Influence of coil geometry on the induction. heating process in crystal growth systems


 Stewart Wilkinson
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Influence of coil geometry on the induction heating process in crystal growth systems Mohammad Hossein Tavakoli, Abdollah Ojaghi, Ebrahim Mohammadi Manesh and Morteza Mansoor Physics Department, BuAli Sina University, Hamedan 65174, Iran ABSTRACT: Different shapes and orientations of an RFcoil turns in oxide Czochralski crystal growth systems are considered and corresponding results of electromagnetic field and volumetric heat generation have been computed using a finite element method (Flex PDE package). For the calculations, the eddy current in the induction coil (i.e. the selfinductance effect) has been taken into account. The calculation results show the importance of shape, geometry and position of the RFcoil turns with respect to the crucible and afterheater on the heat generation distribution in a CZ growth system. Keywords: A1. Computer simulation, A2. Czochralski method, Induction heating. PACS: Cb; Dh; q; Fq. Tel: Fax: web: 1
2 Influence of coil geometry on the induction heating process in crystal growth systems Mohammad Hossein Tavakoli, Abdollah Ojaghi, Ebrahim Mohammadi Manesh and Morteza Mansoor ABSTRACT: 1 Introduction The principle of induction heating is widely applied to produce the required thermal power in several crystal growth systems. In a basic radiofrequency inductive heating setup such as Czochralski (CZ) furnace (Figure 1 in [1]), a solid state RFpower supply sends an alternative electric current through an induction coil (inductor). The part to be heated (i.e. crucible and active afterheater) is placed inside the coil and circulating eddy currents are induced within the metallic parts. These currents flow against the electrical resistivity of the metal, generating precisely localized heat. Coil design is one of the most important aspects of a CZ crystal growth system [2][3]. A welldesigned coil maintains the proper heating pattern and production rate, and maximizes the efficiency of the induction heating power supply. Induction coils are normally made of copper tubing  an extremely good conductor of heat and electricity  and can have single or multiple turns; have a helical, round or square shape. RFcoils are usually cooled by circulating water, and are most often custommade to fit the shape and size of the crucible. Because of this, coil design is generally based on experience and trialanderror process. A successful growth of perfect single crystals requires a balance of energy production as well as heat and mass transport through the setup, because the quality of a grown crystal is directly related to its thermal history and the transport phenomena in the 2
3 furnace. The heat transfer processes in crystal growth systems are quite sensitive to the geometry of the furnace, heat generation and orientation of the coilcrucibleafterheaterinsulation [4][5][6]. Therefore, modeling of heat generation as well as heat and mass transfer processes is necessary for achieving a complete knowledge of the growth process in order to improve the quality of the grown crystals [1][7][8]. The goal of this article is to reveal the role of RFcoil geometry on the induction heating process in an oxide Czochralski system and compare the corresponding results of electromagnetic field and heat generation distribution using a 2D FEM numerical approach. To do it, different cross section shapes of a RFcoil and its orientation with respect to the crucible and active afterheater are considered corresponding to the real growth situations. Our challenge is to extend the fundamental understanding of induction heating process used for crystal growth technology, because this understanding will enable the growers to optimize existing procedures, growth new crystals and design new growth methods. 2 Mathematical model 2.1 Governing equations The assumptions and mathematical model of induction heating have been described in detail elsewhere [1]. The set of fundamental equations with boundary conditions have been solved using the finite element method (FlexPDE package [9]). 2.2 The calculation conditions Values of electrical conductivity employed for our calculations are presented in [1] and operating parameters are listed in Table 1. The induction coil has two parts with 6 and 2 hollow copper turns, respectively. Three cross section shapes of the coil turns have been considered for the calculations, rectangular, shielded rectangular and circu 3
4 lar; corresponding to the real growth setups, Figure 1. In order to compare the results of electromagnetic field and heat generation distribution, we have assumed a driving electrical current with total voltage of 200 v and a frequency of 10 khz in the RFcoil (typical values) for all cases. The results based on this set of parameters will be presented now. 3 Results and discussion We explain the results of electromagnetic field and heat generation distribution in an oxide CZ setup including crucible and active afterheater corresponding to an often used growth situation. The obtained results are presented in the following sections, starting with different cross section shapes of the coil turns and then different radii and turns number of the RFcoil. 3.1 Cross section shapes of the coil turns In the first section, we have considered three shapes for cross section of the coil turns: rectangular, shielded rectangular and circular with unique height and thickness (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows the distribution of inphase component (right hand side) and outofphase component (left hand side) of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) for the rectangular cross section. The maximum of inphase component (C) is located at the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil (C max = W eber) while the minimum (C min = W eber) is located on the middle part of the crucible side wall. Variation of this component is too high in the area close to the maximum and minimum points. In other parts of the system, this component is nearly constant. For the outofphase component (S), the maximum is located at the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns (with S max = W eber) and its intensity rapidly decreases towards 4
