# Deductive Systems. Marco Piastra. Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems [1]

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1 Artificial Intelligence Deductive Systems Marco Piastra Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 1]

2 Symbolic calculus? A wff is entailed by a set of wff iff every model of is also model of Formally: language symbolic calculus meaning semantics v( ) entailment semantics v( ) Note that, in the definition above, the set of all possible models is considered Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 2]

3 Symbolic calculus? A wff is entailed by a set of wff iff every model of is also model of Formally: language symbolic calculus meaning semantics v( ) entailment semantics v( ) Note that, in the definition above, the set of all possible models is considered Can we detect entailment by working on wffs only? For instance, by applying reasoning schemas Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 3]

4 Axiomatic method (i.e. Hilbert System, 1899) Language, axioms and rules of inference < L P, Ax, Inf > L P is a propositional language whose signature is P Ax a set of wffs, i.e. the axioms Inf is a set of inference rules Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 4]

5 Axioms The axioms (of a logic) describe the reasoning schemas (of that logic) Axiom schemas for propositional logic (Lukasiewicz, 1917) Ax1 ( ) Ax2 ( ( )) (( ) ( )) Ax3 ( ) ( ) Each wff obtained by substituting the meta-variabes, e with a wff is an axiom The wffs thus obtained are also called instances of axiom Examples: A ( A A) Ax1: /A, / A] ( (B C) D) (D (B C)) Ax3: /(B C), /D] All axiom instances are tautologies (But do not rely on this for the definition of deductive systems) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 5]

6 Inference Rules Recall that {, } is valid Inference rules are fundamental in any symbolic calculus (also known as derivation or deduction rules) They work on the structure of wffs For propositional logic, just one inference rule is sufficient Modus Ponens (MP): It can be written also in this way: {, } (i.e. from {, }, is derivable) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 6]

7 Proofs (also derivations) A proof (or derivation) of a wff from a set of wffs Is a finite sequence of steps: 1, 2,..., n Admissible steps, at stage i : 1) i is an instance of an axiom schema Ax n 2) i is in 3) i has been obtained from two previous steps, via Modus Ponens In the final step, the wff to be proved is obtained: n = The notation is is derivable There must be many different ways to show that, i.e. many different proofs Note that: Axn (an axiom or axiom instance can be derived from any ) Axn (an axiom or axiom instance can be derived from an empty ) {,..} (any can be derived form a that contains it) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 7]

8 Derivations, an incomplete example Same problem ( Harry is happy ) B D (A C), B C, A D, B D Rewrite the problem in equivalent terms using only and C ( B (A D)), B C, A D, B D 1: B C 2: B 3: C (MP 1,2) 4: C ( B (A D)) 5: B (A D) (MP 3,4) 6: A D (MP 2,5) 7: A D 8*: ( ) (( ) ) (OK if this was an axiom it is not) 9: ( A D) ((A D) D) (Sost) 10: (A D) D (MP 7,9) 11: D (MP 6,10) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 8]

9 Derivations: example 0 Any wff implies itself 1: ( (( ) )) (( ( )) ( )) (Ax2) 2: ( (( ) )) (Ax1) 3: ( ( )) ( ) (MP 1,2) 4: ( ( )) (Ax1) 5: (MP 3,4) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 9]

10 Deduction (meta)-theorem theorem Deduction theorem { } (semantic dual of Deduction Theorem) { } Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 10 10]

11 Derivations: example 1 The order of hypotheses is irrelevant ( ( )) ( ( )) 1: ( ( )),, ( ( )) 2: ( ( )),, 3: ( ( )),, (MP 1,2) 4: ( ( )),, 5: ( ( )),, (MP 3,4) 6: ( ( )), (Ded) 7: ( ( )) ( ) (Ded) 8: ( ( )) ( ( )) (Ded) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 11 11]

12 Derivations: example 2 Double negation implies affirmation 1: ( ) (Ax1) 2: (Ded) 3: ( ) ( ) (Ax3) 4: (MP 3,2) 5: ( ) ( ) (Ax3) 6: (MP 5,4) 7: 8: (MP 6,7) 9: (Ded) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 12 12]

13 Derivations: example 3 A rule is false if the LHS is true and the RHS is false ( ( )) 1:, ( ) (MP) 2: ( ) (Ded) 3: (( ) ) ( ( )) (Ax3) 4: ( ) (MP 3,2) 5: ( ( )) (Ded) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 13 13]

