The Linguistics, Phonology, and Phonetics Perspective

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1 Oxford Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 12 items for: fulltext : science social point value major theories effect human linphon The Linguistics, Phonology, and Phonetics Perspective Mark Tatham and Katherine Morton in Expression in Speech: Analysis and Synthesis Published in print: 2003 Published Online: September 2007 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter introduces some aspects of linguistics that may be helpful in labelling emotive content of speech. The following questions are asked: Are speech and emotion separate events or does speech occur within the context of emotion? Is a uniqueness hypothesis more useful than a modulation hypothesis? How context sensitive is expressive content? What might be the function of prosodic patterns in triggering perception of expressive and emotive content? What are some acoustic correlates of speech production and perception? Can linguistics and phonetics theory and models provide useful descriptive labels for characterizing expression in speech? The Biology and Psychology Perspectives Mark Tatham and Katherine Morton in Expression in Speech: Analysis and Synthesis Published in print: 2003 Published Online: September 2007 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter outlines some accounts of the biological and cognitive systems which characterize the source of the emotive content of speech, followed by a general description of the biological substrate, cognitive sourcing, and the link between biological and cognitive accounts. The function of emotion, the parameterization of emotion, and the problems of labelling emotion categories are developed. Page 1 of 6

2 Educating Accents acprof:oso/ By the end of the 19th century, popular notions of educatedness were strongly associated with the possession of a particular set of pronunciation features. This chapter shows that both overtly and covertly, notions of a standard in speech could be implemented in prevailing educational ideologies, just as the cultural and social hegemony of talking proper would itself constitute a recurrent topos in estimations of education and its benefits. Language attitudes of this kind tend to be no respecters of denominational differences within the type of school, nor even of levels of wealth and the great divides between state and more elite forms of instruction which came into being over the 19th century. /h/ and Other Symbols of the Social Divide acprof:oso/ This chapter explores the patterns of both usage and language attitudes which came into existence in the late 18th and 19th centuries. It shows how the use of /h/ in modern English became one of the foremost signals of social identity, its presence in initial positions associated almost inevitably with the educated and polite, while its loss commonly triggers popular connotations of the vulgar, the ignorant, and the lower class. Surrounded by social values and attendant value judgements, the dropping of [h], now operates as the single most powerful pronunciation shibboleth in England, a ready marker of social difference, a symbol of the social divide. Page 2 of 6

3 The Original ToBi System and the Evolution of the ToBi Framework Mary E. Beckman, Julia Hirschberg, and Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel in Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing Published in print: 2005 Published Online: February 2010 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter presents an overview of the original ToBI system. It reviews the design of the original ToBI system and its foundations in basic and applied research. It describes the inter-disciplinary community of users and uses for which the system was intended, and it outlines how the consensus model of American English intonation and inter-word juncture was achieved by finding points of useful intersection among the research interests and knowledge embodied in this community. It thus identifies the practical principles for designing prosodic annotation conventions that emerged in the course of developing, testing, and using this particular system. The chapter also describes how the original ToBI conventions have been evolved to be the general annotation conventions for several other English varieties and for a number of other languages. Ladylike Accents and the Feminine Proprieties of Speech acprof:oso/ This chapter explores how the lady, and her masculine counterpart in social status, the gentleman, exerted a profound influence on notions of propriety, behaviour, and correctness throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries. Gender was firmly embedded in the attitudes and expectations which surrounded language in use. Stereotypes of gender and identity were not discarded easily and their effects can still be perceptible in language behaviour (and language attitudes) in line, in many ways, with those prescriptions set out with such explicitness in the 19th century. Page 3 of 6

4 Phonetic bias in sound change Andrew Garrett and Keith Johnson in Origins of Sound Change: Approaches to Phonologization Published in print: 2013 Published Online: May 2013 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ Most typologies of sound change have drawn either a two-way distinction between changes grounded in articulation and perception or a threeway distinction among perceptual confusion, hypocorrective changes, and hypercorrective changes. The first approach defines the mainstream neogrammarian, structuralist, and generative tradition; the second approach is found in the work of Ohala, Blevins, and their colleagues. This chapter seeks to develop a typology of asymmetric sound change patterns based on biases emerging from four elements of speech production and perception: motor planning, aerodynamic constraints, gestural mechanics, and perceptual parsing. The first three of these are the most securely established. In addition, some asymmetries in sound change and phonological patterning may also be consequences of system-dependent biases that operate in phonologization. Finally, the chapter sketches features of a theory linking speech production and perception biases to the emergence of new speech norms. A Model of Speech Production Based on Expression and Prosody Mark Tatham and Katherine Morton in Expression in Speech: Analysis and Synthesis Published in print: 2003 Published Online: September 2007 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter proposes a speech production architecture in which all speech occurs within two larger frameworks called wrappers. The overall wrapper is expression; the next wrapper is prosody. Expression and prosody are defined as used in this book. Within a prosodic framework, planning and rendering (carrying out the plan to speak by moving the articulators) is presented. Cognitive and physical processes and their phonological and phonetic correlates are discussed. Page 4 of 6

5 Introduction Joan Bybee in Frequency of Use and the Organization of Language ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ A newcomer to the field of linguistics might be surprised to learn that for most of the 20th century, facts about the frequency of use of particular words, phrases, or constructions were considered irrelevant to the study of linguistic structure. To the uninitiated, it does not seem unreasonable at all to suppose that high-frequency words and expressions might have one set of properties and low-frequency words and expressions another. So how is it that so many professional linguists for so many decades, maybe even centuries, have missed (or perhaps avoided) this basic point? One factor is that frequency effects tend to be observable at the level of the individual word or expression, while linguists have tended to focus their interest on the broader patterns of structure and the more abstract and generalized categories. This chapter discusses frequency effects, including the conserving effect, the reducing effect, and autonomy, all of which arise from token frequency. The link between word frequency and categorization is discussed, along with high and low frequency. The Rise (and Fall?) of Received Pronunciation acprof:oso/ This chapter examines received pronunciation, which became a major focus of that attention which had so insistently been paid to issues of accent over the late 18th and 19th centuries. Non-localized, betraying little (if anything) of the speaker's place of birth, received pronunciation and approximations met the desire for a geographically neutral accent which Sheridan and Walker had earnestly proclaimed. Even in the late 18th century, notions of the received had been prominent in the phonetic ideals advanced; those sounds which are the most generally received among the learned and polite, as well as the bulk of speakers, are the most legitimate, as John Walker averred in Page 5 of 6

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