5 the crucible and afterheater wall. The S distribution has a linear gradient in the space between the coil and the crucible and afterheater side wall. The intensity of S max is 8 times greater than C min (absolute value). The expulsion of the Cfield component from the RFcoil and the Sfield component from within the crucible is particularly evident in the space between the crucible and the induction coil, as is the fact that the C and S components tend to follow the crucible and the induction coil, respectively. In the crucible and afterheater S/C 3 where the required heat generation occurs. It means that within the conductors the S component contributes to the heat generation much more than the C component, according to Eq. (4) in [1]. For this reason, the spatial distribution of heat generation in the conductors is similar to the S component distribution in that region. The volumetric heat generation rate (q) in the crucible and afterheater has been shown in Figure 3. The maximum value of energy deposition in the crucible is q C A max = W/m 3 and is located at the middle portion of the outer surface of the crucible wall. Also, there is a local maximum of energy production in the afterheater wall which its position depends strongly on the afterheater location and orientation with respect to the crucible and the RFcoil [1]. The total heat generation rate in the crucible and afterheater is Q C A total = 7609 W by using integral over their volume. The spatial distribution of heat generation in the induction coil is mostly uniform with local hot spots at the lowest and upper edges. These hot spots are not singularities in the solution for the electromagnetic field at the coil corners. They are a result of the fields curvature (especially C component) in tracing with the coil geometry (i.e. the cross section shape of turns). It shows the corner and edge effect which is a common occurrence in induction heating applications [1][8]. The total heat generation of the RFcoil is Q coil total = 574 W. It means that about 7% of the total power of the system is produced in the RFcoil and 93% in the crucible and afterheater. Figures 47 show the distribution of electromagnetic field components in the system 5
6 and heat generation in the crucible and afterheater with the shielded rectangular and the circular cross section shape of the coil turns, respectively. The most important differences compared to the rectangular cross section shape are as follow: The distribution of C component is similar except close to the RFcoil which markedly modified by the coil cross section shape. There is no corner singularities at the lowest and upper edges of the RFcoil in the case of circular shape because of absence sharp corners. The intensity of this component is similar for all cases. The distribution of S component is clearly similar in all cases but its intensity is stronger in the case of circular shape than other cases. Because of modification in the intensity and spatial distribution of the electromagnetic field components, the volumetric heating distribution in the crucible and afterheater with circular cross section shape is more effective compared to other cases considered here, Table 2. It means that in this case, the coil can be coupled to the crucible and afterheater as closely as feasible for maximum energy transfer. It should be mentioned that, although the C intensity is similar in all cases but S is larger in the circular case than rectangular and shielded rectangular case, as has already been explained. This leads to greater energy deposition in the system. 3.2 Coil radius In the second section, the inner radius of the RFcoil is increased from r co = 78 mm to 85.8 mm (i.e. r coil = 10%) for the case of rectangular cross section shape of the coil turns. On the other hand the distance between crucible and coil is increased about %. Figure 9 shows the distribution of inphase component (right hand side) and outofphase component (left hand side) of the magnetic stream function for this configuration. By comparison with the smaller coil radius (Figure 2), we can find that C component has a reduction of 10% but S component has not been changed. It is important to mention that the distribution of the inphase component depends on 6
7 the coilcrucibleafterheater orientation and for the outofphase component depends strongly on the RFcoil geometry. For this reason by increasing the distance between the conductors (crucible and afterheater) and the induction coil, the influence of their interaction becomes less effective and as a result there is an intensity reduction for the C component and no visible change for the S component. The volumetric heat generation rate (q) in the crucible and afterheater has been shown in Figure 10. The maximum value and total energy deposition in the crucible and afterheater are q C A max = 5.0 W/m 3 and Q C A total = 5096 kw, respectively. The decrease in the total power generation is 33% (2511 W att). Also noteworthy is that the change in the coil diameter has not any effective influence on the spatial distribution of heat generation in the crucible and afterheater. 3.3 Gap between the coil turns In the final simulation reported here, we considered a case in which the gap between the coil turns was increased to 37.5 mm from 3 mm. To do it, The number of coil turns was changed to 3+1 instead of 6+2 with the fixed position of the lowest and upper turns of the main coil. In order to compare the obtained results, we have assumed a unique voltage for every turn, i.e. the total voltage of the RFcoil is reduced to 100 v proportional to the turns number. The resulting fields of electromagnetic field and heat generation are shown in the Figures The distribution of C and S components as well as q has been modified in the second configuration especially around the induction coil compared to the first configuration. The most important features are as follow: Although C min has been decreased (5%) in the second configuration (which is predictable) but C max has been increased (6%). This surprising result arises from the electromagnetic end and edge effects (i.e. the distortion of electromagnetic filed in its end and edge areas) [1][2][8]. Because of large distance between the coil turns these 7
