session Using Alternative Energy Sources of Wind and Solar to Biosparge

More information