# Lab 4 Op Amp Filters

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Lab 4 Op Amp Filters Figure 4.0. Frequency Characteristics of a BandPass Filter Adding a few capacitors and resistors to the basic operational amplifier (op amp) circuit can yield many interesting analog circuits such as active filters, integrators, and differentiators. Filters are used to pass specific frequency bands, integrators are used in proportional control, and differentiators are used in noise suppression and waveform generation circuits.

2 Goal: This lab uses the NI ELVIS II suite of instruments to measure the characteristics of lowpass, highpass, and bandpass filters. Simulate these filters using Multisim with the measured component values. In the lab challenge at the end of this chapter, Multisim is used to design a second order active filter. Required Soft Front Panels (SFPs) Digital multimeter (DMM[Ω,C]) Function generator (FGEN) Oscilloscope (Scope) Impedance analyzer (Imped) Bode analyzer (Bode) Required Components 10 kω resistor R 1, (brown, black, orange) 100 kω resistor R f, (brown, black, yellow) 1 µf capacitor C µf capacitor C f 741 op amp Exercise 4.1: Measuring the Circuit Component Values Complete the following steps to measure the values of the individual components: 1. Launch NI ELVIS II. 2. Select the DMM icon from the Instrument Measurement strip. 3. Select DMM[Ω] to measure the resistors. 4. Select DMM[C] to measure the capacitors. 5. Fill in the following information. R 1 Ω (10 kω nominal) R f Ω (100 kω nominal) C 1 µf (1 µf nominal) C f µf (0.01 µf nominal) 6. Close the DMM. End of Exercise 4.1 Exercise 4.2: Frequency Response of the Basic Op Amp Circuit Complete the following steps to build and perform measurements on an op amp. 1. On the workstation protoboard, build a simple 741 inverting op amp circuit with a gain of 10 as shown in Figure 4.1.

3 Figure 4.1. Schematic Diagram of a 741 Inverting Op Amp Circuit with a Gain of 10 The circuit looks like Figure 4.1 on the NI ELVIS II protoboard. Figure Inverting Op Amp Circuit with a Gain of 10 on an NI ELVIS protoboard Note: The op amp uses both the +15 and -15 VDC power supplies. These are found on the protoboard pin sockets labeled as DC Power Supplies +15V, -15V & GROUND. 2. Connect the function generator [FGEN] pin socket to the input resistor R 1, and the input resistor to the op amp input. 3. Connect the [Ground] pin socket to pin 3 of the op amp.

4 4. Connect the op amp output voltage, V out, to the oscilloscope BNC input connector [BNC 2 +] and the function generator output to BNC input [BNC 1 +]. Connect the ground to the pin sockets [BNC 1 -] and [BNC 2 -]. Using BNC cables, connect the BNC 1 and BNC 2 sockets to the CH0 and CH1 (respectively) inputs on the left side of the ELVIS. Note: If you do not have BNC Cables, connect the circuit input and output into AI0 and AI1 respectively. 5. From the NI ELVIS II Instrument Launcher strip, select the function generator (FGEN) icon and the oscilloscope (Scope) icon. Note: By default, on the oscilloscope, the Channel 0 Settings Source is set to Scope Ch 0 and the Channel 1 Settings Source is set to Scope Ch 1. These are your op amp input and output signals, respectively. If you used the analog input channels instead, select the appropriate channels in the drop down menu under Source. 6. To view the signals, click on the enable boxes. 7. On the function generator panel, set the following parameters: Waveform: Peak Amplitude: Frequency: DC Offset: Sine wave 0.2 pp 1000 Hz 0.0 V 8. Check your circuit and then apply power to the NI ELVIS II protoboard. 9. Click on [Run] for both the FGEN and Scope SFPs. 10. Set the trigger to Edge, CH 0, Level 0.0 and the Time/Div to 1 ms. 11. Measure the amplitude of the op amp input (CH 0) and output (CH 1) on the oscilloscope window.