8 effects are more effective in the second configuration compared to first one. As a result, there is an increase for C max which has been located at the coil turns. The intensity of S component is the same. It means that any change in the distance between the coil turns has not any influence on the intensity of this component. In the first configuration, a uniform gradient of both components exists between the coil and the crucible side wall while in the second one both components have a wavy shape that indicates a nonuniform gradient of these components in that area. These nonuniform gradients make a nonuniform distribution of heat production in the crucible and afterheater which is shown in Figure 15(b). There are two maxima in the crucible side wall with an approximately the same intensity. Also notably is that in this configuration, the location of q max has been lifted to the upper part of the crucible wall. These important features affect directly the temperature and flow field of the system. Finally the total conductor power input is now down to 6108 W from 6890 kw. It indicates that in the second configuration, the induction coil can not deposit enough power into the crucible to get the job done, i.e. to melt oxide materials such as sapphire (melting point 2050 o C). 4 Conclusions We have presented and demonstrated some numerical calculation results of induction heating process for an oxide Czochralski crystal growth system with different geometries of an RFcoil by using a finite element method. The obtained results indicate that, inductive coupling of the crucible and active afterheater with the induction coil is quite important and depends strongly on their geometry, location and orientation with respect to each other. The mathematical model  described in the present work and [1]  can accurately predict the impact of changing the RFcoil geometry on the structure of heat generation 8
9 within the furnace. It can be useful for correct choice of the coil style, design purposes of large and modern growth systems and advanced manufacturing techniques. 9
10 References [1] Tavakoli, M. H.; Samavat, F. and Babaiepour, M. Influence of active afterheater on the induction heating process in oxide Czochralski systems. Cryst. Res. Technol , [2] Leatherman, A.F. and Stutz, D.E. Induction heating advances; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, [3] Rudnev, V.; Loveles, D.; Cook, R. and Black, M. Handbook of induction heating; New York NY., [4] Tavakoli, M. H. and Wilke, H. Numerical study of heat transport and fluid flow of melt and gas during the seeding process of sapphire Czochralski crystal growth. Cryst. Growth Des. 2007, 7, [5] Tavakoli, M. H. and Wilke, H. Numerical investigation of heat transport and fluid flow during the seeding process of oxide Czochralski crystal growth  Part 1: nonrotating seed. Cryst. Res. Technol. 2007, 42, [6] Tavakoli, M. H. and Wilke, H. Numerical investigation of heat transport and fluid flow during the seeding process of oxide Czochralski crystal growth  Part 2: rotating seed. Cryst. Res. Technol. 2007, 42, [7] Gresho, P.M. and Derby, J.J. A finite element model for induction heating of a metal crucible J. Crystal Growth 1987, 85, [8] Tavakoli, M. H. Modeling of induction heating in oxide Czochralski systems  advantages and problems. Cryst. Growth Des. 2007, 8, [9] 10
11 Figure captions: Figure 1. Three cross section shapes of the coil turns: rectangular, shielded rectangular and circular with unique diameter and thickness. Figure 2. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the rectangular cross section shape of the coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 3. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the rectangular cross section shape of the coil (for a better demonstration the wall, bottom and afterheater top cover part are separately magnified). The maximum value of energy deposition is q rec max = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Q rec total = 7609 W. Figure 4. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the shielded rectangular cross section shape of the coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 5. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the shielded rectangular cross section shape of the coil. The maximum value of 11
12 energy deposition is q s rec max Q s rec total = 7514 W. = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Figure 6. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the circular cross section shape of the coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top surfaces of the RFcoil turns and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 7. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the circular cross section shape of the coil. The maximum value of energy deposition is q C A max = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Q C A total = 8050 W. Figure 8. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the r co = cm and rectangular cross section shape of the coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 9. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the r co = cm and rectangular cross section shape of the coil. The maximum value of energy deposition is q max = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Q total = 5096 W. Figure 10. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the con 12
13 figuration with 6+1 rectangular coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 11. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the configuration with 6+1 rectangular coil turns. The maximum value of energy deposition is q max = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Q total = 6890 W. Figure 12. Components of the magnetic stream function (Ψ B ) calculated for the configuration with 3+1 rectangular coil turns. The right hand side shows the inphase component (C) with C max = weber on the lowest and top edges of the RFcoil and C min = weber on the crucible wall. The left hand side shows the outofphase component (S) with S max = weber on the outer surfaces of the induction coil turns. Figure 13. Volumetric power distribution (q) in the crucible and afterheater calculated for the configuration with 3+1 rectangular coil turns. The maximum value of energy deposition is q max = W/m 3 and the total heat generation rate is Q total = 6108 W. Figure 14. Profiles of the heat generated along the outer surface of the crucible and afterheater side wall for the configuration with (a) 6+1 and (b) 3+1 rectangular coil turns. 13
14 Table 1. Operating parameters used for calculations. Description (units) Symbol Value Crucible inner radius (mm) r c 50 Crucible wall thickness (mm) l c 2 Crucible inner height (mm) h c 100 Afterheater inner height (mm) h af 100 Afterheater hole (mm) r af 10 Distance between the crucible and afterheater (mm) D ca 30 Coil inner radius (mm) r co 78 Coil width (mm) l co 13 Coil wall thickness (mm) l co 1.5 Height of coil turns (mm) h co 20 Distance between coil turns (mm) d co 3 Distance between two coils (mm) D co 55 14
15 Table 2. Detail information about the heat generated in the CZ system, calculated for different cross section of the RFcoil. Efficiency = Q C A total /Q total Cross section shape Q C A total (W att) Q coil total (W att) Efficiency (%) Rectangular Shielded rectangular Circular
Numerical Modeling of Induction Heating in Crystal Pulling Method Change in the Coil Radius
ISSN(Print): 2372627X ISSN(Online): 23726288 VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2, JUNE 2014 OPEN JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS Numerical Modeling of Induction Heating in Crystal Pulling Method Change in the Coil Radius A.
