Visualizing Psychology

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1 Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive-Social Learning The Biology of Learning Conditioning and Learning in Everyday Life Introductory Definitions Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience Conditioning: process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses 1

2 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning: learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) Pavlov s Original Experiment Classical Conditioning--Key Terms Neutral Stimulus (NS): before conditioning doesn t naturally elicit response of interest Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): elicits UCR without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned reaction to UCS occurring without prior conditioning 2

3 Classical Conditioning--Key Terms (Continued) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously NS that, through repeated pairings with UCS, now causes a CR Conditioned Response (CR): learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS Pause and Reflect: Why Study Psychology? It helps you understand and enjoy popular cartoons! 3

4 Classical Conditioning (Continued) Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): emotional responses are classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus (NS) John B. Watson Watson and Rayner Created a Conditioned Emotional Response (CER)--Fear of Rats Classical Conditioning s Basic Principles ALL Snakes bite! Stimulus Generalization: learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS) 4

5 Classical Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Stimulus Discrimination: learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli Now I know that some snakes are nice! Extinction: UCS withheld when CS presented leads to gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR) Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR) Classical Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Higher-Order Conditioning: neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) 5

6 Classical Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Higher-Order Conditioning Pause and Reflect: Check & Review 1. Using Pavlov s classic experiment with the salivating dog, can you label the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, and CR? 2. Compare and contrast stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning: learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences 6

7 Operant Conditioning (Continued) Thorndike s Contribution Law of Effect: probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence Operant Conditioning (Continued) B. F. Skinner Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles Reinforcement: strengthening a response 7

8 Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Primary Reinforcers: normally satisfy an unlearned biological need (e.g., food) Secondary Reinforcers: learned value (e.g., money, praise) Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Positive Reinforcement: adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., praise) Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Negative Reinforcement: taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., headache removed after taking an aspirin) 8

9 Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed 2. Variable Ratio (VR): reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued) 3. Fixed Interval (FI): reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed 4. Variable Interval (VI): reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies 9

10 Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued) Pause and Reflect: Check & Review 1. If you want to increase the overall number of responses, which schedule of reinforcement should you choose? Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Shaping: reinforcement by a series of successively improved steps leading to desired response 10

11 Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Punishment: weakening a response Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Positive Punishment: adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., shouting) Operant Conditioning s Basic Principles (Continued) Negative Punishment: taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., restriction) 11

12 Pause and Reflect: Check & Review 1. Using the chart on the following slide, can you fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms????????????? Side Effects of Punishment Judging by this boy s expression, is he experiencing increased aggression, passive aggressiveness, avoidance behavior, modeling, temporary suppression, or learned helplessness? 12

13 Pause and Reflect: Check & Review 1. Briefly explain how classical conditioning differs from operant conditioning. 2. Give a personal example of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Cognitive-Social Learning Cognitive-Social Theory: emphasizes thinking and social learning in behavior Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Kohler s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution). 13

14 Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Tolman s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a three-dimensional space). They also displayed latent learning (hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs). Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Observational Learning: learning new behaviors or information by watching others Bandura's Famous Bobo Doll study Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking Note the increasing bicep circumference of these G.I. Joe action figures. Are young boys affected by this type of modeling and observational learning? 14

15 Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Observational Learning involves four processes The Biology of Learning: Neuroscience and Learning Learning leads to new synaptic connections and alterations in many brain structures. The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning Classical Conditioning Taste Aversion: classically conditioned negative associations of food with illness 15

16 The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning (Continued) Biological Preparedness: built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses Instinctive Drift: conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response pattern Conditioning and Learning in Everyday Life Classical Conditioning can be seen in: Marketing Prejudice Medical Treatments Phobias 16

17 Conditioning and Learning in Everyday Life (Continued) Operant Conditioning can be seen in: Prejudice Biofeedback Superstitions Conditioning and Learning in Everyday Life (Continued) Cognitive-Social Theory can be seen in: Prejudice Media Influences Pause and Reflect: Critical Thinking Has reading Chapter 6, or viewing these Power Point slides, changed your beliefs or attitudes about using punishment to control behavior? Why or why not? 17

18 Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation End of Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College 18

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