Water Cycle Management

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Water Cycle Management"

Transcription

1 Water Cycle Management A Draft Position Paper prepared by the National Committee on Water Engineering SUMMARY This draft Position Paper outlines the Australia s water resources and how we use our water. It is increasingly being recognised that new development will not be sustainable with respect to water unless integrated strategies to manage the water cycle are implemented. This paper supports the adoption and implementation of such integrated strategies and promotes the conservation of our drinking water and the more efficient and effective re-use of our stormwater and wastewater resources to reduce the use of high quality drinkable water for purposes which only require a lower quality of water. 1 Introduction Continued traditional urban development in Australia's coastal cities will rapidly approach the limits of sustainability. New urban developments are increasing the pressure on the environment through the need to develop new drinkable water supplies and the discharge of polluted stormwater and treated wastewater into receiving waterways and the ocean. Unless integrated strategies to manage the total water available from all sources is adopted, new urban developments in our cities will rapidly become unsustainable. Inland cities which are dependant on inland waterways for water supply, disposal of stormwater and wastewater, and water based recreation, are also increasingly experiencing water quality problems which to a significant degree are due to the environmental pressure exerted by expanding urban development. The quantity of stormwater runoff from our cities is about equal to the amount of drinkable water which is supplied, so there is a potential for expanded collection, storage and re-use of stormwater for non-drinking purposes. Similarly there is the potential to reduce the demand for drinkable water by up to 50% through the re-use of treated wastewater for non-drinking purposes. Likewise, the abstraction of water from Australia's waterways for rural and agricultural use is increasingly impacting on the health of our river systems. In recent years there has been an increasingly recognition that our river systems require minimum (environmental) flows to maintain their health and that the needs of the environment require balancing with rural demands for water. The sustainable development of Australia will be governed in part by our ability to better manage the water cycle and to develop new resources in an ecologically sustainable manner. Water engineers have a key role in implementing water cycle management. It involves integrating water balance, water quality and water consumption into the land use planning, design and management of both urban and rural environments. 2 Our Water Resources Australia's average annual rainfall of 465 mm is considerably lower than that of other continents which range from 600 mm in Asia to 1,630 mm in South America. The estimated

2 average annual runoff of 397 million ML is equivalent to 52 mm of runoff or just 11% of the mean annual rainfall (MAR). In contrast, the estimated runoff in Asia is 48% MAR and in South America, 57% MAR. While these figures illustrate that Australia is relatively dry, it also suffers from high variability. For example the ratio of annual flood peak flow to annual runoff is an order of magnitude greater than ratios for the rest of the world. In hydrological terms, Australia provides the greatest challenges in responding to its extremes and variations in rainfall and runoff. It has been estimated that Australia's annual divertible surface water resource is 100 million ML of which 21 million ML has been developed while Australia's annual divertible groundwater resource is 14 million ML of which around 2 million ML has been developed (DPIE, 1987). The divertible water resource is defined as the average annual volume of water which, using current technology, could be removed from developed or potential surface water or groundwater sources on a sustainable basis without causing adverse effects or long term depletion of storages. However, the magnitude of the divertible is not proportional to area on a State-by-State basis. The largest runoff in Australia is in the tropical regions. The runoff into the Gulf of Carpentaria and into the Timor Sea accounts for almost half of the annual runoff in Australia (Ironmonger, 1988). The regions rich in water are often remote from regions of high demand and this will determine limits on economic and sustainable growth. 3 How We Use our Water It has also been estimated that irrigation of pasture, crops and horticultural irrigation represents almost 70% of Australia's total water use. Of the balance, domestic water use represents 40% of the remaining water use. On average, major in-house uses of water comprise 55% of total domestic use. A high proportion of external use of domestic water is watering gardens. During summer months even greater amounts of water are used to water gardens, lawns and open space. This highlights the opportunity to use a lower quality of water instead of high quality drinking water for external domestic use. 4 Sustaining the Water Cycle The draft strategy for Ecologically sustainable Development (ESDSC, 1992) identified the goal of "ecologically sustainable development" as: "development that improves the total quality of life, both now and in the future, in a way that maintains the ecological processes on which life depends." The three core objectives underpinning this goal were identified as: to enhance individual and community well-being and welfare by following a path of economic development that safeguards the welfare of future generations. to provide for equity within and between generations; and to protect biological diversity and maintain ecological processes and systems." It is increasingly being recognised that new development will not be sustainable with respect to water unless integrated strategies to manage the water cycle are implemented. Such strategies aim to achieve ecologically sustainable development through:

3 a recognition that the components of natural ecosystems are interdependent and thus require the integration of development and management, and the maintenance of the essential biophysical functions of water and related resources through a balanced response to the economic, social and environmental aspiration of the community. The National Water Quality Management Strategy (anzecc/awrc, 1992) identifies a similar objective, namely: "to achieve sustainable use of the nation's water resources by protecting and enhancing their quality while maintaining economic and social development." The goal of ecologically sustainable development will only be achieved through a reexamination of traditional practices and the formulation and implementation of new practices which: recognise that both stormwater and wastewater are a resource not a nuisance to be disposed of as quickly as possible into receiving waters; re-use stormwater and wastewater after treatment to reduce the demand on a drinkable water resource; and use integrated (total) catchment management as the primary management tool. 5 The National Water Quality Management Strategy For the first time in Australia, a national strategy for managing the quality of the country s water resources - surface water, groundwater and coastal - is under development. The National Water Quality Management Strategy is a joint project of the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) and ARMCANZ. The NHMRC is associated with the project, having particular responsibility for areas of the strategy relating to public health. The strategy aims to provide a comprehensive policy to achieve the sustainable use of the nation s water resources by protecting and enhancing their quality while maintaining economic and social development. The suite of guidelines which have been released to date and of direct interest for water cycle management include: The Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters; Australian Drinking Water Guidelines; Guidelines for Sewerage Systems; Guidelines for Urban Stormwater Management; Effluent Management Guidelines.; and Guidelines for Groundwater Protection in Australia. 6 Water Cycle Management Water cycle management can be viewed as a broadly based interactive approach that addresses competing community demands placed on a region's water resources so as to meet defined water quantity and quality objectives. The principle infrastructure components required to satisfy water cycle management objectives include

