tion Introduct Manual Energizer lithium Lithium Iron Disulfide Contents Introduction Battery Descriptio Temperature Effects

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1 Introduct tion Energizer lithium iron disulfide differs from alkaline batteries in chemistry and construction. They are built in a spiral constructionn featuring two long, thin electrodes rolled together to form a jellyroll shape. This shape provides almost 20 times more interfacial surface area thann a standard alkaline. This large interface helps to meet the power demands of many of today s devices. is the lightest, most active metal. When this powerful metal is paired with iron disulfide, this energy is available at a voltage suitable for 1.5 volt applications. Energizer successfully produced the first commercially available AA size 1.5 volt lithium battery in The 1.5 volt AAA size followed in Electrodes in lithium iron disulfide batteries are isolated from one another by a highly engineered microporous polymer membrane. This membrane allows ions too move easily during normal use, but restricts this movement in certain abuse situations to ensure superior productt performance and safety. iron disulfide batteries contain a nonaqueous electrolyte designed to operate even in extreme temperatures from as low as -40 C up to + 60 C. They also include a resettable overcurrent safety device that protects the user by switching the battery off if it is misused in devices. AA Ultimate Packaging Some of the advantages of the lithium iron disulfide (LiFeS 2 ) system over the alkaline chemistry are: Direct drop-in compatibility in applications using primaryy 1.5 volt AA and AAA battery sizes. Far greater power than other primary battery types. Provides longer service than other primary battery typess in moderate to heavy drain applications. Greater service advantage over other primary battery types at low temperature extremes operating at -40 C. Higher operating voltage and flatter discharge curve than other primary battery types. Superior leakage resistance compared too other primary battery types. Outstanding service maintenance when stored at ambient conditions. Considerably lighter than other battery types. Good service maintenance after high temperature storage up to +60 C. No added mercury, cadmium, or lead. As power demands of new devices continue to increase and high drain devices become more prevalent with consumers, Energizer lithium iron disulfide batteries provide the optimum performance consumerss demand. Descriptio on Cylindrical lithium iron disulfide batteries use lithium for the anode, iron disulfide for the cathode, and a lithium salt in an organic solvent blend as the electrolyte. A cutaway (fig. 1) of a typical cylindrical LiFeS 2 battery is Page 1 of 18

2 illustrated in the following diagram: Click here for larger view (fig. 1) Typical cylindrical lithium iron disulfide battery Anode - lithium metal Cathode iron disulfide on an aluminum foill substrate Separator - polyolefin Electrolyte lithium salt / organic solvent Jellyroll construction spiral wound multiple layers of anode/separator/cathode material to produce a high surface area for high power cell design Vent ball safety mechanism that provides internal pressuree release Positive and negative contact surfaces - nickel-plated steel Non-conductive plastic film label - electrically insulates the battery Positive Coefficient (PTC) over current safety device Electrochemistry: The term lithium battery refers to many differentt chemistries utilizing lithium as the anode but differing in cathode material, electrolyte, and construction. They may be classified in several ways, but one convenient method is by the cathode material and voltage. Using an iron disulfide cathode gives a battery with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts. Most other lithium batteries are 3.0 volt systems using cathodes comprising either solids (manganese dioxide or carbon monofluoride) or highly toxic liquidss (sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride). Finally, lithium batteries should not be confused with lithium ion rechargeable batteries. ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium. Under rating current drain rates (~ ~200mA), typical of many commercial devices, the AA size LiFeS 2 battery has a specific energy density of ~297 Wh/kg compared to a comparable size alkaline of ~143 Wh/ kg. The characteristicss that make lithium an exceptional electrode material for high energy density batteries include, low electrode potential and very high conductivity. It is soft and malleable and can be extruded into thin foils. reacts with water and for this reason must be used with a non-aqueous electrolyte. Page 2 of 18

