BQS 1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

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1 Wu Dian September 8, 2010 Professor Craig Graci Csc416 BQS 1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence This assignment is answering a series of questions after reading chapter 1 of Ben Coppin s Artificial Intelligence Illuminated. In this chapter, the book mainly introduces the background of Artificial Intelligence and described why Artificial Intelligence is closely connected with other fields such as philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and biology. The questions are really helpful to understand the important concepts about Artificial Intelligence. GRADE = ( X + N + LF + A + R ) = ( ) = 100

2 1. Question: The chapter opens with a quote by Henri Poincare that I like a lot. I hope that you do too! Regardless, write a 3-5 sentence biographical sketch of Poincare which suggests why AI researchers might be interested in at least some of his ideas. Be sure to cite your sources. Henri Poincare was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, and a science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime (1). Since AI is based on many other fields like philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and biology, it's necessary for AI researchers to have interest in some of Henri Poincare s ideas. [1] 2.Question: Search on-line for someone's definition of intelligence that you believe has merit. Strive to find one that is both insightful and interesting -- and somewhat distinctive! Write down the definition along with the name of the individual with whom it is associated.

3 Intelligence is the ability to use optimally limited resources including time to achieve goals. R. Kurzweil R. Kurzweil The age of spiritual machines: When computers exceed human intelligence. Penguin, Question: Of the definitions of AI presented in class, which do you like best? Why? I like this definition: Artificial Intelligence involves using methods based on the intelligent behavior of humans and other animals to solve complex problems. To my mind, the aim of studying Artificial Intelligence is to solve complex problems in daily life. The machine should have intelligent behavior of humans and other animals at some aspects, but they don't have to behave like a real man. 4.Question: Characterize strong AI. Strong AI: The followers of strong AI believe that by giving a computer program sufficient processing power, and by providing it with enough intelligence, one can create a computer that can literally think and is conscious in the same way that a

4 human is conscious. 5.Question: Characterize weak AI. Weak AI is simply the view that intelligent behavior can be modeled and used by computers to solve complex problems. This point of view argues that just because a computer behaves intelligently does not prove that it is actually intelligent in the way that a human is. 6.Question: What is a strong method in the context of AI research and practice? A strong method of problem solving depends on a system being given a great deal of knowledge about its world and the problems that it might encounter. Strong method problem solving depends on the weak methods because a system with knowledge is useless without some methodology for handling that knowledge. 7.Question: What is a weak method in the context of AI research and practice?

5 Weak methods in Artificial Intelligence use systems such as logic, automated reasoning, and other general structures that can be applied to a wide range of problems but that do not necessarily incorporate any real knowledge about the world of the problem that is being solved. 8.Question: Write a one paragraph ( words, not including references) historical survey of "logic and reason" which features just three individuals: Aristotle, Leibniz, and J. Alan Robinson. Chronologically, introduce each individual and as you do say something about their main contribution to development of logic and its application to thinking and problem solving. Be sure to cite your source. As we all know Aristotle, Leibniz, and J. Alan Robinson made enormous contributions to the development of logic and its application to thinking and problem solving. All of Aristotle's logic revolves around one notion: the deduction. He invented the idea of the syllogism which was developed and expanded on by later philosophers. For example, Every X is a Y.

6 Every Y is a Z. Therefore, every X is a Z. (1) Leibniz is a German mathematician and philosopher. He invented the idea of developing a formal mathematical language for reasoning. This kind of language allows us to present problems and try to solve them with precise standard expression. Though Leibniz didn't create this language, his work provided the basis for the propositional and predicate logics that are so important to Artificial Intelligence research today (2). John Alan Robinson is a philosopher (by training), mathematician and computer scientist. It was at Argonne that Robinson became interested in automated theorem proving and developed unification and the resolution principle. Resolution and unification have since been incorporated in many automated theorem-proving systems and are the basis for the inference mechanisms used in logic programming and the programming language Prolog (3). [1] [2] text book "Artificial.Intelligence.Illuminated " [3] 9.Question: Write a 3-5 sentence biographical sketch of Alan Turing which suggests why AI

7 researchers might be interested in at least some of his ideas. Be sure to cite your sources. Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June June 1954), was an English mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist. He was influential in the development of computer science and providing a formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, playing a significant role in the creation of the modern computer (1). The Turing test is a test of a machine's ability to demonstrate intelligence (2). It's an effective way to test the machine's degree of intelligence. [1] [2] 10.Question: What is Cartesian Dualism? In the 17th century, the great philosopher René Descartes was a strong believer in dualism, the idea that the universe consists of mind and matter. Descartes s view was that the mind (or soul) was entirely separate from the physical body and not

8 constrained by it in any way. 11.Question: How does Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" related to artificial intelligence? Chomsky's theory of Syntactic Structures was a formal theory of the structure of human language and attempted to provide a structure for human knowledge, based on the knowledge of language. In his book almost all of the techniques described depend on a formal method of representation for knowledge that enables a computer to use information from the world. Hence, the two fields, linguistics and Artificial Intelligence, join together. 12Question: Characterize cognitive psychology. Characterize behaviorism. Explicitly state the principle distinction between cognitive psychology and behaviorism. Cognitive psychology is based on the idea that the human brain uses knowledge or information that it is capable of processing in order to solve problems, make decisions, draw conclusions, and carry out other intelligent acts. Behaviorism relates behavior directly to stimuli, without taking into account knowledge or information that might

9 be contained in the brain. This is the kind of psychology that Pavlov demonstrated in his famous experiment with dogs. 13.Question: This three part question appears as Review Question 1.7 in your text. (a) What do you think led mankind to embark upon the study of Artificial Intelligence? (b) Which fields of study particularly fed into it? (c) What human desires did the study of Artificial Intelligence seek to satisfy? (a) Humans have been seeking methods to expand their physical power. Such as cars, aircrafts, cranes and so on. It is also a dream for humans to invent some machines to increase their efficiency of intellectual work. Because machines are more efficient than humans, they won't feel tired. We can imagine the interpreters who can translate a book in one second, the doctors who never make medical errors, and the experimenters who never get sick even under the radiation. It will absolutely benefit people's life. Therefore, the study of artificial intelligence happens quite naturally. (b) The propositional and predicate logics. (c) With the development of the technology, material requisite may not be the problem. In my opinion, eventually, the study of Artificial Intelligence will seek to satisfy the affection need of people.

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