4 drinkable (reticulated) water supply; sewage collection, treatment and effluent disposal; stormwater collection, treatment and disposal; and reclaimed (recycled) water collection, storage, treatment and re-use or disposal. The water cycle management scheme developed for Homebush Bay by the Olympic Coordination Authority is shown in Figure 1. It highlights the complex interactions between the four water "streams". Figure 1 Water Cycle Management Scheme for Homebush Bay (after Moss and Listowski, 1999) 6.1 Drinkable Water In Australia a typical household consumes an average 900 L of drinkable water per day. On average, major in-house uses represent 55% of total domestic water use. This includes toilet flushing (14%), showers (13%), laundry (12%), baths (7%), dishwashing (6%) and drinking and cooking (3%) (Ironmonger, 1988). The remaining drinkable water (45%) is applied to lawns and gardens. In the hottest months of summer, household consumption rises to around 2000 L per day. The additional demand is primarily garden watering to maintain lawns and gardens during the summer months. The volume of drinkable water applied to household gardens and lawns is approximately equal to the entire industrial use of water. The value of water used for industry and garden and lawn watering each exceed the paid dollar value of water used for agricultural purposes even though agricultural use is some 10 times greater than industrial use and 6.5 times greater than domestic use (Ironmonger, 1988). Better management of our drinkable water resource is integrally linked to both water conservation and the more efficient and effective re-use of our stormwater and wastewater

5 resources to reduce the use of high quality drinkable water for purposes which only require a lower quality of water. 6.2 Sewage While modern sewage treatment plants treat our wastes to very high standards, the treated wastewater still contains nutrients and in particular biologically available phosphorus which is typically introduced in detergents. During dry years in the Murray-Darling Basin, it was concluded (GHD, 1992) that point source discharges, particularly from sewage treatment plants, are the most significant source of nutrients which can lead to algae blooms. Modern biological treatment processes can further reduce phosphorus levels, but it is becoming more difficult and expensive to reduce phosphorus concentrations further to low levels. Even low levels may still give rise to eutrophication of the receiving waters. 6.3 Stormwater The traditional approach to stormwater management has been to treat runoff as a nuisance which poses a potential risk to life and property. Nuisance flooding has been largely eliminated through the construction of piped drainage systems while larger flows up to the 100 year Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) flood are transported by trunk drains and floodways. Urban runoff has been further controlled by the construction of large detention basins to reduce downstream flow rates. The focus of control has been on the quantity of runoff. In recent years, however there has been an increasing recognition of the need to control and improve the quality of stormwater runoff. An integrated approach to stormwater management has evolved. It can include: legislation and public education; implementation of sediment and erosion controls during land development; retention of natural creeks augmented by retardation basins in preference to the construction of trunk stormwater pipe systems and concrete-lined drains; construction of major and minor gross pollutant traps to intercept trash, debris and coarse sediments; construction of water pollution control ponds and wetlands to act as physical and biological treatment systems; and establishment of urban lakes as biological treatment systems. 6.4 Reclaimed (Recycled) Water Increasingly, wastewater is also being viewed as a resource which is capable of replacing drinkable water which is used for lower water quality purposes. The re-cycling of treated wastewater offers a number of advantages including (Smyth, 1992): removal of a major source of nutrients from receiving waters and waterways; it is a regular, consistent and reasonably assured source of water; and the cost of additional treatment is financially viable. While it is recognised that additional costs will be incurred in providing dual use systems to reticulate treated wastewater, better sewerage system management through re-cycling has the potential to significantly reduce the requirement to treat all domestic water to drinkable