5 Figure 4.3. Inverting Op Amp input and output signals Note the output signal is inverted as expected with respect to the input signal. 12. Calculate the voltage gain (the amplitude ratio, CH1/CH0). 13. Try a range of frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 khz. How do your measurements agree with the theoretical gain of (R f /R 1 )? Is the ratio still the same at 100 khz? 14. Close the FGEN and Scope windows. End of Exercise 4.2 Exercise 4.3: Measuring the Op Amp Frequency Characteristic The best way to study the AC characteristic response curve of an op amp is to measure its Bode plot. The Bode plot is basically a plot of gain (db) and phase (degrees) as a function of log frequency. The transfer function for an inverting op amp circuit is given by: V out = - (R f /R 1 ) V 1 where V out is the op amp output and V 1 is the circuit input. The gain is the quantity (R f /R 1 ). The minus sign inverts the output signal with respect to the input signal. On a Bode plot, one expects a straight line with a magnitude of 20 x log (gain). For a gain of 10, the Bode amplitude should be 20 db. Complete the following step to measure the Bode plot of the Op Amp circuit:

6 1. From the NI ELVIS II Instrument Launcher strip, select Bode Analyzer (Bode) icon. 2. Connect the signals, input (V 1 ) and output (V out ), to the analog input pins as follows: V 1 + V 1 - V out + V out - AI 0+ (from the FGEN output) AI 0- (from GROUND) AI 1+ (from the op amp output) AI 1 - (from GROUND) 3. On the Bode analyzer, set the scan parameters as follows: Start: Stop: Steps: 5 (Hz) (Hz) 10 (per decade) 4. Apply power to the protoboard. 5. Click [Run] and observe the Bode plot for the inverting op amp circuit. 6. Take a close look at the phase response.

7 Figure 4.4. Bode Plot Measurements of an Inverting Op Amp with a gain of 10 The gain (20 db) is flat and independent of frequency until approximately 10,000 Hz, where it starts to roll off as shown in Figure 4.4. This Bode plot is typical for a 741 op amp inverting circuit. At high frequencies, the amplifier response depends on its internal circuitry as well as any external components. End of Exercise 4.3 Exercise 4.4: Highpass Filter A low frequency cutoff point, f L, for a simple RC series circuit is given by the equation: 2πf L = 1/RC where f L is measured in hertz. The low-frequency cutoff point is the frequency where the gain (db) has fallen by -3 db. This (-3 db) point occurs when the impedance of the capacitor equals that of the resistor. 1. Add a 1 µf capacitor, C l, in series with the 1 kω input resistor, R 1, in the op amp circuit as shown in Figure 4.5. Figure 4.5. Highpass Op Amp Filter Circuit Design The highpass op amp filter equation has a low-frequency cutoff point, f L, where the gain has fallen to -3 db. In other words, when X c = R: 2πf L = 1/ R 1 C 1 Figure 4.6 shows this circuit on an NI ELVIS protoboard.

8 Figure 4.6. Highpass Op Amp Filter on NI ELVIS protoboard 2. Run a second Bode plot using the same scan parameters as in Exercise Observe that the low-frequency response is attenuated while the high-frequency response is similar to the basic op amp Bode plot. Figure 4.7. Bode Measurement of Highpass Op Amp circuit 4. Use the cursor function to find the low-frequency cutoff point, that is, the frequency at which the amplitude has fallen by -3 db or the phase change is 45 degrees. 5. Compare your results with the following theoretical predication:

9 End of Exercise 4.4 2πf L = 1/ R 1 C 1 Exercise 4.5: Lowpass Filter The high-frequency roll-off in the op amp circuit is due to the internal capacitance of the 741 chip being in parallel with the feedback resistor, R f. If you add an external capacitor, C f, in parallel with the feedback resistor, R f, you can reduce the upper frequency cutoff point. It turns out that you can predict this new cutoff point from the following equation: 2πf U = 1/R f C f Complete the following steps to perform an additional frequency measurement on the op amp circuit: 1. Short the input capacitor (do not remove it because you will use it in Exercise 4.6). 2. Add the feedback capacitor, C f, (0.01 µf) in parallel with the 100 kω feedback resistor. Figure 4.8. Lowpass Op Amp Filter Circuit Design 3. Run a third Bode plot using the same scan parameters.

