Chemistry data booklet

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1 Dipoma Proramme hemistry data booket First examinations 2009

2 Dipoma Proramme hemistry data booket First pubished March 2007 Revised edition pubished September 2008 Internationa Baccaaureate Peterson ouse, Mathouse Avenue, ardiff Gate ardiff, Waes GB F23 8GL United Kindom Phone: Fax: Website: Internationa Baccaaureate ranization 2008 The Internationa Baccaaureate (IB) offers three hih quaity and chaenin educationa prorammes for a wordwide community of schoos, aimin to create a better, more peacefu word. The IB is ratefu for permission to reproduce and/or transate any copyriht materia used in this pubication. Acknowedments are incuded, where appropriate, and, if notified, the IB wi be peased to rectify any errors or omissions at the eariest opportunity. A rihts reserved. o part of this pubication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieva system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the IB, or as expressy permitted by aw or by the IB s own rues and poicy. See IB merchandise and pubications can be purchased throuh the IB store at Genera orderin queries shoud be directed to the saes and marketin department in ardiff. Phone: Fax: Emai: Printed in the United Kindom by Antony Rowe Ltd, hippenham, Witshire 4019a

3 ontents 1. Some reevant equations 1 2. Physica constants and unit conversions 1 3. The eectromanetic spectrum 1 4. ames of the eements 2 5. The periodic tabe 3 6. Metin points and boiin points of the eements 4 7. First ionization enery, eectron affinity and eectroneativity of the 5 eements 8. Atomic and ionic radii of the eements 6 9. ovaent bond enths Bond enthapies and averae bond enthapies at 298 K ranic compounds thermodynamic data Enthapies of combustion Lattice enthapies at 298 K (experimenta and theoretica vaues) Standard eectrode potentias Strenths of oranic acids and bases Acid base indicators Infrared data MR data Amino acids Structura formuas of some medicines and drus Structura formuas of some biooica moecues Structura formuas of some food chemistry moecues References 24 otes This booket cannot be used for paper 1 of the examination (SLP1 and LP1), but the periodic tabe iven on pae 3 wi be avaiabe as part of these examination papers. ean copies of this booket must be made avaiabe to candidates for papers 2 and 3 (SLP2, SLP3, LP2 and LP3). hemistry data booket

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5 hemistry data booket 1. Some reevant equations I I 0 o 10 = εc k = Ae E a RT E a n k = = n A RT c=f λ PV = nrt G = T S Ö Ö Ö q=mcδt E=hf 2. Physica constants and unit conversions Avoadro s constant (L) = mo 1 Gas constant (R) = 8.31 J K 1 mo 1 Moar voume of an idea as at 273 K and Pa = m 3 mo 1 (= 22.4 dm 3 mo 1 ) Panck s constant (h) = J s Specific heat capacity of water = 4.18 kj k 1 K 1 (= 4.18 J 1 K 1 ) Ionic product constant for water (K w ) = at 298 K 1 atm = Pa 1 dm 3 = 1 itre = m 3 = cm 3 3. The eectromanetic spectrum Enery waveenth / m γ rays X rays UV IR microwaves radio waves V I B G Y R 400 waveenth / nm 700 hemistry data booket 1

6 hemistry data booket hemistry data booket 2 4. ames of the eements Eement Symbo Atomic number Eement Symbo Atomic number actinium auminium americium antimony aron arsenic astatine barium berkeium beryium bismuth bohrium boron bromine cadmium caesium cacium caifornium carbon cerium chorine chromium cobat copper curium dubnium dysprosium einsteinium erbium europium fermium fuorine francium adoinium aium ermanium od hafnium hassium heium homium hydroen indium iodine iridium iron krypton anthanum awrencium ead ithium utetium manesium mananese meitnerium Ac A Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br d s a f e r o u m Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au f s e o In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu M Mn Mt mendeevium mercury moybdenum neodymium neon neptunium nicke niobium nitroen nobeium osmium oxyen paadium phosphorus patinum putonium poonium potassium praseodymium promethium protactinium radium radon rhenium rhodium rubidium ruthenium rutherfordium samarium scandium seaborium seenium siicon siver sodium strontium sufur tantaum technetium teurium terbium thaium thorium thuium tin titanium tunsten uranium vanadium xenon ytterbium yttrium zinc zirconium Md Mo d e p i b o s Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc S Se Si A a Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb T Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr

7 hemistry data booket hemistry data booket 3 5. The periodic tabe e Li Be B F e a M A Si P S Ar K a Sc Ti V r Mn Fe o i u Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr b Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd A d In Sn Sb Te I Xe s Ba La f Ta W Re s Ir Pt Au T Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db S Bh s Mt e Pr d Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy o Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U p Pu Am m Bk f Es Fm Md o Lr 257 Atomic number Eement Reative atomic mass 3