3 The choice of cathode materials is critical when considering voltage, high energy density, high rate performance, and electrolyte compatibility. Other considerations include low cost, environmentally friendly, and stability. The choice of FeS 2 as a cathode material is unique because the chemical reaction with lithium results in an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.8 volts. Other cathode materials combined with lithium will produce battery voltages above 2.0 volts. Although the higher OCV of the LiFeS 2 system is 1.8 volts, the nominal or rated voltage is 1.5 volts which makes it a suitable replacement for alkaline and nickel systems. The battery voltage will drop when it is placed under load. For this reason, the higher OCV will typically not damage electronic components, but device designers should take into consideration that the OCV of fresh batteries can range from 1.79 to 1.83V. LiFeS 2 batteries fully meet the ANSI specification for a 1.5V battery. Whenn a drain has been applied to the battery, the OCV drops dramatically and then slowly recovers with time. The OCV for a battery can be misleading. A good battery will generally have an OCV >1.74 volts. Any batteryy with an OCV < 1.70 (after it has been allowed to recover) is completely discharged. Although an alkaline battery may read good at 1.6 volts, this reading on a LiFeS 2 battery indicates the product has been discharged. The jellyroll battery design gives the battery excellent high rate performance. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in LiFeS 2 battery provides excellent low temperature performance. Under high temperature operating or storage, it is not uncommon to experience some electrolyte odor. This odor is due to transmission of ethers (i.e. 1,2-dimethoxyethane and 1,3-dioxolane) through the seal. The odor threshold for thesee organics is on the order of a few parts per million, which does not indicate leakage. The ethers can have a noticeable odor, but the actual amount of vapors present is very low. Potential exposure is well below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) time weighted average limit and other industry standards. The overall discharge reaction of the LiFeS 2 construction takes place in two steps. The first step: 2Li+FeS2Li 2 FeS2. The second step follows: 2Li+ +Li 2 FeS2Fe+2Li2S. Typically the two step discharge can be seen at low drain rates of approximately ten milliamps or less and during higher drains at elevated temperatures. The discharge characteristics of batteries can vary y depending uponn whether they are discharged at a constant resistance, constant current, or constant power drain. Due to the unique characteristics of the lithium chemical system, the battery will maintain a high average operating voltagee compared to other systems throughout the life of the discharge. This is particularly important for constant power devices that can better take advantage of the higher voltage. As the battery voltage decreases, the current drain increases to maintain constant power to the device. Therefore, the higher voltage of lithiumm iron disulfide lowers the current drain on the battery and longer run times. Temperat ture on Performance: iron disulfide (LiFeS 2 ) batteries have a much lower sensitivity to temperature compared to other chemical systems. The recommended operating temperature range is -40 C to +60 C (-40 F to F). As with all battery systems, service life is reduced as the discharge temperature is lowered below room temperature (fig. 2). Batteries generate power through chemical reactions and these typically run much more slowly at lower temperatures. However, even at -40 C, the LiFeS 2 batteries perform well at the rating drain 200 ma. LiFeS 2 batteries can deliver approximately full rated capacity at -40 C if they are discharged at 25 ma. Thus, at these rates, the batteries give comparablee performance over the entire 100 C operating range. Page 3 of 18

4 ( fig. 2) Effect on Cold temperatures also lower the operating voltagee thereby reducing the energy output (fig 3). capacity is not lost due to cold temperature use, rather it is more difficult to accesss the battery s full potential due to the slowing of the electrochemical reactions, reducing capacity at high drain rates. (fig. 3) Effect on Performance When comparing cold temperaturee performance off the LiFeS 2 battery versus an alkaline based aqueous system, the LiFeS2 system is affected much less across a range of drain rates (fig 4) and operates at temperatures where alkaline batteries do not run at all. This is duee to the use of a non-aqueous electrolyte and the high surface area jellyroll construction. In particular, Energizer s patented electrolyte has the unique property of actually increasing in conductivity as the temperature drops, in contrast to electrolytes used in other lithium batteries. Page 4 of 18

5 (fig. 4) Effect on Performance Versuss Alkaline Conversely, warm temperatures can boost battery performance in very high drain continuous applications that increase the battery temperature (fig 5). (fig. 5) Elevated Effect on Performance In some applications there may be further limits onn the maximum discharge temperature due to current limiting safety features of the battery. The LiFeS 2 battery utilizes a PTC (positive temperature coefficient over current safety device) that is designed to reversiblyy shut down the battery at high temperatures. Both ambient temperature and the internal battery heating that occurs during discharge will affect the operation of the PTC. Page 5 of 18

