The Coding of Sound by a Cochlear Prosthesis. IEEE Real World Engineering Project Background Lecture

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1 The Coding of Sound by a Cochlear Prosthesis IEEE Real World Engineering Project Background Lecture 1

2 Topic Concepts Tasks/Challenge Course time Speech generation from a sound source Voltage representation Periodicity Propagation of sound Pressure waves Sound measure Signal construction 10% Decibels scale construction 5% Auditory system: form & function Peripheral system Central system Amplification Impedance Filtering Perception Spectral decomposition by the basilar membrane Audiogram 35% Cochlear Prosthesis Components Microphone Preemphasis filter Bandpass filter bank Frequency response High pass filter Low pass filter Bandpass filter Bode plot Modification of the preemphasis filter Exercising of bandpass filter bank Explore relationship between speech perception and system complexity, repeating for music 50% 2

3 Voiced Speech Signal Voiced speech is periodic Unvoiced signals are non-periodic and much noisier 3

4 Propagation of Sound Longitudinal pressure waves Transmitted through a medium equally in all direction Propagated by molecular interactions in the medium Rarefactions: low pressure regions, particles are pulled apart Compressions: high pressure regions, particles pushed together 4

5 Propagation of Sound Rarefactions (R): low pressure regions, particles are pulled apart Compressions (C): high pressure regions, particles pushed together C C C R R R R 5

6 Characteristics of a Sound Wave Amplitude Corresponds to loudness Measured in decibels (db) Frequency Corresponds to pitch Middle C is Hz Amplitude 1/frequency 6

7 The Peripheral Auditory System Cochlea Auditory nerve Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear 7

8 COCHLEA The Organ of Corti 8 Hair cells mechanical-toelectrical transducer

9 Frequency To Place Mapping: Tonotopic arrangement of the Basilar membrane 9

10 The Cochlea as a Frequency Analyzer The cochlea serves to separate the frequencies in the sound signal the frequency spectrum The cochlea s tonotopic mapping Discovered by Georg von Békésy: 1961 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Youtube demonstration: h-p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyenmlufauw&feature=related 10

11 Sensorineural Hearing Loss Hair cells fail as the mechanical-to-electrical transducers Causes: Congenital defects Prenatal infections Head trauma Excessive noise Antibiotics (aminoglycosides) Intervention/Treatment: auditory nerves respond to direct electrical stimulation in the cochlea 11

12 Sensorineural Hearing Loss Statistics Disorders of the cochlea or cochlea nerve Most common in adults over 65 years (23%) Continues to degrade with age, typically lose high frequency hearing first Sensorineural hearing loss in children can be detected early with screening Sources: National Institutes on Deafness and other Communication Disorders: American Speech Language Hearing Association: 12

13 Assessing Hearing Loss: Decibels Logarithmic scale for measuring sound intensity Relative increase by a factor of 10 Decibel Ratings Examples Near total silence: 0dB Whisper: 1dB Normal conversation: 15dB Lawn mover: 90dB Rock concert or jet engine: 120dB Gunshot or firecraker 140dB Source: 13

14 Assessing Hearing Loss: The Audiogram 14

15 A Cochlear Prosthesis - Provides the sensation of sound through electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve ,000+ patients implanted worldwide. - Nearly 1/2 of implantees are children. - Scores of nearly 100% on speech recognition tests in quiet. - Most successful neural prosthesis to date. 15

16 Cochlear Prosthesis Components Images courtesy of Citizen Airman Receiver/stimulator 6. Electrode array 7. Vestibulocochlear nerve

17 A Contemporary Array Image courtesy of Cochlear Ltd. 17

18 1. Microphone 2. Speech processor 3. Cable to transmitter 4. Transmitter coil Cochlear Prosthesis Overview 5. Receiver/ stimulator 6. Electrode Array 7. Cochlear nerve 18

19 19 Cochlear Implant: Speech Coding Diagram

20 Basic Ideal Filters: Low & High Pass Gain Gain passband stopband stopband passband f C cutoff frequency Frequency (Hz) f C cutoff frequency Low Pass Filter High Pass Filter 20

21 Basic Ideal Filters: Bandreject (Notch) passbands Gain stopband f C1 f C2 Frequency (Hz) 21

22 Basic Ideal Filters: Bandpass stopbands passband Gain bandwidth f C1 f C2 Frequency (Hz) 22

23 Real Filters: Bode Plot (Magnitude) Gain (db) 0 db -3 db bandwidth f C1 f C2 Frequency (Hz) log scale 23

24 Acoustic Simulation: Speech Coding Diagram cos(2π f c1 t+θ 1 ) audio output cos(2π f c2 t+θ) cos(2π f c16 t+θ) 24

25 Frequency Bands: 16 Bandpass Filters Hz, f c =216 Hz Hz, f c = 343 Hz Hz, f c = 486 Hz Hz, f c = 647 Hz Hz, f c = 828 Hz Hz, f c = 1031 Hz Hz, f c = 1260 Hz Hz, f c = 1518 Hz Hz, f c = 1808 Hz Hz, f c = 2134 Hz Hz, f c = 2501 Hz Hz, f c = 2914 Hz Hz, f c = 3378 Hz Hz, f c = 3901 Hz Hz, f c = 4489 Hz Hz, f c = 5150 Hz 25

26 Bandpass Filtering vp(t) is separated into it s frequency components vp(t) 1.0cos(2π 250t) 0.5cos(π/2 2π 500t) 1.0cos(2π 750t) 0.5cos(π/2 2π 1000t) 0.75cos(2π 1500t) msec 1.0cos(π/2 2π 2000t) 26

27 Frequency Domain: Cosine Wave Spectrum Frequency (Hz) 27

28 Full-Wave Rectification The absolution value of the signal is determined vp(t) vp(t) msec 28

29 Real World Engineering Project Outline The goal is to take you through the basic components of a cochlear implant signal processor Filter basics GUI in LabVIEW Cochlear Implant simulation in LabVIEW Explore real world engineering design challenges faced by cochlear implant designers 29

30 select filter type specify cutoffs 30

31 select filter type specify upper cutoff 31

32 run specify.wav file select channel count 32

33 Cochlear Signal Processor Channel Count GUI indicates a linked audio clip (takes a few seconds to load) from users.ece.gatech.edu/~pamelab/filename.wav Audio Clip (source) Channels Fur Elise (instrumental) FurElise.wav Cochlear_Implant2 -music.wav Cochlear_Implant8 -music.wav Cochlear_Implant16 -music.wav Cats & dogs (voice) catsdogs.wav Cochlear_Implant2.wav Cochlear_Implant8.wav Row (vocals & music) BOAT.WAV BOAT_4C.WAV BOAT_8C.WAV BOAT_16C.WAV 33

34 Project Challenges Investigate in teams of 3-4 students Compare speech recognition vs. music appreciation Consider how to improve cochlear implant performance in a variety of environments Consider the cost and accessibility of cochlear implants Present team results to class 34

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