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1 Office of Economic and Statistical Research discover more about historical Queensland Q150 Digital Books Section Details Name: Queensland Past and Present: 100 Years of Statistics, 1996 Section name: Chapter 3, Demography, Section 1. Pages: Printing Notes (Adobe Acrobat): For best results Page Scaling should be set to Fit to Printable Area. Auto Rotate and Center should also be checked. Licence for use: This document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence. To view a copy of this licence, visit You are free to copy, communicate and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the authors. Return to Q150 Collection:http://www.oesr.qld.gov.au/q150 The State of Queensland 2009

2 CHAPTER 3 DEMOGRAPHY The population of Queensland has increased steadily from less than half a million in to nearly 3. million in 1996, representing a more than sevenfold increase over the 100-year period. Both natural increase and immigration contributed substantially to this growth. Earlier decades featured high birth rates and migration flows from overseas. Since the 1970s, interstate migration has become an increasingly important contributor to Queensland's population growth. An important demographic change between and 1996 was the increase in the proportion of females in Queensland from.1 to 9.9 of the population. For Australia the proportion of females increased from 6.9 to 50.2 over the same period. The age structure of the population also changed from a younger profile to one with an increasing proportion of older persons. Compared with other mainland States, Queensland's population is relatively less centralised with more than half of the State's population living in coastal, regional centres outside the Brisbane metropolitan area. Nonetheless, the proportion of the State's population living in the Brisbane metropolitan area increased from 32 in to 5 in POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION Population size Australia's population grew steadily throughout the nineteenth century, with a significant rise in the 1850s due to gold discoveries in Victoria and New South Wales. Queensland's population increased from 53,000 in to 3,37,000 in 1996 (table 3.1). It passed the one million mark in 1938, two million in 197 and three million in Queensland was the third most populous State throughout the period, behind New South Wales and Victoria. If population growth rates that occurred in Queensland and Victoria from 1975 to 1996 continue, Queensland's population will exceed that of Victoria before Queensland's share of Australia's population rose from 12.7 in to 18.3 in Most of this increase occurred since 1970, due to high interstate migration. Growth in Queensland's population from to 1996 is shown in figure 3.1. Fluctuations in the annual rate of population growth are shown in figure 3.2. The growth rate was low during World Wars I and II and in the 1930s, and high after both world wars and since the 1970s. 63

3 QUEENSLAND PAST AND PRESENT Table 3.1 Population (a) by State and Territory, Australia, Qld as a Year NSW Vic Qld SA WA Tas NT (b) ACT (c) Aust (d) of Aust ' ,272,360,88,180,196, n.a. 5 3,553 3,765, ,6, , ,893, , p 1996p 2,092 2,322 2,56 2,658 2,791,528,68,793,82,915 2,933 2,015 3,21 2,237 3,527 2,56 3,877 2,888,211 3,196,57 3,82,97 3,801 5,205 3,931 5,96,10 5,862,01 6,16,539 6,21, ,031 1,085 1,205 1,359 1,502 1,659 1,813 2,072 2,302 2,597 2,929 3,302 3, ,083,170,271,313,377,39,71, ,01 1,167 1,28 1,37 1,62 1,79 1, ,11 6,003 6,501 6,756 7,078 7,30 8,307 9,312 10,392 11,505 12,663 13,969 1,807 15,901 17,170 18,188 18,27 p = preliminary. All other estimates have been adjusted in accordance with ABS five-yearly Census of Population and Housing figures. (a) At 31 December. From 1971 refers to estimated resident population. Prior to 1961 excludes full-blood Aboriginal persons. (b) For included with South Australia. (c) Prior to 1 January part of New South Wales. (d) From September 1993 includesjervis Bay Territory (previously included with Australian Capital Territory), Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Source: ABS, Year Book, Australia, various years; ABS, Australian Demographic Trends, 1986, Cat. no ; ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, March Quarter 1997, Cat. no ; ABS, unpublished data. Figure 3.1 Estimated resident population (a), Queensland, (a) As at 31 December. Source: GSO and ABS data, in ABS, Demographic History of Queensland, Cat. no ; ABS, Queensland Year Book, various years; ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, March Quarter 1997, Cat. no