6 quality, reduce the discharge of nutrients to receiving waters and to improve the urban environment through landscape opportunities. Stormwater runoff from Australian cities is about equal to the amount of drinkable water which is supplied (CEPA, 1993). More than half of all domestic water is used for lower water quality purposes including garden watering and toilet flushing. There is therefore potential to also store and re-use stormwater for non-drinking purposes and to markedly reduce the demand for drinkable water. Better stormwater management will convert the liability of polluted stormwater into a valuable resource, which is capable of sustaining a range of ecosystems and water bodies of scientific, landscape and recreational value. 7. The Engineer's Role Water engineers have a key role in the sustainable management of the water cycle. Engineers are responsible for the identification and assessment of raw water sources; for the design, construction, operation and management of water cycle infrastructure including reservoirs, pipelines and pumping installations, water treatment plants and water supply distribution systems, sewerage systems, sewage treatment plants, drainage systems and stormwater treatment facilities including swales, gross pollutant traps, trash racks, ponds and wetlands. 8 The Position of Engineers Australia Engineers Australia supports the adoption and implementation of integrated water cycle management strategies and promotes the conservation of our drinking water and the more efficient and effective re-use of our stormwater and wastewater resources to reduce the use of high quality drinkable water for purposes which only require a lower quality of water. Engineers Australia demonstrates this support by: contributing to the development of water quality criteria and guidelines and of good design guidelines and design practice; actively supporting the collection of comprehensive water quantity and quality data; encouraging research into better methods of water cycle management; and sponsoring and organising conferences, symposia and/or workshops on aspects of water cycle management through the National Committee on Water Engineering. 9 References Commonwealth Environment Protection Agency (1993) "Urban Stormwater, A Resource Too Valuable to Waste", Discussion Paper, February, 23 pp. Department of Primary Industries and Energy (1987) "1985 Review of Australia's Water Resources and Water Use", Australian Water Resources Council, 2 Vols, AGPS, Canberra. Ecologically Sustainable Development Steering Committee "Draft National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development", AGPS, Canberra. Gutteridge Haskins & Davey Pty. Ltd. (1992) "An Investigation of Nutrient Pollution in the Murray-Darling River Sytstem", prepared for the Murray-Darling Basin Commission, January, Canberra.

7 Hill, A.L. and Nicholson, C.J. (1989) "Water Conserving Design for Gardens and Open Space". Report No. WP89, Water Resources Directorate, Water Authority of Western Australia. Ironmonger, D.S. (1988) "The Role of Water Resources in Australia's Economic System", Civil Engineering Tranactions, IE Aust., Vol CE30, No. 4, pp Moss, J. and Listowski, A. (1999) Water Cycle Management at Homebush Bay, Keynote Paper, 8th International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, IEAust., 30 August 3 September, Sydney. For Further Information Please Contact National Committee on Water Engineering Engineers Australia 11 National Circuit BARTON ACT 2600 Telephone: (02) Facsimile: (02) This Position Paper was prepared on behalf of the National Committee on Water Engineering by Dr Brett C. Phillips

Best Practice Water Conservation Principles

Best Practice Water Conservation Principles Best Practice Water Conservation Principles Reducing dependency on River Murray water DRAFT FOR CONSULTATION This guide covers: 1. An introduction to water conservation and its relevance to Local Government

More information

Responding to the challenges

Responding to the challenges WATER PROOFING THE WEST STAGE ONE MOVING TOWARDS A WATER SENSITIVE CITY Adrian Sykes Strategic Infrastructure Executive Officer, City of Charles Sturt Woodville, Adelaide, South Australia Abstract This

More information

DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water

DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water Abstract.: 112 DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water ABSTRACT Goulburn-Murray Water (G-MW) owns, operates and maintains an extensive regional drainage

More information

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers We are the Environment Agency. It s our job to look after your environment and make it a better place for you, and for future generations. Your

More information

Decision process for stormwater management in WA

Decision process for stormwater management in WA Decision process for stormwater management in WA A component of Chapter 4: Integrating stormwater management approaches, Stormwater management manual for Western Australia (Department of Water 2004 07)

More information

MANAGING SEWAGE DISCHARGES TO INLAND WATERS. Publication 473 December 1995

MANAGING SEWAGE DISCHARGES TO INLAND WATERS. Publication 473 December 1995 MANAGING SEWAGE DISCHARGES TO INLAND WATERS Publication 473 December 1995 FOREWORD A critic of waterway management in Victoria once exclaimed "Our rivers are all going downhill what are you doing about

More information

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES. April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES. April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GOALS AND POLICIES 4.2.A General Goals and Policies 1 4.2.B

More information

Use of Concrete Additives to Improve the Quality of Stormwater Runoff from a Car Park

Use of Concrete Additives to Improve the Quality of Stormwater Runoff from a Car Park Use of Concrete Additives to Improve the Quality of Stormwater Runoff from a Car Park A. Dunphy 1 * and S. Beecham 2 1 Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW

More information

Designed and produced by geo-graphicsdesign.com DP 300 3/02

Designed and produced by geo-graphicsdesign.com DP 300 3/02 Designed and produced by geo-graphicsdesign.com DP 300 3/02 Guidance for Developers and Regulators Purpose This booklet is produced on behalf of the North East Scotland Flooding Advisory Group and is intended

More information

Urban Water Supply and Use

Urban Water Supply and Use A Collaboration of National Community Organisations Urban Water Supply and Use Water scarcity is a serious issue facing Australia s major cities. Australia is a highly urbanised country (89 per cent of

More information

Melbourne, Australia. Melbourne: The city as a catchment approach. The importance of holistic urban water management

Melbourne, Australia. Melbourne: The city as a catchment approach. The importance of holistic urban water management SWITCH Training Kit 1 Melbourne: The city as a catchment approach A prolonged period of drought, increasing population and polluted stormwater runoff are adding pressures to Southern Australia s water

More information

Water pollution: the human connection

Water pollution: the human connection Water pollution: the human connection boat ramp surfing waves Warm up: have you ever seen polluted water? what does polluted water look like? what does it smell like? Notes: 1. Ask the students to write

More information

Department of Planning Report for Riverstone and Alex Avenue Precincts

Department of Planning Report for Riverstone and Alex Avenue Precincts Department of Planning Report for Riverstone and Alex Avenue Precincts Post Exhibition Flooding and Water Cycle Management (incl. Climate Change impact on Flooding) May 2010 Contents 1. Background 1 1.1

