1 Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience
2 Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences
3 Association Event 1 Event 2 Learning to associate two events Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
4 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli
5 Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its consequence
6 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
7 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions
8 Classical Conditioning Pavlov s device for recording salivation
9 *Pavlov s Classic Experiment UCS (food in mouth) Before Conditioning UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation Neutral stimulus (tone) During Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) After Conditioning CS (tone) CR (salivation)
10 Classical Conditioning NEUTRAL STIMULUS will elicit NO REACTION UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS will elicit a REFLEX ACTION UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS NEUTRAL STIMULUS will elicit a REFLEX ACTION CONDITIONED STIMULUS will elicit a CONDITIONED RESPONSE
11 What would happen to the dog?
13 Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth
14 Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
15 Classical Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
17 Classical Conditioning *Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
18 Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause
19 Variations Within Classical Conditioning Extinction If a stimulus is never reinforced, then the response will go away. Spontaneous Recovery After extinction, a response will suddenly reappear. Generalization A response can be generalized to other like stimuli.
20 Generalization is a behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one. (A baby will call Daddy Dada. When the baby sees any man, the baby calls out Dada. ) Discrimination is the reverse of generalization. Some stimuli have pleasant consequences and some do not. (A baby gradually learns that only one person responds with a smile when called Dada. )
21 Cognitive Processes Conditioning occurs best when the CS and UCS have just the sort of relationship that would lead a scientist to conclude that the CS causes the UCS. even in classical conditioning, it is not only the simple stimulus-response association but also the thought that counts. Conditioning in advertising
22 Biological Predispositions John Garcia Conditioned taste aversions Not all neutral stimuli can become conditioned stimuli. Internal stimuli associate better with taste External stimuli associate better with pain Biological preparedness
24 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
25 *Watson took a a baby named Albert and conditioned him to be afraid of white furry objects using Pavlov s techniques. Watson & Raynor with Little Albert
27 Conditional Training: Albert and Peter Conditioned fear experiments such as Albert s experience would never occur today because of the existing ethical standards.
28 Mary Cover Jones Mary Cover Jones used an early form of desensitization to prove that fears (phobias) could be unlearned. Peter, a young boy, had an extreme fear of rabbits. Jones gave Peter his favorite food while slowly bringing the rabbit closer and closer. Eventually Peter no longer panicked around rabbits.
29 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
30 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning
31 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner ( ) elaborated Thorndike s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology
32 Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses
33 Operant Conditioning In shaping, successively closer versions of a desired response are reinforced (as in learning to play tennis). *In chaining, each part of a sequence is reinforced; the different parts are put together into a whole as in learning the steps to a dance.
34 Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Negative Reinforcement The removal of a punishment or an aversive stimulus It STRENGTHENS behavior
36 Operant Conditioning Processes Primary Reinforcement is unlearned and usually necessary for survival. Food is the best example of a primary reinforcer. Secondary Reinforcement is anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer such as praise from a friend or a gold star on a homework assignment. Also called conditioned reinforcer.
37 Schedules of Reinforcement Immediate Reinforcers To our detriment, small but immediate reinforcements are sometimes more alluring than big, but delayed reinforcements Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction
38 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay
39 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
40 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
41 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz
42 Schedules of Reinforcement Number of responses 1000 Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Rapid responding near time for reinforcement Fixed Interval Variable Interval Steady responding Time (minutes) 80
43 Punishment Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior
45 *Problems with Punishment Does not teach or promote alternative, acceptable behavior May produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, fear Likely to be temporary May model aggression
46 Updating Skinner s Understanding Skinner s emphasis on external control of behavior made him an influential, but controversial figure. Many psychologists criticized Skinner for underestimating the importance of cognitive and biological constraints.
47 Cognitive Approach This approach emphasizes abstract and subtle learning that could not be achieved through conditioning or social learning alone. Some learning is not intentional, but occurs almost accidentally a situation called latent learning. Learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Expectancies are beliefs about our ability to perform an action and to get the desired reward. Expectancies affect learning.
48 Latent Learning
49 Cognitive Maps Cognitive Map (E.C. Tolman) A mental representation of the layout of one s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
50 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
51 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
52 Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
53 Observational Learning Observational Learning (Albert Bandura) learning by observing and imitating others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior
54 This series of photographs shows children observing and modeling aggressive behavior. Albert Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment
55 Observational Learning Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
57 Famous last words??? Do what I say, not what I do This will teach you to hit your brother Why do you do that, you know you get in trouble for it
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