8 hemistry data booket 6. Metin points and boiin points of the eements 14 1 Metin point / K e Li Be 3243 Eement Boiin point / K 2573 B F e a M A Si P S Ar K a Sc Ti V r Mn Fe o i u Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr b Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd A d In Sn Sb Te I Xe s Ba La f Ta W Re s Ir Pt Au T Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac hemistry data booket

9 hemistry data booket 7. First ionization enery, eectron affinity and eectroneativity of the eements First ionization enery / Eectron affinity / kj mo 1 kj mo 1 2 nd EA / kj mo Li Be 1.6 Eement Eectroneativity B F a 738 M A Si P S K a Sc Ti V r Mn Fe o i u Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Rb Sr Y Zr b Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd A d In Sn Sb Te I s Ba La f Ta W Re s Ir Pt Au T Pb Bi Po At Fr Ra Ac e 2081 e 1521 Ar 1351 Kr 1170 Xe 1037 Rn hemistry data booket 5

10 hemistry data booket 8. Atomic and ionic radii of the eements 30 Atomic radius / m 154 (1 ) Li 68 (1+) 152 Be 30 (2+) 112 Ionic radius / m Eement a M 98 (1+) 65 (2+) K 133 (1+) 244 a 94 (2+) 215 Sc 81 (3+) 180 Ti 90 (2+) 68 (4+) 157 V 88 (2+) 141 r 63 (3+) 136 Mn 80 (2+) 60 (4+) 135 Fe 76 (2+) 64 (3+) 133 o 74 (2+) 63 (3+) 134 Rb 148 (1+) Sr 110 (2+) Y 93 (3+) Zr 80 (4+) b 72 (3+) 64 (5+) Mo 68 (4+) Tc 65 (4+) 37 (7+) Ru 68 (3+) 62 (4+) Rh 67 (3+) 60 (4+) s 167 (1+) Ba 134 (2+) La 115 (3+) f 76 (4+) Ta 64 (5+) 72 (6+) W 66 (4+) 42 (6+) Re 63 (4+) 38 (7+) s 63 (4+) 39 (8+) Ir 68 (3+) 63 (4+) Fr 180 (1+) Ra 148 (2+) Ac 112 (3+) 124 i 72 (2+) 138 Pd 86 (2+) 62 (4+) 138 Pt 80 (2+) 63 (4+) 128 u 96 (1+) 69 (2+) 144 A 126 (1+) 144 Au 137 (1+) 85 (3+) 133 Zn 74 (2+) 149 d 97 (2+) (1+) 110 (2+) 88 B 16 (3+) 143 A 45 (3+) 141 Ga 62 (3+) 166 In 81 (3+) 171 T 150 (1+) 93 (3+) (4 ) 117 Si 42 (4+) 271 (4 ) 122 Ge 53 (4+) 272 (4 ) 162 Sn 112 (2+) 71 (4+) 175 Pb 120 (2+) 84 (4+) (3 ) 110 P 212 (3 ) 121 As 222 (3 ) 141 Sb 245 (3 ) 170 Bi 120 (3+) 76 (5+) (2 ) 104 S 190 (2 ) 117 Se 202 (2 ) 137 Te 222 (2 ) 140 Po 94 (4+) 67 (6+) 64 F 133 (1 ) (1 ) 114 Br 196 (1 ) 133 I 219 (1 ) 140 At 62 (7+) e e Ar Kr Xe Rn 6 hemistry data booket

11 hemistry data booket 9. ovaent bond enths Bond Bond enth / nm Bond Bond enth / nm = (in benzene) Si Si = P P = S S S=S F F Br Br I I Si P S F Br I = = F Br I Si Bond enthapies and averae bond enthapies at 298 K Bond Δ / kj mo 1 Bond Δ / kj mo 1 = (benzene) Si Si = P P = S S F F Br Br I I Si P S F Br I = = F Br I Si hemistry data booket 7

12 hemistry data booket 11. ranic compounds thermodynamic data Substance Formua State Ö f / kj mo 1 G Ö f / S Ö / kj mo 1 J K 1 mo 1 methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane ethene propene but-1-ene cis-but-2-ene trans-but-2-ene ethyne propyne buta-1,3-diene cycohexane benzene methybenzene ethybenzene phenyethene choromethane dichoromethane trichoromethane bromomethane iodomethane choroethane bromoethane chorobenzene methano ethano pheno methana ethana propanone methanoic acid ethanoic acid benzoic acid methyamine Br I Br ( ) s s * * ( 0.4) 8 hemistry data booket

