Video and Temperature Monitoring with Furnace Camera - KEEPING AN EYE ON THE FLAME -

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1 Video and Temperature Monitoring with Furnace Camera - KEEPING AN EYE ON THE FLAME - Roland Zepeck 1), Maurizio Dal Cin 2) 1) Durag process & systems technology gmbh, Hamburg, Germany 2) Power Generation Services, Milano, Italia Abstract The difference between good and bad combustion means a great deal for Thermal Power Plant Operators. Receiving direct online information about the flame situation and thermal distribution inside the boiler allows the operator more easily to balance the combustion. 1 Basics The quality and efficiency of firing systems and the associated operational availability of boiler plants and steam generators is essentially depending on the optimal mixture and dosing of fuel and combustion air in the entire combustion zone. Combustion processes with different firing systems Power Plant tilting or fixed burner tangential or boxer or front wall fired Power Plant cyclone burner Steam Generator / Waste Incinerator grate firing system Steel melting & sintering Industrial Waste Incineration Rotary Kiln Cement Kiln burner 1

2 Disturbances of the local fuel-/air ratio result in the following operational conditions: thermal NOx localized combustion areas with incomplete combustion and high formation of CO High flue gas losses and high amounts of unburned carbon (UBC) or lost of ignition (LOI) Local displacement of the main Combustion Zone compared to the design position local overheating of boiler construction material high temperature corrosion and thermal stress combined with boiler tube ruptures 2 Challenges Exothermal chemical reactions to transform carbon or hydrocarbons into Energy, CO 2, and water are the basis of the combustion in a Thermal Power Plant: Chemical Processes in the Combustion C + O 2 CO ,1 kcal C x H y + [2x+ y / 4 ] O 2 x CO 2 + y / 2 H 2 O + z kcal Burner Flame Air Fuel Air To achieve an optimal control of the combustion process it should be possible to adjust the following firing parameters individually: uniform distribution of fuel according to the design data control of the combustion air distribution over the entire combustion zone Receiving good basic information from the actual situation inside the firing zone is mandatory to be able to achieve these targets. 2

3 DURAG Sensor System - Online Information from Thermal Processes in: DURAG Sensor Grate fired Plants Waste / Coal / Biomass Industrial Firing Systems Coal / Oil / Gas fired Power Plants Cement Plants Hazardous Waste Rotary Kilns Therefore an online / real-time analysis of the actual firing situation is mandatory and has to deliver the following information: Detection of the local position of the main combustion zone flame temperature distribution local flame propagation ignition point of flame local fouling 3 Solution DURAG System DURAG Furnace Cameras TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS Thermography VISUALIZATION Video Technology The furnace camera sensor of the DURAG Video & Thermography System supplies online information directly from the combustion chamber to assist the operator in adjusting the complete combustion process optimally. The system provides a real-time video image as well as a real-time online thermographic analysis of the temperature distribution inside the combustion chamber. 3

4 The DURAG Thermographic System is an optical pyrometer based on video data processing. In addition to the Video Image it provides methods for: The thermal analysis of the spatial temperature distribution inside the combustion chamber Temperature determination within freely definable areas and lines (ROI-Region Of Interest and LOI- Line Of Interest) Continuous parallel temperature analysis in all ROI's with continuous display of the absolute temperatures on screen Continuous temperature analysis along all LOI's with continuous display of the absolute temperature profile through the combustion chamber Detection of actual thermal position of the combustion zone. Video System Image Processing = Thermography 1500 Live Picture Calculated Pseudo Color Image Temperature distribution 1200 Calculations: Temperature (in absolute terms, accuracy app. ± 1.5%) Temperature Distribution Flame Position Ignition Point Combustion Zone Detection For automatic closed loop control systems all data of the thermographic analysis can be interfaced to the main process control system (DCS) at the customer site through standardized data interface. Furnace Camera Lance with Retraction Unit Videoscope (0 ) Boroscope (45 ) Sapphire Lens Furnace Wall Automatic Pneumatic Retraction Unit Carrier with Air Tank Lance Sensor for cooling water Inclination 0 / 45 Viewing angle: 90 / (60 with inclin. 45 ) Camera Camera Housing Air Cooling Sensor for cooling & purging air Cooling Water 4

5 Alarm R. Zepeck et al. Keeping an Eye on the Flame In order to guarantee the largest and unobstructed observation range the sensors along with their optical systems are directly moved into the combustion chamber. In order to withstand high temperatures between 700 C and 1800 C (typical for these furnaces) the sensors are air and/or water cooled. All parts which are affected by the flue gas are made of special stainless steel to scope with the chemical reactions and high temperatures of the flue gas. The number of cameras and location of the places where they are installed depends on: The monitoring task (Monitoring of single burner, of elevations, of combustion chambers) The measurements of the combustion chamber and of the firing belt Plant specific options. Typically one or two furnace cameras are fully enough to visualize and analyze the entire combustion chamber. In existing boilers they are typically installed in existing peepholes above the last burner elevation and below the superheater tubes, therefore not requiring any structural changes on the boiler and avoiding new boiler or pressure approvals. In the control room the following instrumentation is installed: one video monitor for every sensor or for every sensor group for online visualization of the combustion process one PC with a graphic monitor (maximum processing of 2 sensors possible) for thermography and temperature analysis Video and Thermography in coal / oil / gas fired Power Plants DURAG Sensor for Video and Thermography Retraction Unit (suggested) Burner Thermography Video Field Cabinet with PLC Plant Process Control DCS Interface Option System PC and Software (option) Video Monitor 5

6 4 Applications and Results Applications for online monitoring and thermal evaluation of the combustion situation in boiler plants are typical with the following firing systems: Coal Fuel Oil Gas (luminous flames) Co-combustion of secondary fuels (e.g. waste water sludge) Biomass boilers Grate-based firing systems (travelling grate or stoker) Tangential firing systems (corner or wall orientated) Wall orientated firing systems Opposite burner orientated firing systems ( boxing firing systems) Video System + Image Processing = Thermography Example: Furnace Camera in fossil-fueled boilers Benefits for the Operator in Boilers from the DURAG Video and Thermography System Video System: Online insight into the boiler with presentation of fire ball form and position. Visualization of up-most level of burners during start-up. Thermography / Temperature Distribution Analysis: Presentation of the temperature distribution in the boiler / fireball with temperature determination in selected Regions of Interest and along selected Lines of Interest (measurement areas). With this temperature information the operator will be able to adjust online the set points for fuel quantity, primary and secondary and over-fire air. The operator is able to detect online thermal unbalances in the fireball and maintain the thermal fireball position in the center of the boiler. Reducing drastically the possibility of local overheating and water tube ruptures. The online data from the DURAG Video and Thermographic System supports the analysis of the combustion process; it provides the tools and ability to improve the quality of combustion by taking the necessary measures: Correction of undefined and incorrect positioning of the main combustion zone through adjustment of the fuel-/air ratio for individual burners Minimizing the amount of unburned carbon in the ash (UBC / LOI) 6

7 Minimizing the flue gas losses and increasing the efficiency level by adjusting the excess air at constant combustion Using optimal furnace control to reduce the maintenance requirements and furnace out-ofservice conditions due to local overheating and undefined situations in the water and steam systems (avoiding water tube ruptures) Minimizing of start up time of boiler through a controlled temperature profile. Utilizing the thermographic temperature analysis data for operation of the boiler typically results in Return-of-Investment periods of less than one year. 7

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