2 Literacy Session 2 Deaf and Hard of Hearing Literacy and Numeracy for Learning and Life
3 Communication and Language Seminar Outline 1. Overview 2. Challenges 4. Strategies / Interventions 3. Assessment Special Education Support Service
4 Link Teacher Communication Leading Literacy Core Team Collaboration Assessment Support & CPD Literacy SSE Resource Building Raising Awareness & Understanding Handout - Reflection
6 Literacy and Numeracy for Learning for Life Definition of Literacy Literacy includes the capacity to read, understand and critically appreciate various forms of communication including spoken language, printed text, broadcast media, and digital media. Literacy & Numeracy for Learning and Life 2011, p.
7 Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education NCCA Literacy Report Skill in oral language a developmental pre-cursor to reading acquisition Planned language learning experiences can enrich vocabulary Special Education Support Service
8 Language and Literacy Rationale and Framework Special Education Support Service
9 The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework 1 big picture understanding 2 good assessment 3 focused and purposeful interventions Handout 2: Framework Special Education Support Service
10 What do we mean when we talk about communication and language? How do we communicate? What does communication look like in your school? Special Education Support Service
11 Session 2 Individualised Needs of Deaf Students Language Acquisition and Development Assistive Technology/Audiology Communication Approach Social and Emotional Development Behaviour, Motivation and Self Esteem
12 Language and Communication The greatest challenges faced by deaf individuals are related to the issues of language acquisition and the development of a communication system. (Quigley and Paul, 1984).
13 Language and Communication The problem of profound deafness in early childhood is not merely one of not hearing, BUT one of impaired communication and language development, with a further impact on cognitive development, and on later educational attainments and employment opportunities. Archbold, 2010
14 The classic study of Conrad (1979) showed that half of the deaf children leaving school at 16 had speech difficult to understand, and had a median reading age of 9 years and there is little evidence to show that reading levels of deaf children have moved on since then. Marcshark & Harris, 1996; Musselman 2000 cited in Deaf Education: Changed by Cochlear Implantation? Archbold, 2010
15 Educating Deaf Children It would be nice if there were a single, correct approach to educating deaf children, one for which we could describe a theory of instruction. Unfortunately, this is not the case Marcshark, Lang & Albertini, 2006
16 Individualised Needs of Deaf Students Language Acquisition and Development Assistive Technology/Audiology Communication Approach Social and Emotional Development Behaviour, Motivation and Self Esteem
17 How do children develop language and literacy? To acquire language a learner must have: 1. Exposure in quality and quantity 2. To an accessible language 3. While engaged in meaningful activity 4. With others who are already capable users of language Connie Mayer 1996
18 Components of Language Language Phonology Morphology Semantics Syntax Pragmatics Special Education Support Service
19 Phonological Difficulties Phonological difficulties due to their hearing loss. Technological developments will see better access to speech sounds
20 Morphological Deficits may not use appropriate inflectional endings in their speech (e.g., He walk or Mommy coat ) possibly due to hearing loss lack irregular past tense or irregular plurals (e.g., drived for drove or mans for men).
21 Syntactic Deficits Lack the length or syntactic complexity (e.g., Where Daddy go? ) Problems comprehending sentences that express relationship between direct or indirect objects Problems with grammar
22 Semantic Deficits Limited vocabulary especially in adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, or pronouns Longer response time in selecting vocabulary words Fail to perceive subtle changes in word meaning: incomplete understanding and misinterpretations Figurative language problems
23 Pragmatic Deficits Problems understanding indirect requests (e.g., may say yes when asked Must you play the piano? ) May enter conversations in a socially unacceptable fashion or fail to take turns talking Difficulty staying on topic
24 Copyright SELD (2008) The Cognitive Components
25 Developing Literacy Deaf children are unlikely to come to reading with knowledge of the language, and of the text represented on the page and are likely to have delayed grammar and vocabulary levels. In addition, reading at higher levels involves world knowledge in addition to linguistic knowledge, an area in which profoundly deaf children traditionally have had difficulty, unable to overhear conversational comments, television and radio news for example. Archbold, 2010
26 To catch a ball The catch on the door Catch To catch a train The catch of the day To catch a cold
27 To catch his eye!
28 Writing Writing has also been a challenge, with deaf children and adults displaying deviant forms of language in writing, unable to represent spoken language in its written form. (Mellon, 2009: Mayer &Wells, 1996). Cited in Archbold,2010 In general, it has been concluded that sentence structure and vocabulary are stereotypical and include many grammatical errors.
29 Workshop 1 Working in pairs, read and discuss the two samples of written work. Distinguish between the written work of a pupil with a hearing loss and a pupil with dyslexia.
30 Language Development Language development approaches for deaf and hard of hearing students must include a combination of approaches. Innovative ideas for the creation of a language environment for deaf children need to be considered.
