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1 University of Western Ontario Department of Psychology Psychology 261 Section 001 (Murray) TEST # 2 Instructions Before starting the test, please print your name and ID number at the top left-hand corner of this page only. For multiple-choice questions # 1 to 35 (1 point per question), please circle the letter corresponding to the alternative that best answers the question. For essay questions # 36 to 38 ( 12 points per question), please provide a brief one-page written answer in the space provided. Explain clearly and stick to the point of the question. Quality of writing will be taken into account in grading. Multiple Choice Questions (35 points) 1. In classical conditioning, the should occur slightly before the. a. unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus b. conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus c. unconditioned response; conditioned response d. conditioned response; unconditioned response 2. Mrs. Flores continually rings a bell at the start of class to get her students to look at her. When all of the students turn toward her, she stops ringing the bell. Mrs. Flores is using which of the following to get her students' attention? a. Positive reinforcement b. Negative reinforcement c. Punishment I d. Punishment II e. Extinction

2 3. Arnie has difficulty refraining from hitting other students. His teacher wants to eliminate Arnie's hitting behavior. She systematically reinforces him every time she observes him using his hands appropriately. This teacher is using a. differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL). b. differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). c. punishment I. d. response cost. 4. Possession of marijuana is punishable in state X by jail and in state Y by a fine of $100. From this we see evidence of how the law uses a. differential reinforcement of other responses (DRO) and punishment. b. punishment I in state X and response cost in state Y. c. response cost in both states. d. time out in state X and punishment I in state Y. 5. The phase of observational learning most likely to include corrective feedback is the a. reproduction phase. b. attentional phase. c. retention phase. d. motivational phase. 6. Which of the following would you not do in order to teach self-regulation? a. Ensure goal setting. b. Provide student conferencing. c. Establish contingencies and eventually allow students to control the contingencies. d. Avoid intrinsic contingencies. 7. For every tenth arithmetic problem done correctly by Johnny, his teacher pays him ten cents. This is an example of a a. fixed-ratio schedule. b. fixed-interval schedule. c. variable-ratio schedule. d. variable-interval schedule.

3 8. Which of the following statements reflects a valid distinction between behavioral and cognitive views of learning? a. The cognitive perspective emphasizes the observable while the behavioral perspective emphasizes the mental. b. The cognitive perspective tries to describe the way the mind processes information while the behavioral perspective emphasizes activity and observable behavior. c. The cognitive perspective sees behavior as external to the learner while the behavioral perspective sees behavior as internal to the learner. d. The two perspectives actually have the same emphases. 9. Of the following events in the information-processing model, which one comes first chronologically? a. Retention and transfer b. Enhanced association c. Short-term sensory store d. Long-term memory 10. You look up a friend's phone number in the directory. You turn your attention to something else briefly and then realize you have to look up the number again. In which component of the information-processing model of memory did the forgetting occur? a. Mnemonic memory b. Short-term memory c. Long-term memory d. Encoding device 11. When Suzy took piano lessons, her teacher told her to remember that "every good boy does fine." Suzy always remembered this statement, and it helped her to recall musical notes. This is an example of what type of memory strategy? a. Synesthesia b. Mnemonics c. Method of loci d. Multiple coding

4 12. Mark looks over his homework assignment, estimates its level of difficulty, and allocates his study time accordingly. What process is Mark using? a. Metacognition b. Positive transfer c. Procedural identity d. Doctrine of formal discipline 13. A brief overview of the material to be learned, at an abstract level, is called a. mediational learning. b. a preliminary orientation. c. an advance organizer. d. a mnemonic device. 14. Mayer discusses the importance of using conceptual models for enhancing student understanding and transfer. He recommends that models a. do not have all the important information within them. b. contain an overwhelming amount of information. c. be as abstract as possible. d. explain things, not just list them. 15. Sherri and Terri both have IQ scores of 108. Teachers have identified Sherri as an overachiever and Terri as an underachiever. Which of the following is more likely? a. Terri has higher achievement motivation. b. Sherri has higher motivation to affiliate. c. Sherri has higher achievement motivation. d. Terri and Sherri do not differ in any motivational aspects. 16. According to Maslow's theory of motivation, a self-actualized person is one who a. focuses on making his or her life as pleasurable as it can be. b. is open and not defensive. c. can rationally choose between satisfying needs at any level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. d. can create good works of art.

5 17. Which of the following is not a characteristic of someone high in need for achievement? a. Continued performance even when nobody is checking. b. A tendency to complete interrupted tasks c. Persistence d. Viewing failure as the result of external forces 18. Children and adults ordinarily attribute a. success to internal factors and failure to external factors. b. failure to internal factors and success to external factors. c. both success and failure to internal factors. d. both success and failure to external factors. 19. When an activity is intrinsically interesting to a student and the student receives extrinsic rewards for participating in that activity, the student a. may have his intrinsic interest undermined. b. will engage in that activity for less reward. c. will show increased interest in the activity,. d. will give the reward back. 20. Token-economy systems for motivating school-related behavior should a. rely on intrinsic motivation. b. specify the ability level of the students. c. be restricted to reading and mathematics. d. specify the rules for awarding and exchanging tokens. 21. Perhaps the most important part of using verbal praise to improve achievement is to a. use it profusely and generously. b. praise effort only. c. make sure that praise is contingent on desirable performance. d. ensure that praise fosters competition.