6 The higher the rate of discharge (a heavy drain or r load on the battery), the more heat is generated that could cause the PTC to activate. In low to moderate drain applications, less than 500 ma, the heat dissipates and should not activate the PTC. However, a high ambient temperaturee combined with a high drain application increases the likelihood of PTC activation. Moreover, many applications use power intermittently and this can greatly mitigate any temperature rise and prevent PTC activation. While PTC activation in these rare scenarios may be a nuisance, the PTC is critical to battery safety. The batteries and device should once again perform normally once the battery has time to cool down. Device manufacturers must consider all of the following that can affect internal heating of LiFeS 2 batteries during discharge - Surrounding air temperature - Thermal insulating properties of the battery container - Heat generated by equipment components - Cumulative heating effects of multiple batteries - Discharge rate(s) and duration(s) - Frequency and length of rest periods Comparis son to other Chemical s: iron disulfide batteries have a higher operating voltage than alkaline and rechargeable nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries and flatter discharge profile versus alkaline. These characteristics result in higher energy density (Wh/L) and specificc energy (Wh/kg), especially in heavier drain applications where the operating voltage differences are the greatest. The flatter discharge curve allows for consistent performance throughout the life of the battery. The performance advantages of lithium over alkaline increases dramatically as drain rates increase due to the jellyroll construction and better high rate efficiency. The following chart (fig. 6) shows the relative constant power performance of an AA size battery for the lithium, alkaline and NiMH chemistries. (fig. 6) Relative Constant Power Performance of ann AA Size y (different chemistries) Page 6 of 18

7 iron disulfide batteries are suitable for use e across a broad temperature range. While at elevated temperatures, all chemistries show minimal changee in performancee versus ambient. At low temperatures, the lithium battery offers more performance than alkaline or NiMH chemistries. The following graph (fig. 7) shows the impact of temperature on AA size lithium, alkaline and NiMH under a 250 ma drain rate to a 0. 9 volt cutoff. ( fig. 7) Impact of on AA Size, Alkaline and NiMH Additional performance comparisons can be found on the individual datasheets listed on the Technical Information website. Additional LiFeS 2 advantages are summarizedd in the following table: Characteristicss Alkaline NiMH Cold Temp Performance Weight Leakage Resistance Discharge Curve High Rate Capability Superior Good 33% < Alkaline 33% > 10 to 20 Years 5 to 10 Years Superior Good Flat Sloping Superior Fair Superior 33% > Alkaline 3 to 5 Years Good Flat Superior The most reliable method to determine the batteryy service life for a particular application is to test the batteries in the device. When this is not practical, simulation testing can be done if the following are known: operating voltage, current or power drain, duty cycle (time that device is on / off) and end point voltage of the device. Once these parameters are known, approximate battery service life can be determined. Resistan nce and : internal resistance (IR) and impedance aree unfortunately terms that are often used in a variety of ways in the battery industry. This section addresses some of Energizer s AA size lithium iron disulfide IR and impedance measurement techniques. It is meant to provide guidance to battery designers. A detailed explanation of the precise cause behind the factors that control battery IR and impedance is beyond the scope of this document. Page 7 of 18

8 A common method of measuring battery impedance is to use an AC measurement technique over a wide range of frequencies, such as 50 khz to 1 Hz or less. Att very high frequencies, only the true IR is observed. As the frequency is decreased, other processes involving the chemistry inside the battery during discharge contribute to the impedance. As a result, the measured impedances always increase as the AC frequency is decreased. A typical impedancee scan for the AAA size lithium ironn disulfide battery is shown in (fig. 8). The true battery IR is given by the resistance at high frequency where the data meets the x-axis. Energizer typically uses a 10 khz impedance to measure the true IR of AA size lithium iron disulfide batteries. Typical values are 100 mω. Relative to other battery chemistries, the AA size lithium iron disulfide battery has the lowest IR of any lithium battery and compares favorably to primary aqueous batteries. (fig. 8) Complex plane impedance scan for a typical AA size lithium iron disulfide battery In terms of effect on the battery, the true IR is more important than the impedance at low frequencies. The true IR effectively acts as a resistor in series with the device that lowers operating voltage acting as an additional load on the circuit. The impedance values recorded at lower frequencies can also influence battery behavior, but generally not to the same extent as the true IR. Another method used to estimate true IR uses a current interruptt technique (CIT), whereby the rapid change in battery voltage during discharge is periodicallyy and briefly interrupted to estimate the battery IR. This has the advantage of measuring the battery IR under realistic drain rates and also enables one to measure the change in battery IR during discharge. The following graph (fig. 9) shows that there is very little change in battery IR during discharge and in fact it actually improves slightly. Page 8 of 18