More information

Summary: Introduction

Summary: Introduction Summary: Melbourne Water has a range of responsibilities in the Port Phillip and Westernport region, including responsibilities for the protection and restoration of waterways and, in collaboration with

More information

Stormwater harvesting

Stormwater harvesting Stormwater harvesting How to collect and re-use stormwater from Sydney Water s stormwater system Most of the stormwater pipes and channels in the Sydney metropolitan area are the responsibility of local

More information

Local planning for healthy waterways using NSW Water Quality Objectives. wsud.org

Local planning for healthy waterways using NSW Water Quality Objectives. wsud.org Local planning for healthy waterways using NSW Water Quality Objectives wsud.org This booklet outlines how incorporating water quality objectives into strategic planning of development is a key way that

More information

Drainage Your Responsibilities

Drainage Your Responsibilities 1 County Borough Map 2 Drainage Your Responsibilities What do I do if a road gully blocks? Contact Neath Port Talbot Borough Council s Service First Team by telephone on 01639 686868 (24 hours). Land Drainage

More information

3.4 DRAINAGE PLAN. 3.4.1 Characteristics of Existing Drainages. 3.4.2 Master Drainage System. Section 3: Development Plan BUTTERFIELD SPECIFIC PLAN

3.4 DRAINAGE PLAN. 3.4.1 Characteristics of Existing Drainages. 3.4.2 Master Drainage System. Section 3: Development Plan BUTTERFIELD SPECIFIC PLAN 3.4 DRAINAGE PLAN This section describes the existing onsite drainage characteristics and improvements proposed within this Specific Plan. Following this description, drainage plan development standards

More information

WATER SAVINGS PROJECT. Final Report

WATER SAVINGS PROJECT. Final Report WATER SAVINGS PROJECT Final Report September 2005 An initiative funded under the Natural Heritage Trust This report can be downloaded at: www.daff.gov.au/wspfinalreport Commonwealth of Australia 2005 WATER

More information

Retention/Irrigation. Design Considerations. Soil for Infiltration Area Required Slope Environmental Side-effects

Retention/Irrigation. Design Considerations. Soil for Infiltration Area Required Slope Environmental Side-effects Description Retention/irrigation refers to the capture of stormwater runoff in a holding pond and subsequent use of the captured volume for irrigation of landscape of natural pervious areas. This technology

More information

Recycled water: commercial considerations

Recycled water: commercial considerations Western Australia is a dry state in a dry continent. Water is vital to life and our quality of life and it supports the natural environment, public health, the economy, community amenity and recreation.

More information

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development Environmental Protection What is a watershed? It does not matter how far away you build from a creek, lake, or the ocean, you are in a watershed. Another

More information

WATER LAKES THE CITY OF ORLANDO IS HOME TO MORE THAN Green Works Orlando Community Action Plan. Overview

WATER LAKES THE CITY OF ORLANDO IS HOME TO MORE THAN Green Works Orlando Community Action Plan. Overview WATER 2013 Green Works Orlando Community Action Plan Overview Freshwater is abundant throughout Central Florida; Orlando alone has more than 100 lakes, nearly 10% of the entire land area of the City. Many

More information

Artificial Recharge of Tertiary Treated Sewage to the Ezousas Aquifer in Cyprus

Artificial Recharge of Tertiary Treated Sewage to the Ezousas Aquifer in Cyprus Water Development Department Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment Artificial Recharge of Tertiary Treated Sewage to the Ezousas Aquifer in Cyprus Antonis Antoniou Executive Engineer

More information

Water Recycling in action in South Australia: a review of agricultural and municipal reuse schemes and innovation.

Water Recycling in action in South Australia: a review of agricultural and municipal reuse schemes and innovation. Water Recycling in action in South Australia: a review of agricultural and municipal reuse schemes and innovation. S. Rinck-Pfeiffer * Veolia Water/United Water, Parkside, GPO Box 1875, Adelaide, South

More information

Impacts of Climate on Wastewater Management. Discussion Brief No 5

Impacts of Climate on Wastewater Management. Discussion Brief No 5 Impacts of Climate on Wastewater Management Discussion Brief No 5 October 2014 Impacts of Climate on Wastewater Management The sewer is the conscience of the city Les Miserables, Victor Hugo The sewer

More information

Flood risk management in Australia

Flood risk management in Australia Flood risk management in Australia The National Flood Risk Advisory Group introduces and discusses the National Flood Risk Management Guideline. Abstract This paper introduces the work of the National

More information

Creating the environment for business

Creating the environment for business 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Water Cycle Strategies (WCS) 1.1.1 Background The water cycle describes the pathways and processes through which water moves through the natural and built environment,

More information

SECTION 2. Monitoring water quality in estuaries

SECTION 2. Monitoring water quality in estuaries 2 1 SECTION 2 Monitoring water quality in estuaries The Waterwatch program includes testing of a number of water quality parameters to provide information about the health of the waterway under investigation.