13 hemistry data booket 12. Enthapies of combustion The vaues of the moar enthapy of combustion ( c ) in the foowin tabe refer to a temperature of 298 K and a pressure of Pa (1 atm). Substance Formua State c / kj mo 1 Substance Formua State c / kj mo 1 hydroen sufur carbon (raphite) carbon monoxide methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane octane cycohexane ethene buta-1,3-diene ethyne benzene methybenzene naphthaene choroethane bromoethane iodoethane (choromethy)benzene trichoromethane methano ethano 2 S Br 25I s s s propan-1-o butan-1-o cycohexano pheno ethoxyethane methana ethana benzadehyde propanone pentan-3-one phenyethanone methanoic acid ethanoic acid benzoic acid ethanedioic acid ethy ethanoate ethanamide methyamine ethyamine phenyamine nitrobenzene urea ucose sucrose (25) (3)2 (25) () (2) s s s s s s s s hemistry data booket 9

14 hemistry data booket 13. Lattice enthapies at 298 K (experimenta and theoretica vaues) The attice enthapy vaues breakin into aseous ions. ( Ö ) attice iven reate to the endothermic process for a soid crysta For exampe, for an akai meta haide: MX(s) M + () + X () Experimenta vaues The data in these two tabes are experimenta vaues obtained by means of a suitabe Born aber cyce. Akai meta haides Ö attice / kj mo 1 F Br I Li a K Rb s ther substances Ö attice / kj mo 1 ther substances Ö / kj mo 1 attice af 2 Be 2 M 2 a 2 Sr 2 Ba 2 M a Sr Ba u 2 AF A ABr AI hemistry data booket

15 hemistry data booket Theoretica vaues These two tabes contain attice enthapies cacuated from eectrostatic principes on the basis of a purey ionic mode for the crysta. Akai meta haides Ö attice / kj mo 1 F Br I Li a K Rb s ther substances Ö attice / kj mo 1 ther substances Ö attice / kj mo 1 af 2 M a Sr Ba AF A ABr AI hemistry data booket 11

16 hemistry data booket 14. Standard eectrode potentias xidized species Reduced species E Ö / V Li + (aq) + e Li(s) 3.04 K + (aq) + e K(s) 2.93 a 2+ (aq) + 2e a(s) 2.87 a + (aq) + e a(s) 2.71 M 2+ (aq) + 2e M(s) 2.37 A 3+ (aq) + 3e A(s) 1.66 Mn 2+ (aq) + 2e Mn(s) () + e ½ 2 () + (aq) 0.83 Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e Zn(s) 0.76 Fe 2+ (aq) + 2e Fe(s) 0.45 i 2+ (aq) + 2e i(s) 0.26 Sn 2+ (aq) + 2e Sn(s) 0.14 Pb 2+ (aq) + 2e Pb(s) (aq) + e ½ 2 () 0.00 u 2+ (aq) + e u + (aq) S 2 4 (aq) (aq) + 2e 2 S 3 (aq) + 2 () u 2+ (aq) + 2e u(s) ½ 2 () + 2 () + 2e 2 (aq) u + (aq) + e u(s) ½I 2 (s) + e I (aq) Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) A + (aq) + e A(s) ½Br 2 () + e Br (aq) ½ 2 () (aq) + 2e 2 () r (aq) (aq) + 6e 2r 3+ (aq) () ½ 2 () + e (aq) Mn 4 (aq) (aq) + 5e Mn 2+ (aq) () ½F 2 () + e F (aq) hemistry data booket

17 hemistry data booket 15. Strenths of oranic acids and bases The acid strenths in the foowin tabes are iven in terms of pk a vaues, where pk a = o 10 K a. The dissociation constant K a vaues are for aqueous soutions at 298 K. Base strenths are iven in terms of pk b vaues. arboxyic acids ame Formua pk a methanoic ethanoic propanoic butanoic 2-methypropanoic pentanoic 2,2-dimethypropanoic benzoic phenyethanoic 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 2 ) 3 ( ) aoenated carboxyic acids ame Formua pk a choroethanoic dichoroethanoic trichoroethanoic fuoroethanoic bromoethanoic iodoethanoic F 2 Br 2 I Phenos ame Formua pk a pheno 2-nitropheno 3-nitropheno 4-nitropheno 2,4-dinitropheno 2,4,6-trinitropheno ( 2 ) ( 2 ) hemistry data booket 13