More informationInfluence of cross section shape of the coil turns on the induction heating process
Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 8(2), pp. 4861, 11 January, 2013 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/sre DOI:.5897/SRE11.1880 ISSN 19922248 2013 Academic Journals Full Length Research
More informationFinite Element Analysis of Aluminum Billet Heating by Rotation in DC Magnetic Fields
Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Billet Heating by Rotation in DC Magnetic Fields Virgiliu Fire eanu, Tiberiu Tudorache POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, EPM_NM Laboratory, 313 Spl. Independentei,
More informationExperimental Observation and Numerical Prediction of Induction Heating in a Graphite Test Article
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 2009 Boston Experimental Observation and Numerical Prediction of Induction Heating in a Graphite Test Article Todd A. Jankowski* 1, Debra P. Johnson
More informationContinuous melting and pouring of an aluminum oxide based melt with cold crucible
Continuous melting and pouring of an aluminum oxide based melt with cold crucible B Nacke, V Kichigin, V Geza, I Poznyak To cite this version: B Nacke, V Kichigin, V Geza, I Poznyak. Continuous melting
More informationSimulation of Coupled Electromagnetic/ Thermal Systems using CAE Software
www.integratedsoft.com Simulation of Coupled Electromagnetic/ Thermal Systems using CAE Software Content Executive Summary... 3 Overview... 3 Rotationally Symmetric Models... 5 Thermal Models... 5 Model
More informationMathematical Modelling of the Industrial CZ Crystal Growth: Melt Hydrodynamics Control by Imposed Magnetic Fields
International Scientific Colloquium Modelling for Saving Resources Riga, May 1718, 21 Mathematical Modelling of the Industrial CZ Crystal Growth: Melt Hydrodynamics Control by Imposed Magnetic Fields
More informationInduction Heating Principles
Induction Heating Principles PRESENTATION www.ceiapower.com Main Applications of Induction Heating Hard (Silver) Brazing Tin Soldering Heat Treatment (Hardening, Annealing, Tempering, ) Melting Applications
More information1. A wire carries 15 A. You form the wire into a singleturn circular loop with magnetic field 80 µ T at the loop center. What is the loop radius?
CHAPTER 3 SOURCES O THE MAGNETC ELD 1. A wire carries 15 A. You form the wire into a singleturn circular loop with magnetic field 8 µ T at the loop center. What is the loop radius? Equation 33, with
More informationTeam Workshop Problem 17 The Jumping Ring
Team Workshop Problem 17 The Jumping Ring Prof. E.M. Freeman and Prof. D.A. Lowther EMF is at the EED/CST London, UK, email 10016.3130@Compuserve.com from Internet. DAL is at the EED/McGiII, Canada, email
More informationModule 1 : Conduction. Lecture 5 : 1D conduction example problems. 2D conduction
Module 1 : Conduction Lecture 5 : 1D conduction example problems. 2D conduction Objectives In this class: An example of optimization for insulation thickness is solved. The 1D conduction is considered
More informationPolymer Sci & Eng Extrusion lectures (MRC) 11/20/02
1 Extrusion Outline  definitions, concepts and products  description of the extruders continuous process functions include melting, mixing and pressure generation description of the parts sizes of extruders
More informationKeywords: Distribution Transformer, Step Core, Core Type, Round And Rectangular, Tank And Temperature Rise.
www.semargroup.org, www.ijsetr.com ISSN 23198885 Vol.03,Issue.15 July2014, Pages:31763181 Design Comparison of Round and Rectangular Wire Winding Transformer SOE NAING 1, MYO THET TUN 2 1 Dept of Electrical
More informationIndo  German Winter Academy 06 Digha IIT KANPUR
Indo  German Winter Academy 06 Digha IIT KANPUR Crystal Growth Simulations Shubham Gupta Electrical Engg. Mentor: Mr. Santhanu Jana Contents Crystal Growth: Need to Study. Various Growth Methods. Czochralski(Cz)
More informationMeasurement of Thermal Conductivity by Lee s method
Measurement of Thermal Conductivity by Lee s method Aim: To determine thermal conductivity of a bad conductor (glass) in form of a disc using Lee s method. Requisites: (1) Lee s apparatus and the experimental
More informationMagnetic Fields; Sources of Magnetic Field
This test covers magnetic fields, magnetic forces on charged particles and currentcarrying wires, the Hall effect, the BiotSavart Law, Ampère s Law, and the magnetic fields of currentcarrying loops
More informationTRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION
TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION A transformer consists of two windings coupled through a magnetic medium. The two windings work at different voltage level. The two windings of the transformer are called High
More informationLAB 8: Electron ChargetoMass Ratio
Name Date Partner(s) OBJECTIVES LAB 8: Electron ChargetoMass Ratio To understand how electric and magnetic fields impact an electron beam To experimentally determine the electron chargetomass ratio.
More informationExperimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION ( )
a. Using Faraday s law: Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION The overall sign will not be graded. For the current, we use the extensive hints in the
More informationSolid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons.