More information

CHAPTER II SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ELEMENT

CHAPTER II SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CHAPTER II TABLE OF CONTENTS Objective 1-Master Stormwater Management Plan Implementation... 1 Objective 2- Meeting Future Needs... 5 Objective 3- Concurrency Management... 6 Objective 4- Natural Drainage

More information

Melbourne Water s Submission. Draft Victorian Floodplain Management Strategy

Melbourne Water s Submission. Draft Victorian Floodplain Management Strategy Melbourne Water s Submission Draft Victorian Floodplain Management Strategy Waterways, drainage and floodplains are essential to life and liveability. The rivers, creeks, estuaries, wetlands and floodplains

More information

Lavasa s Integrated Water & Waste Water Management

Lavasa s Integrated Water & Waste Water Management Lavasa s Integrated Water & Waste Water Management CASE STUDY 3.4 MLD WATER TREATMENT PLANT 2.4 MLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT Summary Integrated Water Management (IWM) is a strategy that brings together all

More information

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The overall aim of the recently agreed European Union Water Framework Directive is the protection and enhancement of all surface waters and groundwater in the European Union,

More information

Water Recycles poster

Water Recycles poster Water Recycles poster The "Water ReCycles" poster is designed for students of all ages. It shows the natural water cycle and humans influence on water resources. Raincloud illustration The raincloud in

More information

Urban Water Quality August 2010

Urban Water Quality August 2010 Urban Water Quality August 2010 1 Otago Regional Council Urban Water Quality Strategy Vision Good water quality allows for the safe, healthy and enjoyable appreciation and use of Otago water environments.

More information

Step 3. Developing a Municipal Source Water Protection Plan: A Guide for Water Utilities and Municipalities

Step 3. Developing a Municipal Source Water Protection Plan: A Guide for Water Utilities and Municipalities Environment Developing a Municipal Source Water Protection Plan: A Guide for Water Utilities and Municipalities Step Identify Potential Contaminants and Assess Risk Prepared by: Nova Scotia Environment

More information

POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES

POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY POLICIES AND PRINCIPLES A Reference Document April 1994 Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand Australian and New Zealand Environment

More information

A case study for the Ecovillage at Currumbin integrated water management planning, design and construction

A case study for the Ecovillage at Currumbin integrated water management planning, design and construction Water Resources Management IV 33 A case study for the Ecovillage at Currumbin integrated water management planning, design and construction C. J. Tanner Bligh Tanner Pty Ltd, Australia Abstract This paper

More information

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WASTEWATER TREATMENT Freshwater WASTEWATER TREATMENT Water Quality 1. INDICATOR (a) Name: Wastewater treatment. (b) Brief Definition: Proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged

More information

Type of Sewer Systems. Solomon Seyoum

Type of Sewer Systems. Solomon Seyoum Type of Sewer Systems Solomon Seyoum 0 Learning objectives Upon completion of this lecture, the participants will be able to differentiate between types of sewer systems and discuss different aspects of

More information

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Page 1 Chapter Use of Reclaimed Water

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Page 1 Chapter Use of Reclaimed Water Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Page 1 SUBCHAPTER F: USE OF GRAYWATER AND ALTERNATIVE ONSITE WATER 210.81-210.85 Effective December 29, 2016 210.81. Applicability. (a) This subchapter applies

More information

Water sensitive urban design. Creating more liveable and water sensitive cities in South Australia

Water sensitive urban design. Creating more liveable and water sensitive cities in South Australia Water sensitive urban design Creating more liveable and water sensitive cities in South Australia Contents Foreword... 4 1. Introduction... 5 2. The need for a stronger approach to WSUD in South Australia...

More information

City of Green Bay Department of Public Works Engineering Department

City of Green Bay Department of Public Works Engineering Department City of Green Bay Department of Public Works Engineering Department The Difference Between Sanitary & Storm Sewers Contact Information: Department of Public Works City Hall 100 North Jefferson Street,

More information

Guidance on applying for approval of installation of a commercial onsite wastewater system

Guidance on applying for approval of installation of a commercial onsite wastewater system Guidance on applying for approval of installation of a commercial onsite wastewater system This factsheet is designed to assist you to complete an Application to construct or install an apparatus for the

More information

Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. CIVL 1112 Detention Ponds - Part 1 1/12

Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. CIVL 1112 Detention Ponds - Part 1 1/12 CIVL 1112 - Part 1 1/12 The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The water cycle, also known as the

More information

INDEX. Introduction 3. The Septic System 3. What Does The Septic Tank Do? 4. Where It All Goes 5. Problems 7. Some Dontʼs 8

INDEX. Introduction 3. The Septic System 3. What Does The Septic Tank Do? 4. Where It All Goes 5. Problems 7. Some Dontʼs 8 1 INDEX Introduction 3 The Septic System 3 What Does The Septic Tank Do? 4 Where It All Goes 5 Problems 7 Some Dontʼs 8 Management of Your On-Site System 9 Tank Maintenance 9 Disposal Field Area 10 Appendix

More information

DIRECT POTABLE REUSE: A PATH FORWARD:

DIRECT POTABLE REUSE: A PATH FORWARD: DIRECT POTABLE REUSE: A PATH FORWARD: 2012 WATER REUSE CONFERENCE Boise, ID April 17, 2012 George Tchobanoglous Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental

More information

Desalination Fact Sheet

Desalination Fact Sheet Desalination Fact Sheet This fact sheet has been produced to provide general information on the process of desalination and address the environmental issues associated with the NSW Government proposal

More information

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Phosphorus Phosphorus Brochure Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management Reducing Phosphorus Website Washington State Department of Ecology www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Nutrients

More information

Water Scarcity in Egypt:

Water Scarcity in Egypt: 2014 Water Scarcity in Egypt: Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt February 2014 I. Introduction Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national

More information

The DPSIR Framework. Background 1

The DPSIR Framework. Background 1 The DPSIR Framework Peter Kristensen National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark Department of Policy Analysis European Topic Centre on Water, European Environment Agency Email: pkr@dmu.dk Paper

More information

Pollution Control NEW! NEW! Stormwater Attenuation Systems Sustainable Urban Drainage Solutions for Domestic & Commercial Applications. klargester.