9 (fig. 9) True IR of a typical AA size lithium iron disulfide battery during 1 amp discharge. Comparison of measurements using high frequency impedance scans and a CIT method. True IR is not adversely affected by temperature (almost no change between -20 and 40 C), discharge current, depth of discharge, battery age or storage at elevated temperatures. While high temperature storage can increase the impedance at low frequencies (longer timescale), this has little if any impact on battery performance. The resistance to current flow that a battery exhibits can depend on the current drain being applied and especially on the time scale of the measurement. The methods described above measure battery IR over a very short time scale. In actual device applications, various polarization effects occurring over longer times will reduce the battery s operating voltage and appearr as resistance contributors. From a design engineers point of view, a more important metric of the battery s performance mayy be the effective IR which is the impedance during actual usage. Typically, effectivee IR is greater than the true IR. However, since the effective IR depends on the load and timescale, any measurement thatt relies upon thee OCV of the battery prior to a test should not be used. A commonly used method whereby the resistance is calculated as shown below must not be used with AA size lithium iron disulfide batteries as the values are much higher than the real values. This is due to the initial OCV of AA size lithium iron disulfide batteries being higher than the OCV of the chemistry that actually controls the battery s discharge performance. Effectivee IR = (OCV - CCV) / Current Applied (not valid for lithium iron disulfide batteries) Effective IR can be calculated by using a doublee current pulse CCV measurement whereby the system first applies a low current drain pulse to reduce the OCV and then applies a heavier pulse. The effective IR at the higher drain rate can then be calculated by the voltage differencee between the two pulses. The timing of the pulses should reflect the timescalee of interest to the application. For example, apply a 10 ma pulse for 50 ms followed by a 500 ma pulse for 100 ms (fig. 10). Values of effective battery IR measured using this regime are about 100 mω. Effectivee IR = (CCV 1 CCV 2 ) / (Current 2 Current 1 ) Page 9 of 18

10 ( fig. 10) IR of a typical AA size lithium iron disulfide battery duringg discharge. Again, caution must be exercised in comparing true IR values to effective IR readings or those obtained using other measurement methods. In particular, impedance measurements at 1kHz or resistance values based on OCV-CCV differences typically overestimate the IR R for lithium iron disulfide batteries. Overall, the lithium iron disulfide battery IR changes very little withh age, discharge rate, depth of discharge and temperatures of -20 to 40 C. While impedance att lower frequencies can increasee during aging, this has very little effect on the impedance of the battery when it is subsequently placed under load. : : capacity is typically expressed in terms of milli-amp hours (mah). This is an indication of how long a battery will provide service at a specific drain rate to a specific cutoff voltage. For example, the following discharge curve (fig. 11) is for the AA size lithium iron disulfide battery being discharged at 200 ma to a 0.9 volt cutoff. Page 10 of 18

11 ( fig. 11) 200 ma Continuous Discharge The available capacity can then be calculated by multiplying the drain rate (ma) by the hours to the cutoff voltage. For example, this AA battery would have a capacity of (200 ma X 15 hours) 3000 mah at a 200 ma drain to a 0.9 volt cutoff. The mah capacity of lithium iron disulfide batteriess will vary with the drain rate and the cutoff voltage. Due to the jellyroll construction and multiple layers of active material, the lithium iron disulfide battery is extremely efficient across multiple drains and is much less sensitive to both the drain rate and voltage cut than alkaline batteries. The flat discharge profile and high operating voltage of lithium iron disulfide allow for longer, consistent run times in high drain / high power devices as shown below (fig. 12). (fig. 12) Chemistry Discharge Curve Characteristicss Page 11 of 18