PLASTICS PART DESIGN and MOULDABILITY Injection molding is popular manufacturing method because of its highspeed production capability. Performance of plastics part is limited by its properties which
More informationAmpacity simulation of a high voltage cable to connecting off shore wind farms
Ampacity simulation of a high voltage cable to connecting off shore wind farms Eva Pelster 1, Dr. David Wenger 1 1 Wenger Engineering GmbH, Einsteinstr. 55, 89077 Ulm, mail@wengerengineering.com Abstract:
More informationComparison of Heat Transfer between a Helical and Straight Tube Heat Exchanger
International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. ISSN 09743154 Volume 6, Number 1 (2013), pp. 3340 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Comparison of Heat Transfer
More informationFIND: Characteristic length and Biot number. Validity of lumped capacitance approximation.
Mech 302 Heat Transfer HW5 Solution 1. (Problem 5.5 in the Book except for part (e)) For each of the following cases, determine an appropriate characteristic length Lc and the corresponding Biot number
More informationTrace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards Under Icepak
Tutorial 13. Trace Layer Import for Printed Circuit Boards Under Icepak Introduction: A printed circuit board (PCB) is generally a multilayered board made of dielectric material and several layers of
More informationHEAT TRANSFER IN BLOCK WALLS
HEAT TRANSFER IN BLOCK WALLS S. Hassid and E. Levinsky Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Department Technion  Israel Institute of Technology Haifa 32  Israel ABSTRACT Combined conductionconvectionradiation
More informationObjectives for the standardized exam
III. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM A. Electrostatics 1. Charge and Coulomb s Law a) Students should understand the concept of electric charge, so they can: (1) Describe the types of charge and the attraction
More informationDESIGN OF TRANSFORMER
DESIGN OF TRANSFORMER Classification of transformer Depending upon the type of construction used: I. Core type II. Shell type 2 Comparison of core type and shell type transformers: I. Construction: Core
More informationOptimal Design of Internal Induction Coils Atlantic Blvd. Auburn Hills, MI USA
Optimal Design of Internal Induction Coils Dr. Valentin Nemkov (1), Eng. Robert Goldstein (1), Dr. Vladimir Bukanin (2) (1) Centre for Induction Technology, Inc. 1388 Atlantic Blvd. Auburn Hills, MI 48326
More informationVOLUME AND SURFACE AREAS OF SOLIDS
VOLUME AND SURFACE AREAS OF SOLIDS Q.1. Find the total surface area and volume of a rectangular solid (cuboid) measuring 1 m by 50 cm by 0.5 m. 50 1 Ans. Length of cuboid l = 1 m, Breadth of cuboid, b
More informationTotal Time: 90 mins Practise Exercise no. 1 Total no. Of Qs: 51
Mensuration (3D) Total Time: 90 mins Practise Exercise no. 1 Total no. Of Qs: 51 Q1. A wooden box of dimensions 8m x 7m x 6m is to carry rectangular boxes of dimensions 8cm x 7cm x 6cm. The maximum number
More informationOPTIMIZING CONDENSER TUBE LIFE WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
OPTIMIZING CONDENSER TUBE LIFE WITH NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING By Jeffrey Gamza, Marketing Specialist, Conco Systems Nondestructive testing is an effective way to determine the lifespan of your condenser and
More informationReview: Convection and Heat Exchangers. Reminders
CH EN 3453 Heat Transfer Review: Convection and Heat Exchangers Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 Reminders Midterm #2 Wednesday at 8:15 AM Review tomorrow 3:30 PM in WEB L104 (I think) Project Results and Discussion
More informationEDDY CURRENT MODELING OF FERRITECORE PROBES, APPLICATION TO THE SIMULATION OF EDDY CURRENT SIGNALS FROM SURFACE BREAKING FLAWS IN AUSTENITIC STEEL
EDDY CURRENT MODELING OF FERRITECORE PROBES, APPLICATION TO THE SIMULATION OF EDDY CURRENT SIGNALS FROM SURFACE BREAKING FLAWS IN AUSTENITIC STEEL T. Sollier, F. Buvat, G. Pichenot, D. Prémel CEA SACLAY;
More informationElectromagnetic Induction
. Electromagnetic Induction Concepts and Principles Creating Electrical Energy When electric charges move, their electric fields vary. In the previous two chapters we considered moving electric charges
More informationExergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank
Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank F. Dammel *1, J. Winterling 1, K.J. Langeheinecke 3, and P. Stephan 1,2 1 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2 Center
More informationChapter 27 Magnetic Induction. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson AddisonWesley
Chapter 27 Magnetic Induction Motional EMF Consider a conductor in a Bfield moving to the right. In which direction will an electron in the bar experience a magnetic force? V e  V The electrons in the
More informationChapter 3. Mathematical Model of Electromagnetic Brakes
Chapter 3. Mathematical Model of Electromagnetic Brakes 3.1. Introduction Precise mathematical models of the brakes are important for the purpose of simulation and control. In this chapter we review different
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy
APPLICATION NOTE  012 Innovative shunt design techniques optimise power measurement accuracy Introduction Rapid developments in power conversion technologies combined with a need for better product efficiency
More informationVol3 No2. Developing an Induction Heating & hardening System ABSTRACT
University Of Gezira Journals Of University Of Gezira Gezira Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol3 No2 Developing an Induction Heating & hardening System Sulieman M.S. Zobly 1, Abdu I. Omer
More informationHow do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Why would one go to the effort of growing a single crystal?