Pollution Control NEW! NEW! Stormwater Attenuation Systems Sustainable Urban Drainage Solutions for Domestic & Commercial Applications. klargester. Pollution Control NEW! NEW! Stormwater Attenuation Systems Sustainable Urban Drainage Solutions for Domestic & Commercial Applications klargester.com Stormwater Attenuation Systems Sustainable Urban Drainage

More information

This publication was prepared by the Minnesota River Data Review Team. Additional review was provided by the Minnesota Department of Health.

This publication was prepared by the Minnesota River Data Review Team. Additional review was provided by the Minnesota Department of Health. This publication was prepared by the Minnesota River Data Review Team. Additional review was provided by the Minnesota Department of Health. The data review team is coordinated by the Minnesota River Basin

More information

Yard Habits. Lets Get the Facts. Sponsored by the Johnson County Partnership for Water Quality

Yard Habits. Lets Get the Facts. Sponsored by the Johnson County Partnership for Water Quality Yard Habits Lets Get the Facts Sponsored by the Johnson County Partnership for Water Quality WATER POLLUTION Sources of water pollution like industrial wastes from factories have been greatly reduced in

More information

edms 8. AUSTRALIA 8.1 Water Resources Management Policies and Actions

edms 8. AUSTRALIA 8.1 Water Resources Management Policies and Actions 8. AUSTRALIA 8.1 Water Resources Management Policies and Actions In Australia, an Intergovernmental Agreement for a National Water Initiative (NWI) was signed by the Australian Government, all state and

More information

5.14 Floodplains and Drainage/Hydrology

5.14 Floodplains and Drainage/Hydrology I-70 East Final EIS 5.14 Floodplains and Drainage/Hydrology 5.14 Floodplains and Drainage/Hydrology This section discusses floodplain and drainage/hydrology resources and explains why they are important

More information

Stormwater management around the world Lessons from Novatech 2010 Dennis Corbett and Marion Urrutiaguer

Stormwater management around the world Lessons from Novatech 2010 Dennis Corbett and Marion Urrutiaguer Stormwater management around the world Lessons from Novatech 2010 Dennis Corbett and Marion Urrutiaguer Novatech 2010, the 7th international conference on sustainable techniques and strategies in urban

More information

The urban water crisis

The urban water crisis The urban water crisis Most cities suffering from severe water scarcity;water conflicts Urban flooding after every monsoon Declining groundwater tables; Urban water bodies polluted and dying Water supply

More information

edms 21. SOUTH AFRICA

edms 21. SOUTH AFRICA 21. SOUTH AFRICA 21.1 Water Resources Management Policies and Actions In South Africa, the National Water Policy (NWP) has been adopted by the Cabinet in 1997. It states three fundamental objectives for

More information

Pollution Prevention Guidance

Pollution Prevention Guidance Pollution Prevention Guidance Contents Introduction: Only rain down the drain! 1 What are the issues? 1 Pollution prevention guidance 2 How to Yellow Fish 4 Pollution facts 5 Contact and publication details

More information

Focus on the Future: Opportunities for Sustainability In Western Australia

Focus on the Future: Opportunities for Sustainability In Western Australia Focus on the Future: Opportunities for Sustainability In Western Australia Submission to The Western Australian Government In Response to the Consultation Paper On Sustainability April 2002 Contact: Richard

More information

5.7 Water supply and, wastewater treatment and disposal

5.7 Water supply and, wastewater treatment and disposal Section 5: Themes and groups of activities information 5.7 Water supply and, wastewater treatment and disposal 5.7 Water supply and, wastewater treatment and disposal Watercare is a council-controlled

More information

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS overflow can lead into a permeable conveyance system to increase further the benefit and reduce the need for pipe systems. Pollutant removal rates have been shown to be high, with some pollutants being

More information

DESIGN OF STORM WATER DETENTION POND

DESIGN OF STORM WATER DETENTION POND Yunnan Chuxiong Urban Environment Improvement Project (RRP PRC 45507) DESIGN OF STORM WATER DETENTION POND A. Background 1. Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture (Chuxiong prefecture) is located at about 160

More information

To Reuse or Not to Reuse? That is the Question... In Our Homes. In New Developments

To Reuse or Not to Reuse? That is the Question... In Our Homes. In New Developments H E L P U S P R E S E R V E O U R W A T E R R E S O U R C E S To Reuse or Not to Reuse? That is the Question... A practice that extends our limited, finite water resources is, without question, a practice

More information

Water Security Agency. Plan for 2015-16. saskatchewan.ca

Water Security Agency. Plan for 2015-16. saskatchewan.ca Water Security Agency Plan for 2015-16 saskatchewan.ca Statement from the Minister I am pleased to present the Water Security Agency s Plan for 2015-16. The Honourable Scott Moe Minister Responsible for

More information

Legend Murray-Darling coal reserve. Water stress (raster cells of WTA ratio; year 2000) Capacity in MW