10 Figure 4.9. Bode Measurement of Lowpass Op Amp circuit Figure 4.9 shows that the high-frequency response is attenuated much more than the basic op amp response. 4. Use the cursor function to find the high-frequency cutoff point, that is, the frequency at which the amplitude has fallen by -3 db or the phase change is 45 degrees. 5. Compare your results with the following theoretical prediction: 2πf U = 1/ R f C f Note: the 90-degree phase change from the very low-frequency range to the upperfrequency range. This is as expected for a single-pole RC filter stage. End of Exercise 4.5 Exercise 4.6: Bandpass Filter If you allow both an input capacitor and a feedback capacitor in the op amp circuit, the response curve has both a low-cutoff frequency, f L, and a high-cutoff frequency, f U. The frequency range (f U f L) is called the bandwidth. For example, a good stereo amplifier has a bandwidth of at least 20,000 Hz.

11 Figure 4.10 shows a bandpass filter on an NI ELVIS II protoboard. Figure Bandpass Op Amp circuit on NI ELVIS protoboard 1. Remove the short on C 1. Figure Bandpass Op Amp Filter Circuit Design 2. Run a fourth Bode plot using the same scan parameters.

12 Figure Bode Measurement of Bandpass Op Amp circuit Using the cursors, draw a line between the -3 db points. All frequencies with an amplitude above this line are contained within the frequency pass band. How does this bandwidth measurement agree with the theoretical prediction of (f U f L )? End of Exercise 4.6 For Further Study The generalized op amp transfer curve is given by the following phasor equation V out = (Z f /Z 1 )V in where the impedance values for the four circuits are: Op Amp Z f Z 1 Gain Basic R f R 1 R f / R 1 Highpass R f R 1 + X C1 R f / (R 1 + X C1 ) Lowpass R f + X Cf R 1 (R f + X Cf )/R 1

13 Bandpass R f + X Cf R 1 + X C1 (R f + X Cf )/(R 1 + X C1 ) Table 4.0. Impedance Values for the FourOp Amp Circuits At any frequency, you can use the impedance analyzer (Imped) to measure the impedances Z f and Z 1. A LabVIEW program can calculate the ratio of two complex numbers. The magnitude of the ratio Z f /Z 1 is the gain. Note: You could also use the impedance analyzer to find the frequencies where R 1 equals X C1 and R f equals X Cf to verify that the lower- and upper-frequency cutoff points from the Bode plot are equal to these frequencies. Multisim Challenge: Design a Second-Order Lowpass Filter In Exercise 4.5, you built a lowpass filter with a single capacitor in the feedback loop. At high frequencies beyond the cutoff point, the gain falls off linearly with a slope of 6 db/octave. Some applications require a sharper roll-off. You can accomplish this using a filter design with two or more capacitors in the filter design. 1. Design a second-order lowpass filter with a -3 db cutoff point, f c, at 1000 Hz. Figure Multisim solution of a Second-order Op Amp Filter This filter has two cutoff points f c1 = (R 1 R 2 )/(2πC 1 ) and f c2 = (2πR 3 C 2 ) -1

14 In the special case when f c1 = f c2 = f c, the gain expression for this filter becomes -R 3 /(R 1 +R 2 ) G = (f/f c ) 2 2. Pick resistors and capacitors to satisfy the special case requirement that f c1 = f c2 = 1000 Hz 3. Launch the Multisim program Two Pole Active Filter. 4. Double-click on the Bode analyzer icon to open a results window. 5. Run this program and view the Bode plot. Figure Frequency Response of a Second-order Op Amp Filter 6. From the graph of the gain, estimate the slope of the roll-off curve (should be 40 db/decade). 7. Modify this program with your component values. 8. Compare the slope of the roll-off curve with the previous result in Exercise 4.5 for a single-pole lowpass filter. 9. If you have the time and components, try building a real two-pole circuit on the NI ELVIS II protoboard. How well does the Bode plot of the theoretical design match your real circuit? Refer to the Lab 3 Multisim Challenge to recall how to overlay in Excel a theoretical design curve with a measured real curve.