Crystal Growth How do single crystals differ from polycrystalline samples? Single crystal specimens maintain translational symmetry over macroscopic distances (crystal dimensions are typically 0.1 mm 10
More informationAchieving High Electric Motor Efficiency John Petro, Chief Technical Officer, NovaTorque, Inc.
1 EEMODS 2011  Paper 060 Achieving High Electric Motor Efficiency, Chief Technical Officer, ABSTRACT Permanent Magnet (PM) motors made with ferrite magnets can significantly exceed the current NEMA Premium
More informationEdmund Li. Where is defined as the mutual inductance between and and has the SI units of Henries (H).
INDUCTANCE MUTUAL INDUCTANCE If we consider two neighbouring closed loops and with bounding surfaces respectively then a current through will create a magnetic field which will link with as the flux passes
More informationMeasurement of ChargetoMass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron
Measurement of ChargetoMass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron Experiment objectives: measure the ratio of the electron chargetomass ratio e/m by studying the electron trajectories in a uniform magnetic
More informationOPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGN AND CONTROL OF INDUCTION HEATING SYSTEMS
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR DESIGN AND CONTROL OF INDUCTION HEATING SYSTEMS B. Nacke Leibniz University of Hannover, Institute of Electrotechnology 30167, Hannover, WilhelmBuschStr. 4, Germany nacke@etp.unihannover.de
More informationUsing COMSOLMultiphysics in an Eddy Current NonDestructive Testing Context
Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 010 Paris Using COMSOLMultiphysics in an Eddy Current NonDestructive Testing Context L. Santandrea, Y. Le Bihan Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de
More informationThe Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity
The Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity 1 Objectives 1. To understand the properties of resistance and resistivity in conductors, 2. To measure the resistivity and temperature coefficient of
More informationCalculation of Temperature in a Large Turbine Generator with Multilayer Roebel Transposition Coils
Calculation of Temperature in a Large Turbine Generator with Multilayer Roebel Transposition Coils Kenichi Hattori *, Kazuhiko Takahashi, Kazumasa Ide, Keiji Kobashi, Hiroshi Okabe, and Takashi Watanabe
More informationNatural Convection. Buoyancy force
Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient
More informationDesign of Planar Power Transformers
Design of Planar Power Transformers Contents Introduction 3 Design procedure 4 Design examples flyback 8 forward 10 Formulas 13 Layer design 14 1 Exploded view of a planar transformer 2 Introduction
More informationElectric Heating. CAPACITY Gold WATTAGE TEMPERATURE POWER SUPPLY DIMENSIONS WEIGHT REQUIREMENT
I) Advantages of Electrically produced heat: Electric Heating Some of the most important advantages of electrically produced heat are: i. Cleanliness The complete elimination of dust and ash keeps cleaning
More informationQuality Transformer and Electronics, Inc. Introduction to Transformers. By Quality Transformer and Electronics Engineering & Sales Staff
2014 Introduction to Transformers By Quality Transformer and Electronics Engineering & Sales Staff Introduction to Transformers Since the widespread distribution of electricity has existed, so have transformers.
More informationA Theoretical Model for Mutual Interaction between Coaxial Cylindrical Coils Lukas Heinzle
A Theoretical Model for Mutual Interaction between Coaxial Cylindrical Coils Lukas Heinzle Page 1 of 15 Abstract: The wireless power transfer link between two coils is determined by the properties of the
More informationCalcoil CW Induction Heating System
Calcoil CW Induction Heating System The Honeywell Model 9710 Calcoil is the industry s premier choice in induction technology for calendering and cross direction (CD) caliper profiling results. The Calcoil
More informationInvestigating the Effect of Changes in Furnace Operating Conditions Using the WellStirred Model
Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies ISSN 15831078 Issue 10, JanuaryJune 2007 p. 99108 Investigating the Effect of Changes in Furnace Operating Conditions Using the WellStirred
More informationDesign of inductors and modeling of relevant field intensity
3. Growth of shaped Si single crystals (FZ) Design of inductors and modeling of relevant field intensity Main cut Schematic of inductor for large square FZ crystals zcomponent of the field intensity for
More informationLASER OPTICAL DISK SET
LASER OPTICAL DISK SET LODS01 5 6 7 4 8 3 9 2 10 1 11 1. Description The laser Optical Disk Set includes a Laser Ray Box powered by a low voltage wallmount power supply, a set of eight ray optics elements
More informationSimple Algorithm for the Magnetic Field Computation in Bobbin Coil Arrangement
Simple Algorithm for the Magnetic Field Computation in Bobbin Coil Arrangement V.Suresh 1, V.K.Gopperundevi 2, Dr.A.Abudhahir 3, R.Antonysamy 4, K.Muthukkutti 5 Associate Professor, E&I Department, National
More informationTWO FLUXES MULTISTAGE INDUCTION COILGUN
Review of the Air Force Academy No 3 (30) 2015 TWO FLUXES MULTISTAGE INDUCTION COILGUN Laurian GHERMAN Henri Coandă Air Force Academy, Braşov, Romania DOI: 10.19062/18429238.2015.13.3.7 Abstract: This
More informationEntrance Conditions. Chapter 8. Islamic Azad University
Chapter 8 Convection: Internal Flow Islamic Azad University Karaj Branch Entrance Conditions Must distinguish between entrance and fully developed regions. Hydrodynamic Effects: Assume laminar flow with
More informationEXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COLLAR PRODUCTION ON THE PIERCED FLAT SHEET METAL USING LASER FORMING PROCESS
JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCIENCE (ISSN 23225009) CODEN (USA): JCRSDJ 2014, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp:277284 Available at www.jcrs010.com ORIGINAL ARTICLE EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COLLAR
More informationPhysics 1214 Chapter 21: Electromagnetic Induction 02/15
Physics 1214 Chapter 21: Electromagnetic Induction 02/15 1 Induction Experiments emf or electromotive force: (from Chapter 19) the influence that moves charge from lower to higher potential. induced current:
More informationAN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXERGY IN A CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 1622, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=6&itype=11
More informationElectromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic Induction Lecture 29: Electromagnetic Theory Professor D. K. Ghosh, Physics Department, I.I.T., Bombay Mutual Inductance In the last lecture, we enunciated the Faraday s law according to
More informationEffect of design parameters on temperature rise of windings of dry type electrical transformer
Effect of design parameters on temperature rise of windings of dry type electrical transformer Vikas Kumar a, *, T. Vijay Kumar b, K.B. Dora c a Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Pune University
More informationThirty Questions with Answers about Economical, Ecofriendly Copper Tubes for Air Conditioner Applications
Q&A Thirty Questions with Answers about Economical, Ecofriendly Copper Tubes for Air Conditioner Applications Core Benefits 1. What are the major benefits of economical, ecofriendly copper tubes? Energy
More informationOptimization of Design. Lecturer:DungAn Wang Lecture 2
Optimization of Design Lecturer:DungAn Wang Lecture 2 Lecture outline Reading: Ch2 of text Today s lecture Process of transforming the design of a selected system and/or subsystem into an optimum design
More informationEXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT TWIST RATIO OF TWISTED TAPE INSERTS
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.33 (2015), No.3, pp.158162 http://dx.doi.org/10.18280/ijht.330324 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Exam 3 General Physics 202 Name 1) 550 g of water at 75eC are poured into an 855 g aluminum container with an initial temperature of 11eC. The specific heat of aluminum is 900 J/(kgœK). How much heat flows
More informationElectron Charge to Mass Ratio e/m
Electron Charge to Mass Ratio e/m J. Lukens, B. Reid, A. Tuggle PH 35001, Group 4 18 January 010 Abstract We have repeated with some modifications an 1897 experiment by J. J. Thompson investigating the
More informationEffect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure
Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering (1): 833, 014 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.014.00104 http://www.hrpub.org Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure Alireza Falahat
More informationUtilization of Induction Heating In the Processing of Titanium
Utilization of Induction Heating In the Processing of Titanium Victor Demidovich 1 and Irina Rastvorova 2 1 St.Petersburg Electotechnical University (LETI), St. Petersburg, Russia 2 National Mineral Resources
More informationELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.
More informationComsol Laboration: Heat Conduction in a Chip
Comsol Laboration: Heat Conduction in a Chip JO, CSC January 11, 2012 1 Physical configuration A chip on a circuit board is heated inside and cooled by convection by the surrounding fluid. We consider
More informationDesign Considerations for Metal Core Printed Circuit Board
The Way Too Cool Design Considerations for Metal Core Printed Circuit Board Designing an aluminium board is similar to a traditional FR4 board in terms of imaging and wet processing operations. But you
More informationVehicle Design Summit Electric Hub Motor (V2) Eric Conner Harvey Tang Matthew Peddie
Vehicle Design Summit Electric Hub Motor (V2) Eric Conner Harvey Tang Matthew Peddie Motivation The AHPV from VDS 1.0 used an expensive, NGM electric hub motor, costing roughly $8000. (picture on right)
More informationDESIGN GUIDE Version 1.4. Design Guide for High Current Solutions with WIRELAID
DESIGN GUIDE Version 1.4 Design Guide for High Current Solutions with WIRELAID High Current Solutions with WIRELAID Technology Your benefit Caused by the increasing requirements of power and digital control
More informationDetection of deeplying subsurface cracks by SQUIDbased low frequency eddy current techniques
Detection of deeplying subsurface cracks by SQUIDbased low frequency eddy current techniques by Y. Tavrin 1, G. Krivoy 1, M. Meurtin 2 and J. H. Hinken 1 1 FI Test und Messtechnik GmbH 2 Turbomeca Groupe
More informationNumerical simulation during Kyropoulos growth of. sapphire crystals
Numerical simulation during Kyropoulos growth of sapphire crystals ChunHung Chen a, JyhChen Chen a,*, ChungWei Lu b, CheMing Liu c, WenChing Hsu c, SzuHua Ho c a Department of Mechanical Engineering,
More informationCoupling Factor Calculation of Low Frequency RFID Systems by the Mutual Inductance Effective Permeability Method
Coupling Factor Calculation of Low Frequency RFID Systems by the Mutual Inductance Effective Permeability Method P. Csurgai, M. Kuczmann Szécheny István University, Lab. Of Electromagentic Fields, Dept.