Legend Murray-Darling coal reserve. Water stress (raster cells of WTA ratio; year 2000) Capacity in MW 6 Water Sustainability and Power Generation in AUST STRALIA Figure 6: 6.1 Local water challenges Water challenges are experienced all across Australia s fresh water system, particularly in the Murray-Darling

More information

5. Environmental Analysis

5. Environmental Analysis 5.11 The potential for adverse impacts on utilities and service systems was evaluated based on information concerning current service levels and the ability of the service providers to accommodate the

More information

Melbourne Water Flood Risk Assessment: How flood impacts are assessed in the Port Phillip and Westernport region

Melbourne Water Flood Risk Assessment: How flood impacts are assessed in the Port Phillip and Westernport region Melbourne Water Flood Risk Assessment: How flood impacts are assessed in the Port Phillip and Westernport region INTRODUCTION Melbourne Water is the regional drainage and floodplain management authority

More information

URBAN STORMWATER GUIDELINES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR PROTECTION OF FISH AND FISH HABITAT DRAFT DISCUSSION DOCUMENT

URBAN STORMWATER GUIDELINES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR PROTECTION OF FISH AND FISH HABITAT DRAFT DISCUSSION DOCUMENT URBAN STORMWATER GUIDELINES AND BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR PROTECTION OF FISH AND FISH HABITAT DRAFT DISCUSSION DOCUMENT Contacts: Barry Chilibeck (666-3765) or Megan Sterling (666-2322) Revision 4

More information

A Growers Guide to. The Management of Greenhouse Nutrient Discharges

A Growers Guide to. The Management of Greenhouse Nutrient Discharges A Growers Guide to The Management of Greenhouse Nutrient Discharges Based on A Code of Practice for the Management of Greenhouse Nutrient Discharges June 2007 Contents Acknowledgements... 2 About this

More information

Water Conservation Questions - Key 1. Why should we conserve water? Because we cannot make anymore 2. Is there an unlimited amount of clean water?

Water Conservation Questions - Key 1. Why should we conserve water? Because we cannot make anymore 2. Is there an unlimited amount of clean water? Water Conservation Questions - Key 1. Why should we conserve water? Because we cannot make anymore 2. Is there an unlimited amount of clean water? no 3. Can we produce new water? no, all the water on the

More information

The Murray-Darling Basin

The Murray-Darling Basin 6 Water sustainability of agribusiness activities in Australia The Murray-Darling Basin 6.1 Local water challenges The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) inter-jurisdictional area is managed by the Australian

More information

case study 7: south east queensland healthy waterways partnership

case study 7: south east queensland healthy waterways partnership 2 Australia s National Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities introduction South-east Queensland s marine systems support large populations of dugongs

More information

Water Quality of Adelaide s Metropolitan Coastal Waters. - a community summary

Water Quality of Adelaide s Metropolitan Coastal Waters. - a community summary Water Quality of Adelaide s Metropolitan Coastal Waters - a community summary Introduction In February 1995 the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) began a long-term water quality monitoring program

More information

integrated water cycle strategy January 2012

integrated water cycle strategy January 2012 integrated water cycle strategy January 2012 1 Contact Us Prepared for City of Kingston Prepared by AECOM Level 45, 80 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC 3000 T +61 3 9653 8222 F +61 3 9653 8299 www.aecom.com

More information

CHAPTER 372-68 WAC WATER POLLUTION CONTROL AND ABATEMENT PLANS FOR SEWAGE DRAINAGE BASINS

CHAPTER 372-68 WAC WATER POLLUTION CONTROL AND ABATEMENT PLANS FOR SEWAGE DRAINAGE BASINS CHAPTER 372-68 WAC WATER POLLUTION CONTROL AND ABATEMENT PLANS FOR SEWAGE DRAINAGE BASINS Last Update: 6/8/88 WAC 372-68-010 Authority. 372-68-020 Purpose. 372-68-030 Definitions. 372-68-040 Planning guide.

More information

Environmental guidelines for preparation of an Environment Management Plan

Environmental guidelines for preparation of an Environment Management Plan Environmental guidelines for preparation of an Environment Management Plan Environment Protection Authority MAY 2013 Australian Capital Territory, Canberra 2013 This work is copyright. Apart from any use

More information

By The British Geographer

By The British Geographer The Murray-Darling Drainage Basin Examine the competing demands for water in a specific river basin. Evaluate the strategies that have been adopted to meet these demands Situation By The British Geographer

More information

a hunter water publication the water cycle

a hunter water publication the water cycle a hunter water publication the water cycle Water in our Life Do you ever think about water when you turn on the tap? Could you imagine what it would be like without water? We need it for drinking, cooking,

More information

Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) Model Stormwater Ordinance for Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements August 2010

Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) Model Stormwater Ordinance for Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements August 2010 Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) Model Stormwater Ordinance for Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements August 2010 Background What are permeable interlocking concrete pavements (PICP)?

More information

Getting More Out of the Water We Have

Getting More Out of the Water We Have Water Recycling and Reuse California has the potential to recycle enough water to meet 30-50% of the household water needs of our projected population growth. California Recycled Water Task Force Getting

More information

How do Earth s surface processes and human activities affect each other?