4 DEMOGRAPHY Figure 3.2 Annual growth in estimated resident population (a), Queensland, (a) At 31 December Source: GSO and ABS data, in ABS, Demographic History of Queensland, Cat. no ; ABS, Queensland Year Book, various years; ABS, Australian Demographic Statistics, March Quarter 7997, Cat. no Geographic distribution Throughout the period -1996, Queensland's population distribution became increasingly concentrated in the southern division of the State (table 3.2). The proportion of the State's population in the southern region increased from 68.3 in to 77.5 in The southern region grew eightfold over this period, compared with a sixfold increase in the central region and a fivefold increase in the northern region. The population of the Brisbane metropolitan area has not dominated Queensland in the same way that the populations of Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide have dominated their respective State's total population. Brisbane's location in the south-east corner of Queensland has always meant that the city is relatively remote from the agricultural, pastoral and mining activities in the central, northern and western regions of the State. As a result, urban centres such as Gladstone, Rockhampton, Mackay, Townsville, Cairns and Mount Isa have always performed important functional roles in regional Queensland. In response to the distance between urban centres in Queensland, the State Government has always maintained a strong regional administrative structure. This arrangement was first reflected in the 1891 Census and after that became the basis for the administrative structure of several government departments. Population figures were also reported using the southern, central and northern divisions. A map showing the boundaries of these divisions is contained in chapter (figure.1). The discovery of minerals, the implementation of rural settlement schemes encouraged by the Government, and agricultural expansion were factors influencing the geographical distribution of people throughout the State. Mineral discoveries included gold in significant quantities at Gympie in 1867, Charters Towers in 1872, Mount Morgan in 1882, and in smaller quantities at Eidsvold in 1862, Gladstone (at New Zealand Gully) in 1868, Palmer River in 1872 and Horn Island in A relatively high proportion of the population in the northern and central divisions during the period - was located on the goldfields (table 3.3). In and more than a third of the population in the northern division was on the goldfields. 65

5 QUEENSLAND PAST AND PRESENT Table 3.2 Population (a) by region (b), Queensland, Year Southern 322, ,390 1, , ,66 96,108 1,117, ,388,690 1,553,580 1,758,760 1,975,68 2,266,89 2,589, Central 56,127 63,919 72, ,21 10,93 115, , , ,110 29, , , , JLQ Northern 93, , , , ,56 235, , ,80 316, ,80 371,163 02,201 39, ILL Total (c) 72, , , ,972 97,53,106,15,318,259,518, ,881,00 2,092,00 2,35,200 2,62,595 2,960,951 3,339,109 (a) Figures for are estimates. For persons enumerated in ABS censuses. For estimated resident population. Full-blood Aboriginal persons were excluded from the census until (b) From 1933 Southern region includes Brisbane, Moreton, Wide Bay-Burnett, Darling Downs and South West statistical divisions (SDs); Central region includes Fitzroy, Central West and Mackay SDs; and Northern region includes Far North, North West and Northern SDs. Prior to 1933 regions referred to the three financial divisions of Queensland. (c) From 195 includes 'migratory', except for 1981 when 'migratory' included in region totals. Figure for 1966 differs from other figures in this publication as full-blood Aboriginal persons have not been included. Source: Registrar-General, Vital Statistic.*;: Annual Report of the Registrar-General, various years, and Statistics of the State of Queensland, various years; ABS, Queensland Year Book, various years; ABS, Population Growth and Growth Rates in the Intercensal Period in Statistical Divisions and Local Government Areas, Queensland, various issues, Cat. no ; ABS, unpublished data. Important coal finds were made at Limestone (Ipswich) in 1827, Redbank in 183, Blair Athol in and Mount Mulligan in Copper was found at Cloncurry in 1867 and tin at Stanthorpe in 1872 and Herberton in By the 1950s Mount Isa was producing silver, lead, zinc and copper, and by the 1960s, the coal resources of the Bowen Basin were being developed. Increasing settlement in rural areas contributed to the decentralisation of the State's population. Between and 1915 large pastoral holdings continued to be broken up for closer settlement, contributing to the increase in the rural population. Governments encouraged settlement in rural areas. In the immediate post-world War I period, government programs were in place to settle ex-servicemen in rural areas. Soldier settlement schemes from 1918 to 1927 opened up more than 200,000 hectares throughout Queensland for agriculture. After World War II a War Service Land Settlement Scheme was part of the Commonwealth Government's policy for the resettlement of ex-servicemen. Agricultural industries attracted a large of people to certain areas. Sugar cane cultivation in coastal areas and fruit growing on the Granite Belt (temperate fruits), in the South Burnett (citrus), and on the far northern coast (bananas) supported the development of towns and cities such as Ingham, Innisfail, Mackay, Bundaberg and Stanthorpe. Irrigation schemes led to growth in certain rural areas such as the Atherton Tableland (tobacco), the Ayr-Home Hill area (sugar) and the St George area (cotton). Large land clearances opened up the brigalow country in central Queensland for pastoral activity and some agriculture. 66