12 The application cutoff voltage will also impact the amount of service delivered by the battery. A high cutoff voltage will result in leaving more of the battery s capacity unused. To maximize usage of the available capacity, it is recommended that devices should bee designed with a voltage cutoff of 0.8 volts per battery. At this point, a majority of the battery s usable capacity has been removed. However, lithium iron disulfide operates at a higher voltage and is well suited for high cutoff devices. Ideally, to avoid deep discharging batteries, one should not discharge them below 0. 5 volts. In high drain pulse applications, the duty cycle cann impact battery efficiency. A very light duty cycle will typically allow the battery more time to recover and extend servicee compared to a continuous drain. The amount of additional service will depend on the drain rate, and thee duty cycle (ON time and OFF time of the pulse). Due to LiFeS 2 high rate capability, the effect of intermittentt duty cycles is relatively modest compared to other chemical systems. The modest effect of duty cycle on capacity delivered can be seen in the graph (fig. 13). (fig. 13) Effect of Duty Cycle The maximum recommended pulse drain for LiFeSS 2 is based on thee battery s ability to deliver high current over a range of 100 milliseconds to 2 seconds. The AA size can deliver up to a 3 Amp pulse. At these rates, it is important to consider heat generation by adjacentt batteries and consider the affect on the PTC. This part will change from low to high impedance when activated during abusivee conditions thatt cause a temperature rise. Actual testing is needed to determine the amount of additional service expected in pulse applications since there is no simple equation to accurately calculate the impact of duty cycle on service. In ultra low drain applications (i.e.. currents in micro amps, where the battery is expected to run several months), the discharge curve has a distinct two stage profile. The first step occurs at slightly higher voltage (nominally 21 C, dictated by thermodynamics) that increases with temperature and is nearly independent of depth of discharge. The second step occurs at a slightly lower voltage (nominally 21 C) that decreases with temperature and is a function of depth of discharge. At low drain rates, the lithium iron disulfide battery will provide approximately full rated capacity overr its lifetime. The two stage discharge profile can benefit the device manufacturer as a method to implement fuel gauging in low drain applications. The discharge curve below shows the distinct plateaus where voltage, impedance, coulomb counting or combination of these methods could be used to determine depth of discharge needed to calculate remaining battery life. It should be notedd that the lithium iron disulfide battery has a steep voltage drop off at the end of life (fig. 14). Please contact your Energizer sales representative for further information on this subject. Page 12 of 18

13 (fig. 14) Two Stage Discharge : Shelf life can be defined as the time at which a battery will deliver approximately 80% of its original capacity (fig. 15). Predicting battery shelf life is done in various ways. Typically, elevated temperature storage is used to accelerate those processes that cause degradation. This method iss convenient, but is not always reliable because increasing cell temperature can introduce e a new mode of degradation that is not present in batteries stored at lower temperatures. This could yield an underestimate off the true shelf life. Another method for predicting shelf life is microcalorimetry that measures the heat output from batteries and provides an estimate of the chemical changes occurring inside the battery. Energizer has tested LiFeS 2 cells using all of these methods. iron disulfide batteries willl lose approximately 0.6 % of their capacity per year when stored at room temperature, 21 C. Because of the very low level of impurities in the materials used and the high degree of seal effectiveness used with lithium batteries, the shelf life after high temperature storage is far better compared to aqueous systems. The recommendedd storage temperature for lithium batteries is -40 C to 60 C. Exposing lithium batteries to temperatures above 60 C can cause the insulating label to shrink and expose the battery s steel can to potential external short circuits. Page 13 of 18

14 (fig. 15) Impact of storage Testing / Care / Warnings s: The lithium iron disulfide construction incorporatess many safety features and extensive quality checks during manufacture on each and every battery. The design includes two safety devices to provide protection against abusive conditions such as short circuit, charging, forced dischargee and overheating. These two safety devices are a resettable thermal switch or PTC (Positive Thermal Coefficient) and a pressure relief vent. The PTC protects against electrical abuse scenarios by limiting the current when the PTC temperature exceeds 85 C. As the battery heats during abuse, the resistance of the PTC rapidly increases and significantly limits the amount of current flowing through the battery, thus allowing the battery too cool. When the PTC cools to below the activation temperature, its resistance returns to a normal level allowing normal battery use. The PTC is extremely effective in safely handling electrical abuse conditions. Below is an example of an AA size lithium iron disulfide battery subjected to a direct short showing that the PTC reduces the current within seconds to a safe level (fig 16). Page 14 of 18