How do Earth s surface processes and human activities affect each other? Core Idea ESS3 Vocabulary Earth and Human Activity How do Earth s surface processes and human activities affect each other? Earth human activities planetary systems resource renewable or replaceable Natural

More information

Rivers, Watercourses & Groundwater

Rivers, Watercourses & Groundwater Rivers, Watercourses & Groundwater Fact Sheet 21 An introduction to Rivers, Watercourses and Groundwater Updated December 2010 Western Australia has a great diversity of water resources from perennial

More information

Toronto s Wet Weather Flow Master Plan

Toronto s Wet Weather Flow Master Plan Toronto s Wet Weather Flow Master Plan 1. The Master Plan 2. The Don And Waterfront Study 3. What the Individual Can Do Wet Weather Flow Management Master Plan 2000 Storm Presentation to Don Mouth Naturalization...

More information

EU China River Basin Management Programme

EU China River Basin Management Programme Ministry of Water Resources Ministry of Environmental Protection EU China River Basin Management Programme Technical Report 075 Water Resource Supply Security Strategy Analysis Ben Piper, Zhang Wang and

More information

Water Security Action Plan 2011-2016

Water Security Action Plan 2011-2016 Water Security Action Plan 2011-2016 Approved on: 30 May 2011 Owner: Program Manager, Sustainable City 8203 7723 Trim Reference: ACC2011/59983 Net Review Date: 2013 1 1. Introduction Why Has Council Developed

More information

SWOT Analysis for the pilot river basin: Serchio River Basin

SWOT Analysis for the pilot river basin: Serchio River Basin Project cofinanced by European Regional Development Fund Project cofinancé par le Fonds européen de développement régional 1G-MED08-515 Sustainable Water Management through Common Responsibility enhancement

More information

astewater Central Treatment

astewater Central Treatment QUICK FACTS The drop on water Wastewater Central Treatment Wastewater or sewage is water that has been used for washing, flushing, or manufacturing processes by homes, businesses, and industries. About

More information

Stormwater Ponds. c ıty of a bı le ne st or m wat e r utı lıty dıv ısı on

Stormwater Ponds. c ıty of a bı le ne st or m wat e r utı lıty dıv ısı on CLEAN WATER FACT SHEET Stormwater Ponds c ıty of a bı le ne st or m wat e r utı lıty dıv ısı on Rapid growth in the City of Abil ene and consequent development, as well as construction of culverts, drains,

More information

Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin Managing Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Combined Sewer Overflows to Prevent Contamination of Drinking Water

Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin Managing Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Combined Sewer Overflows to Prevent Contamination of Drinking Water United States Office of Water EPA 916-F-01-032 Environmental Protection (4606) July 2001 Agency Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin Managing Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Combined Sewer Overflows

More information

Appendix M GUIDELINES AND SAMPLE AGREEMENTS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ADOPTED: JUNE 15, 2010 CASE NUMBER: TA ORDINANCE NO.

Appendix M GUIDELINES AND SAMPLE AGREEMENTS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ADOPTED: JUNE 15, 2010 CASE NUMBER: TA ORDINANCE NO. Appendix M GUIDELINES AND SAMPLE AGREEMENTS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ADOPTED: JUNE 15, 2010 CASE NUMBER: TA100601 ORDINANCE NO. 10 0344 Unified Development Code Grand Prairie, Texas Planning Department

More information

Water Pollution Graphing

Water Pollution Graphing Water Pollution Graphing Revised October 2011 PURPOSE: To describe and identify the link between land use activities within a watershed and water quality. SUMMARY: Students will evaluate the quality of

More information

Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution

Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution Peter Hartwig Germany Content page: 1 Introduction 1 2 Total emissions 3 3 Discharge from the wastewater treatment plants 4 4 Discharge from

More information

Running Head: COMBINED SEWAGE OVERFLOW 1. Combined Sewage Overflow. Environmental Health. Shandika Kumar

Running Head: COMBINED SEWAGE OVERFLOW 1. Combined Sewage Overflow. Environmental Health. Shandika Kumar Running Head: COMBINED SEWAGE OVERFLOW 1 Combined Sewage Overflow Environmental Health Shandika Kumar Combined Sewage Overflow 2 Summary In Washington State sewer overflows deliver harmful pollutions to

More information

Planning, Health and Environment Division

Planning, Health and Environment Division 18 Planning, Health and Environment Division A Planning Guide to Sustainable Drainage Systems Introduction Working in co-operation with the Environment Agency, Severn Trent Water Ltd., the Highway Authority

More information

Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater

Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater We cannot think about freshwater and the global water cycle without thinking about mixed forests and biodiversity. These play an absolutely indispensable

More information

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise

Examples for Land Use Action Plan and Mapping Exercise A Land Use Action Plan helps to assess areas of food safety actions that should be addressed because of contamination risks, and it describes a set of steps that will reduce these risks. The following

More information

Development of Greywater Recycling and its Potential Applications in HK. Environmental Management Division Principal Consultant Dr.

Development of Greywater Recycling and its Potential Applications in HK. Environmental Management Division Principal Consultant Dr. Development of Greywater Recycling and its Potential Applications in HK Environmental Management Division Principal Consultant Dr. Anthony Ma 15 th September 2010 Overview Hong Kong Water Supply 1989 June

More information

Rainwater tanks. Gravity & pressure systems Dual supply systems How to configure tanks

Rainwater tanks. Gravity & pressure systems Dual supply systems How to configure tanks PRACTICE NOTE 4 Rainwater tanks WaterSmart development involves simple design and management practices that take advantage of natural site features and minimise impacts on the water cycle. It is part of

More information