31 Strategies to develop Language and Literacy Skills 1. Use a language experience approach 2. Pre-teach new vocabulary 3. Teach new vocabulary in real life context 4. Use of personal dictionaries and 5. Keep a record of new and emerging vocabulary 6. Display a language board including a word or phrase of the week
32 Language Experience Approach An essential ingredient of normal development is exposure to a variety of experiences. It is through active exploration of the environment and experience with people, things and language that children acquire knowledge Marcshark, Lang & Albertini, 2002
33 1. Language Experienced Approach A language experience approach is used in St. Mary s School for Deaf Girls, Cabra, Dublin 7. Strategies Story Retell Visual / Picture retell Digital Language Experience Approach
34 Story Retell Name: Story: Date: Number of Times Read: Story Pupil s Retelling Prompts Beginning Middle End What happened in the beginning? Where did the story happen? Who were the main characters? What was the problem? What happened next? What did do? Why? How was the problem solved? How did the story end?
35 Visual / Picture Retell Materials Required: Blank cards, crayons, any picture book Concepts Taught: sequencing, predicting, retelling, writing The pupil lays out 8 blank cards and number the cards 1 to 8. On first card, the pupil prints the name of the story and their own name. The pupil draws some pictures of what they think the story might be about. The teacher reads the story stopping every so often to let the pupil draw / write sentences about the story on each card. The teacher makes sure to finish the story at card 8. Ask the student to retell the story based on pictures.
36 Digital Language Experience Approach (DLEA) - DLEA introduces the digital camera to capture the experiences - Images downloaded into PowerPoint to make digital books - These can be put into school s intranet for all classes to read
37 LEA / DLEA Literacy Skills being Developed Reading and writing are connected Concepts of print Reading is a meaning-making process Letter/sound relationships (phonics) Vocabulary development English grammatical structures and word order Using context (visual images) to predict words/word meanings Oral language development And more!!!!
39 2. Pre teach new Vocabulary Volume - What does this mean? Volume of a Sphere A volume of books The volume control on the remote control
40 3. Teach new vocabulary in real life context Word Consistent Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Meaning Always the same behaviour or attitudes Sentence John is consistent when he comes to class each day with a smile
41 Ss Word sphere 4. Personal Dictionary Meaning Three dimensional object that is perfectly round e.g. a ball Sentence A globe is a sphere with the map of the world on it. Spelling Tip We are here in the sphere
42 5. Keep a record of vocabulary Handout 4 Vocabulary Record Sheet Name: Class: N = New Word R = Word reinforcement E = Emerging A = Acquired Date N / R N Consistent R To earn Vocabulary E A Phrases E A Developmental Steps Injuries consistent with falling A penny saved is a penny earned Steady, Reliable, Dependable consistency Gain, Obtain Earn money Earn praise E A
43 6. Language Display Board
45 Individualised Needs of Deaf Students Language Acquisition and Development Assistive Technology/Audiology Communication Approach Social and Emotional Development Behaviour, Motivation and Self Esteem
47 Communication Approaches The debate over the best way to teach a child with a hearing loss has raged since the 1500s. Rodda and Grove, One thing we do know is that no single method of communication is going to be appropriate for all deaf children. The goal therefore must be to identify hearing losses as early as possible and begin interventions that match the strength and needs of each child and each child s family. Marschark &Spencer, 2003
48 Communication Approaches There are many different communication terms and communication approaches for the deaf. For the purpose of this presentation, five terms and their specific approaches are discussed: Sign Language Bilingualism Total Communication Oralism/ Natural Auralism These provide a fairly comprehensive overview of communication as it relates to deafness.
49 Communication in action
50 Clear Communication There are five ways that you can enable a deaf child to understand, these are to 1. Repeat 2. Re-phrase 3. Explain 4. Simplify 5. Clarity (NDCS page 52)
51 Positive learning and social environment Deafness might affect the child s opportunity to Communicate effectively with others Initiate conversations Use appropriate language when interacting with different people Be fully included in large groups Express their feelings and emotions Develop confidence and a positive self-esteem Learn appropriate social behaviours incidentally Teachers have a very important role to play in all of the above in helping deaf children to interact with their peers and to develop social skills
52 Self-Advocacy Encourage students with hearing loss to identify their own strengths and needs. Students who can ask for assistance when necessary and proactively seek reasonable accommodations will serve themselves well in school and their future. Teachers need to be sensitive to a student s level of comfort with regard to self-advocacy and may need to give some children phrases or strategies to use during stressful times. Some of these include: Please repeat the last part of the directions. There s a lot of noise in the hallway, could you please close the door? I missed what Sam just said. Could you repeat it?
53 If we truly want deaf students to succeed, we must confront environmental and methodological barriers to education and to appropriate educational assessment. If there is a problem, it is much more likely to be found in the way we teach and what we expect from deaf students than in the students themselves Marschark, Lang & Albertini, 2002
54 Stop and Think.. Communication Leading Literacy Core Team Collaboration Assessment Support & CPD Raising Awareness & Literacy SSE Resource Building Understanding Handout - Reflection
55 Literacy Link Teachers Seminar Key Messages Key Messages The link teacher for literacy is a facilitator of change for improvement A number of key components inform the planning, teaching and assessment of literacy in the context of your school.
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