6 22. Which statement accurately reflects the relationship between grade level and the usefulness of lectures? a. Short one-minute lectures would be inappropriate for students in the primary grades. b. Lectures of greater duration become more appropriate as students go from elementary school to middle school to high school. c. Lectures of shorter duration become more appropriate as students go from elementary school to middle school to high school. d. At the college level, lectures should go on in an uninterrupted fashion for the full class period. 23. The "equalization effect" refers to a process that confuses comparisons between the scores of students on final examinations after the students have been taught using lectures and other instructional methods. The equalization effect refers to the a. effects of students' private study to compensate for the inadequacies of any specific instructional method. b. tendency of lecturers to engage in discussions and of discussion teachers to engage in lecturing. c. tendency of examination makers to include more material from either the lectures or the discussion sessions. d. tendency of lecture content and discussion content to be the same. 24. "I'll put the matrix on the board so that you can follow along as I describe the events in each cell of the matrix. The rows are labeled by age ranges and the columns by type of event, namely, behavior-social, intellectual, and physical." What type of organizational framework is this lecturer using? a. Transitional b. Sequencing c. Chaining d. Combinatorial

7 25. Which of the following provides the best example of the rule-example-rule technique? a. The supersonic transport is controversial. People disagree about its effects on noise, the ozone layer, and energy resources, and about the need for the plane. So the supersonic transport has caused a lot of argument. b. Because the supersonic transport is controversial, it has caused a great deal of argument. c. There are four reasons why people object to the supersonic transport: its noise, its effects on the ozone layer, its consumption of fuel, and its value only to the rich. d. Now let's turn to the arguments in favor of the supersonic transport: its saving of time, its importance to the economies of England and France, its serving as a technological advance, and its value in emergencies. 26. Which of the following provides an example of the use of "explaining links"? a. The supersonic transport causes sonic booms, and it is a nuisance. b. The supersonic transport cuts hours off flying time to Europe, but it causes a nuisance. c. The supersonic transport causes sonic booms, but it reduces flying time to Europe. d. Because the supersonic transport causes sonic booms, it constitutes a nuisance. 27. What are the research findings regarding use of visual aids (e.g., slides, overhead projectors) in lectures? a. Visuals are preferred but there is no clear relationship between the addition of visuals and achievement gains. b. Visuals are effective in promoting complex learning but not in improving attitudes. c. Visuals are effective for promoting knowledge of simple information but not for promoting complex learning. d. Visuals have no effect on student achievement. 28. The natural enthusiasm with which lectures are delivered has usually been found to influence student achievement a. positively and consistently. b. positively, depending on the age of the students. c. negatively and consistently. d. inconsistently at all ages.

8 29. Which method of teaching is most effective for changing students' opinions and attitudes? a. Lectures b. Discussions c. Computer-assisted instruction d. Teacher-directed instruction 30. The suitability of discussion-group teaching is greater for teachers who a. need a highly organized, logically developed treatment of the subject. b. are willing to avoid errors of reasoning at all times. c. rely entirely upon the students to pull scattered points together. d. are willing to share authority with students. 31. One way to judge the influence pattern in a discussion is by monitoring the a. eye contact of students with the teacher and other students. b. teacher's use of questions directed to students in the group. c. proximity of the students to the teacher. d. amount of time devoted to each subtopic. 32. Of the following, which is the best reason for a teacher to interrupt a discussion? a. To express a personal value b. To correct a factual or logical error c. To praise a student for making a point d. To introduce a brief digression as a short rest from discussing the topic 33. In a discussion among a dozen students, Rachel takes a unique position. Most of the students attack her perspective. However, James stands with her. Rachel is likely to a. change her position because the pressure to yield is overwhelming. b. hold her position because one other group member supports her. c. pull the majority to her side because of the support she has received. d. do any of the above, since research does not shed light on such situations. 34. When achievement is tested in the student-teams-and-achievement-divisions approach to cooperative learning, the students work on the test a. as a team. b. in pairs. c. independently, that is, alone. d. as they wish.

9 35. Research on the effectiveness of cooperative learning suggests that a. cooperative learning leads to lower achievement. b. self-esteem diminishes because there are so many "little fishes." c. relations among ethnic groups become more strained. d. relationships with mainstreamed students become more positive. Essay Questions (36 points, 12 points each) 36. Differentiate among pure discovery, guided discovery, and expository methods of teaching concepts, and summarize the overall trend of research evidence on the relative effectiveness of these three methods. 37. Define any four of the basic assumptions of the humanistic theory of learning and give a specific example of the implementation (or lack thereof) of each of these assumptions in Alexander Neill s Summerhill School. 38. Why did Dubin and Taveggia (1969) refer to results of research on lecture vs. discussion vs. independent study methods of teaching as paradoxical? Identify and explain three possible reasons for the paradoxical results obtained.

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