More informationFaraday's Law and Inductance
Page 1 of 8 test2labh_status.txt Use Internet Explorer for this laboratory. Save your work often. NADN ID: guest49 Section Number: guest All Team Members: Your Name: SP212 Lab: Faraday's Law and Inductance
More information1150 hp motor design, electromagnetic and thermal analysis
115 hp motor design, electromagnetic and thermal analysis Qasim Al Akayshee 1, and David A Staton 2 1 Mawdsley s Ltd., The Perry Centre, Davey Close, Waterwells, Gloucester GL2 4AD phone: +44 1452 888311
More informationPrinciples of Dimensioning
RULES for the use of the dimension form. Principles of Dimensioning 1. All dimension, extension, and leader lines should be thin, sharp, dark lines (.5mm/2H). 2. Extension lines indicate the points between
More informationThermal Mass Availability for Cooling Data Centers during Power Shutdown
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions (2010, vol 116, part 2). For personal use only. Additional reproduction,
More informationLAB 4: The Capacitor and Capacitors Combinations
University of Waterloo Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Physics of Electrical Engineering 2 ECE106 Lab manual LAB 4: The Capacitor and Capacitors Combinations Winter 2016 Electrical and
More information6. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
6. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Questions with answers 1. Name the phenomena in which a current induced in coil due to change in magnetic flux linked with it. Answer: Electromagnetic Induction 2. Define electromagnetic
More information(This report is endorsed) Industrivej 20, 9900 Frederikshavn, Danmark
Spectrum Laboratories Ltd is accredited by International Accreditation New Zealand (formerly Telarc). The tests reported herein have been performed in accordance with the terms of our accreditation. This
More informationIntroduction to SolidWorks Software
Introduction to SolidWorks Software Marine Advanced Technology Education Design Tools What is SolidWorks? SolidWorks is design automation software. In SolidWorks, you sketch ideas and experiment with different
More informationDetailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems
Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,
More informationHEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi
HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)
More informationHANDLY & FREQUENTLY USED FORMULAS FOR THERMAL ENGINEERS
HANDLY & FREQUENTLY USED FORMULAS FOR THERMAL ENGINEERS GEOMETRY & MATH GEOMETRI & MATEMATIK Cylindrical (Tube) Volume V = p / 4 d 2 L [m 3 ] Cylindrical (Tube) Surface A = p d L [m 2 ] Rectangular Triangle
More informationPosition Sensors MicroSense, LLC
Understanding Capacitive Position Sensors 2011 MicroSense, LLC Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1 Characteristics of Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1.1 Non Contact... 3 1.1.2 High
More information3 Thermokinetics and Curing Behaviour
3 Thermokinetics and Curing Behaviour Thermochemical numerical models have been developed and used for the simulation of thermosetting pultrusion processes since the 1980s in order to predict the temperature
More informationCrystal Structure and Growth
Crystal Structure and Growth Source: USNA EE 452 Course on IC Technology EE452 131 Atomic Order of a Crystal Structure EE452 132 Amorphous Atomic Structure EE452 133 Unit Cell in 3D Structure Unit
More informationMachine capability and cutting process influence the shape and position deviation. The results are measured based on profiles.
1 Parameters of water jet cutting 1.1 General Due to the cutting process the shape and position deviation, cutting angle, edge geometry, entry and exit points as well as roughness are influenced. 1.2 Shape
More informationReading Quiz. 1. Currents circulate in a piece of metal that is pulled through a magnetic field. What are these currents called?
Reading Quiz 1. Currents circulate in a piece of metal that is pulled through a magnetic field. What are these currents called? A. Induced currents B. Displacement currents C. Faraday s currents D. Eddy
More information1.1Vacuum degree Vacuum degree has cold vacuum degree and hot vacuum degree. Cold vacuum degree is to prevent soldering welding parts and components i
Development of High temperature Vacuum Brazing Equipment Abstract: Describe the development of vacuum and high temperature brazing alloys and brazing process characteristics. According to Inconel718 super
More information1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book)
1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book) SOLUTION Schematic An experimental nuclear core simulation apparatus consists of a long thinwalled metallic tube of diameter D and length L, which is electrically heated
More informationImproved PFC Boost Choke using a QuasiPlanar Winding Configuration Dave Shonts Schott Corporation 1000 Parkers Lake Road Wayzata, MN 55391
Improved PFC Boost Choke using a QuasiPlanar Winding Configuration Dave Shonts Schott Corporation 1000 Parkers Lake Road Wayzata, MN 55391 Abstract A novel approach to boost inductor design using a quasiplanar
More informationunderstanding medium frequency induction melting furnace and its components
understanding medium frequency induction melting furnace and its components 9 Spruce Street, Jersey City, NJ 07306 USA sales@electroheatinduction.com INDUCTION MELTING FURNACE AND ITS COMPONENTS The purpose
More informationBASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER
MODULE I BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER While teaching heat transfer, one of the first uestions students commonly ask is the difference between heat and temperature. Another common uestion concerns the difference
More information