14 Derivations: example 4 From absurd, anything can be derived ( Ex absurdo sequitur quodlibet ): ( ) (vale a dire, ) 1:, ( ) (Ax1) 2:, 3:, (MP 1,2) 4:, ( ) ( ) (Ax3) 5:, (MP 4,3) 6:, 7:, (MP 5,6) 8: (Ded) 9: ( ) (Ded) A set of wffs that contains a contradiction is called incoherent (or inconsistent) From an incoherent set, anything can be derived, including a contradiction like: Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 14 14]

15 Derivations: example 5 (using theorems) When falsity implies contradiction, then it must be true: ( ) 1:, 2:, 3:, (MP 1,2) 4:, ( ( )) (Th. 4) 5:, ( ) (MP 3,4) 6:, ( ) (MP 1,5) 7: ( ) (Ded) 8: ( ( )) (( ) ) (Ax3) 9: ( ) (MP 7,8) 10: 11: (MP 9,10) 12: ( ) (Ded) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 15 15]

16 Derivations: Theorem X Resolution rule (see the first incomplete example): ( ) (( ) ) 1: ( ), ( ) ( ) 2: ( ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (Ax3) 3: ( ), ( ) ( ) (MP 1,2) 4: ( ), ( ), (Ded) 5: ( ), ( ), 6: ( ), ( ), (MP 4,5) 7: ( ), ( ) ( ) (Ded) 8: ( ), ( ) (( ) ) (Th. 5) 9: ( ), ( ) (MP 7,8) 10: ( ) (( ) ) (Ded) 11: ( ) (( ) ) (Ded) Rewritten in an equivalent way: ( ) (( ) ) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 16 16]

17 Correctness Correctness All wffs that are derivable from axioms Axn are tautologies (valid wffs) It can be verified directly that the axioms schemas Ax1, Ax2 e Ax3 are schemas of tautologies as well The inference rule of Modus Ponens is correct, as it preserves entailment Any wff entailed by a set of tautologies is a tautology Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 17 17]

18 Completeness Completeness All tautologies (i.e. valid wffs) are derivable from axiom schemas Axn Why: See textbook Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 18 18]

19 Properties of derivations Coherence (definition) A set of wffs is coherent if it exists at least a wff which is not derivable from (see theorem 3) Refutation { } is incoherent { } is incoherent implies that for any, { } In particular { } From deduction theorem From Theorem 5 ( ) MP Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 19 19]

20 Properties of derivations Coherence is equivalent to satisfiability A set of wffs is satisfiable if it is coherent If was incoherent, then it would be possible to derive a contradiction (Theorem 3) But, given that derivability implies entailment, then should be unsatisfiable A set of wffs which is coherent is also satisfiable (see textbook) Syntactic compactness Consider a set of wffs (not necessarily finite) There exist a finite subset such that (See textbook for a proof) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 20 20]

21 Properties of derivations Syntactic monotony For any and, if then Transitivity In fact, any derivation of from remains valid even if grows larger If for any we have, then if then One can apply the deduction theorem and MP repeatedly Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 21 21]

22 Theorems Given a set of wffs, the theorems of is the set of all wff that can be derived from ( can be empty) The set of theorems of is also written as Th( ) Due to the definition of derivability, this means that any such descends from Ax This definition has general validity: it applies to any axiomatized logic Any theorem of is also an entailment of Th( ) Why? (a simple exercise for the reader...) Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 22 22]

23 Independence of the axiom schemas Axn Minimality The proof of completeness requires using them all (see textbook) Independence The three schemas are logically independent: It is not possible to derive any of them from the other two There exist other axiomatizations of propositional logic In one of them, just a single schema is used Using axiom schemas, however, is unavoidable In other words, using an infinite set of axioms is unavoidable Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 23 23]

24 Theorems, theories, axiomatizations Theory = set of wffs (yes, just that) Any set (however defined) is a theory Theorem = a wff derivable from a set of wffs Given a set of wffs, the set of theorems of is the set of all wffs that can be derived from Th( ) = { : } Axiomatizations = a set of wff that describes a theory A set of wffs is an axiomatization of a theory iff Th( ) Axiom schemas Axn describe the theory of valid wffs in (classical) propositional logic Artificial Intelligence - A.A Deductive Systems 24 24]

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