18 hemistry data booket Acohos ame Formua pk a methano ethano Amines ame Formua pk b ammonia methyamine ethyamine dimethyamine trimethyamine diethyamine triethyamine phenyamine ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( 2 5 ) 2 ( 2 5 ) Acid base indicators Indicator pk a p rane oour chane Acid Akai methy orane bromopheno bue bromocreso reen methy red bromothymo bue pheno red phenophthaein red yeow yeow red yeow yeow coouress yeow bue bue yeow bue red pink 14 hemistry data booket

19 hemistry data booket 17. Infrared data haracteristic ranes for infrared absorption due to stretchin vibrations in oranic moecues. Bond ranic moecues Wavenumber / cm 1 I Br F = = iodoakanes bromoakanes choroakanes fuoroakanes acohos, esters, ethers akenes adehydes, ketones, carboxyic acids and esters akynes hydroen bondin in carboxyic acids akanes, akenes, arenes hydroen bondin in acohos and phenos primary amines hemistry data booket 15

20 hemistry data booket MR data Typica proton chemica shift vaues (δ) reative to tetramethysiane (TMS) = 0. R represents an aky roup, and a represents F,, Br, or I. These vaues may vary in different sovents and conditions. Type of proton hemica shift / ppm R R R 2 R a R R 2 R R R hemistry data booket

21 hemistry data booket Amino acids ommon name Symbo Structura formua p of isoeectric point aanine Aa arinine Ar asparaine Asn aspartic acid Asp cysteine ys 2 2 S 5.1 utamic acid Gu utamine Gn ycine Gy histidine is 7.6 isoeucine Ie eucine Leu ysine Lys hemistry data booket 17

22 hemistry data booket ommon name Symbo Structura formua p of isoeectric point methionine Met S S 5.7 phenyaanine Phe proine Pro 6.3 serine Ser threonine Thr tryptophan Trp tyrosine Tyr 5.7 vaine Va hemistry data booket

23 hemistry data booket 20. Structura formuas of some medicines and drus aspirin paracetamo (acetaminophen) ibuprofen morphine codeine diamorphine (heroin) amphetamine epinephrine (adrenaine) caffeine R S 3 nicotine peniciin (enera structure) diazepam (Vaium ) hemistry data booket 19

24 hemistry data booket indoe nitrazepam (Moadon ) 2 2 acycovir cocaine yseric acid diethyamide (LSD) F _ + 2 fuoxetine hydrochoride (Prozac ) thaidomide tetrahydrocannabino (T) P _ Pt 3 cispatin mescaine psiocybin 20 hemistry data booket

25 hemistry data booket 21. Structura formuas of some biooica moecues actose sucrose 2 retino (vitamin A) 2 ascorbic acid (vitamin ) choestero 2 vitamin D 3 estradio proesterone testosterone hemistry data booket 21

26 hemistry data booket 2 epinephrine (adrenaine) I I I 2 I thyroxine adenine uanine cytosine uraci thymine 22. Structura formuas of some food chemistry moecues atura piments Anthocyanins R R R + R ucose quinoida base (bue) ucose favyium cation (red) 22 hemistry data booket

27 hemistry data booket arotenes 3 α-carotene β-carotene 3 3 Porphyrins 2 R R= (horophy a) R= (horophy b) Fe M heme B chorophy Preservatives tert-buty-4-hydroxyanisoe (2-BA) 3 3-tert-buty-4- hydroxyanisoe (3-BA) ,5-di-tert-buty-4- hydroxytouene (BT) hemistry data booket 23

28 hemistry data booket Fatty acids Fatty acid ctanoic acid Lauric acid Stearic acid eic acid Linoeic acid Linoenic acid Formua ( 2 ) 6 ( 2 ) 10 ( 2 ) 16 ( 2 ) 7 ( 2 ) 7 ( 2 ) 4 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 ) 6 2 ( 2 ) 3 ( 2 ) References The data in tabes 4 16 can be found in the foowin three sources. Lide, DR R andbook of hemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, USA. R Press. opyriht 2008 by R andbook of hemistry and Physics. David R Lide. Reproduced by permission from Tayor and Francis Group, LL, a division of Informa pc. V Binas. Enish Edition. Groninen, The etherands. Woters oordhoff. Roya Society of hemistry Roya Society of hemistry Eectronic Data Book D-Rom. London, UK. Reproduced by permission of The Roya Society of hemistry. For tabes 17 and 18, in addition to the sources above, the data were informed by the foowin. Ayward, G and Finday, T SI hemica Data. 5th Edition. Queensand, Austraia. John Wiey & Sons. uston, M and Femmin, R Advanced hemistry. xford, UK. xford University Press. Morrison, RT and Boyd, R ranic hemistry. 5th Edition. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Ayn and Bacon, Inc. 24 hemistry data booket

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