15 (fig. 16) Short Circuit Current The PTC can rarely activate during non-abuse conditions, depending on how quickly the battery can dissipate heat generated from discharge. A combination of high discharge rate (which generates more heat) and high ambient temperature can cause the PTC to limit current. In addition, insulation within the battery compartment, proximity to adjacent batteries and neighboring electronic components can generate or retain additional heat. Intermittency, whichh is common for many applications, can greatly alleviate the internal heating affect. During use, all batteries generate heat. On light loads the heat dissipates and is not noticeable, but on heavy drains the battery may become noticeably warm too the touch. Thiss is expected and normal and also true of alkaline batteries. Extended exposure to heat may also cause shrinkage of the label. Label shrinkage can occur when the battery is exposed to extreme conditionss and is not indicative of battery failure. The vent mechanism operates at ~150 C and allows a controlled release of pressure thus preventing the battery from exploding in the event of abuse conditions, such as internal short circuits. This venting also limits the current the battery can carry and prevents additional heat generation. The maximum continuous current drain for the AA size is 2.0 amps. Higher drain rates can be used for short periods of time. Because of the number of other variables involved, it is difficult to predict in advance whether lithium iron disulfide batteries can operate under extreme load conditions. In orderr to determine the highest pulse rate achievable, testing the batteries in the device under worst case conditions is recommended. While the PTC does impose some limitations on high ratee applications forr which lithium iron disulfide batteries are suitable, it is a critical element in ensuring that thee battery is safe and protects the battery, the equipment and the user. Although the safety mechanisms described above will limit the potential for battery failure due to abuse, there are additional handling considerations for the proper safe use of lithium iron disulfide batteries: Avoid potting or encapsulation as this obstructs the pressure relief vent. The vent is required to prevent excessive heat or pressure buildup if the battery is exposed too abusive conditions. Avoid charging as lithium iron disulfide batteries are not designed to be recharged. Use of pressure contact for batteries is recommended in the device compartment. If welded connections are needed, they should be madee to the nickel-plated positive cap and the nickel-plated because of the intense bottom using a capacitor discharge welder. Solder connections should be avoided heat that needs to be applied to the battery. Page 15 of 18

16 labels insulate the battery to reduce the incidence of a potential direct short circuit or inadvertent charging. compartment contacts and welded tab connections must not have sharp edges/burrs that could cut through the battery label especially adjacent too the positive terminal. Do not open battery, dispose of in fire, heat above 100 C (212 F), expose contents to water, recharge, install backwards, mix with used or other battery types. Thesee conditions may cause personal injury. There is no risk of hydrogen generation with lithium iron disulfide batteries and they can be used safely in water tight applications. iron disulfide batteries can safely undergo ethylene oxide or gamma radiation sterilization. For additional information it is imperative to read the section "Design and Safety Considerations" to assure that other safety considerations are not overlooked. Disposal and : Disposal: Energizer lithium iron disulfide batteries are United States Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) non-hazardous waste. Waste lithium iron disulfide batteries meet the United States Federal definition of a solid waste per 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) As such, the generator must make certain determinations relativee to the waste material. Waste lithium iron disulfide batteries do not fall under any of the specific United States Federal RCRA F, K, P, or U lists, nor do any states specifically regulate this type of waste, to our knowledge. This leads us to the RCRA characteristic waste criteria. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) listed materials are not used as battery components and may only be present in trace quantities in some of the battery parts. Based on our knowledge of the battery and battery raw materials, waste lithium iron disulfide batteries are not RCRA toxic. Only the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, and reactivity remain as possible classifications. The batteries are solid, not liquid, which precludes their being a corrosive waste, since corrosive waste must be liquid by definition. As an inert solid, flashh point is not an appropriate test for ignitability. Our batteries are a safe consumer product and, under standard temperature andd pressure conditions, will not cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes. Since iron disulfide is one of the primary electrode materials of the lithium iron disulfide, clearly thee batteries do contain sulfides. The amount of reactive or releasable sulfide is substantially beloww the regulatory limit as established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846, Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. The batteries contain no cyanides and they do not meet any other reactivityy criteria, including the criterion reacts violently with water. An intact scrap battery will not react in that manner. To meet United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements, scrap lithium iron disulfide batteries are packaged per the following from 49 CFR (h): 1) The limit of 1 grams of lithium per cell is not exceeded. 2) External short circuits are effectively prevented. 3) Strong outer packaging is used conforming to part and (a). Since scrap lithium iron disulfide batteries meet the requirements of 49 CFR (h), they are not subject to the further requirements of 49 CFR United States Federal hazardous waste regulations are specific about relating waste determination to the waste as generated. As generated, scrap lithium iron disulfide batteries are not a specifically listed waste stream and they do not meet the criteria for ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic wastes. Scrap lithium iron disulfide batteries are not hazardous waste and they are not regulated by DOT as hazardous materials. Page 16 of 18