6 Table 3.3 Population (a) on the goldfields and total population by region (b), Queensland, - Proportion Region Goldfields Total on goldfields Northern Central Southern Total 3,102 1,023 3,9 8,99 12,21 18,298 1,808 17,168 18,71 93, , ,708 56,127 6,80 7, , ,108 25, DEMOGRAPHY Development was also strongly influenced by the need for shipping as a means of transport within the State as well as interstate and overseas. Coastal settlements from Brisbane in the south-east to Normanton in the Gulf of Carpentaria developed as ports. Mineral expansion and pastoral activity led to a need for railways to move produce from inland to the coastal ports. Towns developed as service centres along the new railways and factories developed along the coast close to the supply of raw materials. Coastal ports became export centres with associated infrastructure. The population of Queensland became increasingly urbanised between 1921 and 1971 (table 3.). In 1921, 52.1 of the State's 57,859 72, ,32 510, population were in urban areas. By 1971, this 71, , proportion had increased to 79.3 and since (a) At 31 December. then has plateaued. Although the proportion (b) See footnote (b), table 3.2. of people living in rural areas declined from Source: Registrar-General, Statistics of the State of 7.5 in 1921 to 20.7 in 1991, the rural Queensland, various years, and Vital Statistics: Annual Report of the Registrar-General, various years. population actually grew from 359,01 to 616,707 over this period. From 1971 to 1991 the rural population increased by 6.3, compared with 62.9 for the urban population. The gradually increasing concentration of population in Queensland's southern region has been due mainly to population settlement in the south-east corner of the State. Principally, Table 3. Population (a) by urban and rural areas, Queensland, Year Urban (b) Rural Total (c) ,666 98, ,00,158,6,282, ,01, , ,39 398, ,972 97, ,318,259 1,518,828 1,682, ,8, ,633, ,816, : 1,01, : 1,359, ,376 01,75 76,26 52,9 616, ,827,065 2,037,19 2,295,123 2,587,315 2,977,810 (a) Persons enumerated in ABS censuses. Full-blood Aboriginal persons were excluded from the census until Data for 1996 Census not yet available. Some figures in this table are revised and may differ from figures elsewhere in this publication. (b) For comprises 'metropolitan' and 'provincial'; for 'metropolitan' and 'other'; from 1971 'major urban' and 'other urban'. From 195 towns of 1,000 persons or more which were not separately incorporated were included in 'other urban', whereas previously they were classified as rural. (c) Includes migratory. Source: ABS, Census, various years, in ABS, Year Book, Australia, various years. 67

7 QUEENSLAND PAST AND PRESENT population growth has flourished in the Brisbane Statistical Division and on both the Gold and Sunshine Coast regions. The rapid growth of population in these regions since the 1970s is due mainly to net interstate migration, the result of a broad range of factors including climate and other environmental attributes, the availability of employment, and proximity to facilities and services. The population growth of Queensland's major urban centres for the years is shown in table 3.5. Most coastal cities have shown strong growth, particularly those that have experienced growth as a result of increased tourist activities. The Gold Coast urban region provides a good example, with population having increased from,218 in 1933 to 27,157 in Charters Towers, the second largest population centre in Queensland in, declined rapidly in size when the supply of surface gold was exhausted. COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE Growth in population occurs through natural increase (the difference between births and deaths) and net migration (the difference between incoming and outgoing migration in Queensland's case both overseas and interstate migration apply). Natural increase Natural increase in Queensland's population from to 1996 is shown in figure 3.3 and tables 3.6 and 3.7. Natural increase rose from 8,372 in to 25,88 in 1996, although the rate of natural increase fell from 18.7 to 7.6 over the same period (table 3.6). Fluctuations in the rate of natural increase between and 1996 have been due to changes in the birth rate rather than the death rate which has declined gradually over this period (figure 3.3). Natural increase contributed 82.2 of population growth in -1900, but fell to 33.0 in the period due to a decline in the birth rate and an increase in net interstate migration (table 3.7). Figure 3.3 Births, deaths and natural increase, Queensland, , Source: GSO and ABS data, in ABS, Demographic History of Queensland, Cat. no ; ABS, Queensland Year Book, 1997; ABS, Births. Australia, J996, Cat. no ; ABS, Deaths, Australia, 1996, Cat. no

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