17 Other nations and some US states may regulate waste based on additional criteria or different test protocols. The status of scrap lithium iron disulfidee batteries shouldd be confirmed in the nation or US state(s) where disposal occurs. EU Directive: In September 2006, the new EU Directive (2006/66/EC) was published in the European Official Journal. The directive details are summarized and split intoo four parts (Registration and Financing, Prohibition of Ingredients, Collection and Recycling Targets and Marking) below. Registration and Financing Entities (definedd as producers in 2006/66/EC) placing portable batteries onto the market must register within each member state with official bodies (to be determined and agreed by national laws/decrees). The entities will also have to join a collection andd recycling organization (CRO) and pay a fee based on the volume of batteries they place into the member state. The collection and recycling costs shall not be shown separately to the end user at the time of sale. Prohibition of Ingredients Batteries shall not contain more than % (55 parts per million or ppm) mercury by weight. Button cells may contain up to 2% mercury by weight. Batteries shall not contain more than 0.002% (200 ppm) cadmiumm by weight. Batteries intendedd for use in the following applications are exemptt from the cadmium requirement: o Emergency and alarm systems; o Emergency lighting; o Medical equipment; and o Cordless power tools. Collection and Recycling Targets All portable batteries throughoutt European Member States are subject to collection. Collection targets have been established as o 25% of the batteries sold by 2012 o 45% of the batteries sold by The recycling efficiency of batteries collected shall be o 65% for lead acid batteries; o 75% for nickel cadmium batteries; andd o 50% for all other types. The methodology for calculating recycling efficiency is to be decided no later than March Marking All potable batteries placed onto the market after 26 September 2008 shall be marked with the crossed out dustbin symbol. The dustbin symbol shall cover at least 3% of the area of the largest side of the battery, accumulator or battery pack up to a maximum size of 5 x 5 cm. For cylindrical cells, the symbol shall cover at least 1.5% of the surfacee area with a maximum size of 5 x 5 cm. Page 17 of 18

18 Small batteries (AAA size and smaller), where thee symbol would be smaller than 0..5 x 0.5 cm need not be marked, but a dustbin symbol measuringg at least 1 x 1 cm shall be printed on the packaging. Batteries with more than % (5 ppm) mercury, 0.004% (400 ppm) lead or % (20 ppm) cadmium must also be marked with the chemical symbol (Hg for mercury, Pb for lead, Cd for cadmium) below the dustbin symbol. Hg Pb Cd For electronic devices, the crossed out dustbin symbol is already in place for the WEEE directive (2002/96/EC). For appliances containing AAA or smaller batteries, there will be a need for including the battery dustbin (and chemicals wherever applicable): o On the packaging of the appliance; o Inside the instructionss / manual; or o On the appliance itself. Batteries shall also be marked with the capacity (small batteries shall contain the capacity on the packaging) by 26 September, The details of how to measure capacity are under development but shall be completed no later than 26 March, Most Energizer batteries intended for the EU market shall contain the necessary markings but care must be taken to ensure batteries packaged with equipment contain the appropriate markings if the dustbin is not marked on the battery (AAA and smaller). There are additional minor requirements dealing with explanation of thee markings for batteries sold in Europe. For additional questions or concerns: Refer to the battery directive 2006/66/EC ; Contact the European Portable Association (EPBA) EPBA 204, avenue Marcel Thiry 1200 Brussels, Belgium Telephone: +32/ Fax +32/ Position papers are also regularly posted on the EPBA web site at: or Contact your authorized Energizerr distributor. : For the latest lithium shipping information, please reference the current guidelines on the Energizer Technical Website. Page 18 of 18

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