### Lab 2: AC Measurements Capacitors and Inductors

Lab 2: AC Measurements Capacitors and Inductors Introduction The second most common component after resistors in electronic circuits is the capacitor. It is a two-terminal device that stores an electric

### Filters and Waveform Shaping

Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### Introduction to NI ELVIS

Introduction to NI ELVIS by Professor Barry Paton Dalhousie University March 2004 Edition Part Number 323777B-01 Introduction to NI ELVIS Copyright 2004 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved.

### Lab 5 Digital I/O. Figure 5.0. Four bit Digital Counter Circuit on NI ELVIS II Protoboard

Lab 5 Digital I/O Digital electronics is the heart and soul of modern computers. The ability to set and read digital lines is essential to digital circuit diagnostics. Figure 5.0. Four bit Digital Counter

### Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis

Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.

### LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS

A. INTRODUCTION LAB 12: ACTIVE FILTERS After last week s encounter with op- amps we will use them to build active filters. B. ABOUT FILTERS An electric filter is a frequency-selecting circuit designed

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY. We start with examples of a few filter circuits to illustrate the concept.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND PASSIVE FILTERS LABORATORY In this experiment we will analytically determine and measure the frequency response of networks containing resistors, AC source/sources, and energy storage

### ECE207 Electrical Engineering Fall Lab 1 Nodal Analysis, Capacitor and Inductor Models

Lab 1 Nodal Analysis, Capacitor and Inductor Models Objectives: At the conclusion of this lab, students should be able to: use the NI mydaq to power a circuit using the power supply and function generator

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Objectives: 1. Show students how circuits can have frequency- dependent resistance, and that many everyday signals are made up of many frequencies.

### Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass

Lab 8: Basic Filters: Low- Pass and High Pass Names: 1.) 2.) 3.) Beginning Challenge: Build the following circuit. Charge the capacitor by itself, and then discharge it through the inductor. Measure the

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter)

EE 311: Electrical Engineering Junior Lab Active Filter Design (Sallen-Key Filter) Objective The purpose of this experiment is to design a set of second-order Sallen-Key active filters and to investigate

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### Lab 6 Magnetic Field Sensors

Lab 6 Magnetic Field Sensors Figure 6.0. How the Hall Effect Works! In 1879, Erwin Hall discovered that when a current flows through a block of semiconductor material in the presence of a magnetic field,

### Laboratory Manual. ELEN-325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ELEN-325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

### Chapter 5. Basic Filters

Chapter 5 Basic Filters 39 CHAPTER 5. BASIC FILTERS 5.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab. If they are not done at the beginning of the lab, no points will

### INTRODUCTION TO ARBITRARY/FUNCTION GENERATOR

Page 1 of 7 INTRODUCTION TO ARBITRARY/FUNCTION GENERATOR BEFORE YOU BEGIN PREREQUISITE LABS Introduction to MATLAB Introduction to Oscilloscope EXPECTED KNOWLEDGE Ohm s law & Kirchhoff s laws Operation

### EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

### PHYSICS 176 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 4. Alternating Current Measurement

PHYSICS 176 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 4 Alternating Current Measurement Equipment: Supplies: Oscilloscope, Function Generator. Filament Transformer. A sine wave A.C. signal has three basic properties:

### FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

### In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different

Introduction In modern electronics, it is important to be able to separate a signal into different frequency regions. In analog electronics, four classes of filters exist to process an input signal: low-pass,

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

8.4 Advanced Filters high pass filter including gain and Bode plots cascaded low pass filters band pass filters band rejection filter - the twin-t impedance matching problems an ideal operational amplifier

### Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters

Lab 4 Band Pass and Band Reject Filters Introduction During this lab you will design and build three filters. First you will build a broad-band band-pass filter by cascading the high-pass and low-pass

### Lab #2: Capacitors and the 555 Timer

1 Introduction Lab #2: Capacitors and the 555 Timer The goal of this lab is to introduce capacitors in their role as elements of timing circuits and to convert an analog oscillation into a digital oscillation

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### Laboratory Manual. ECE -325 Electronics

Laboratory Manual ECE -325 Electronics Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Texas A&M University Prepared by: Dr. Jose Silva-Martinez (jsilva@ece.tamu.edu) Rida Assaad (rida@ece.tamu.edu) Raghavendra

### 5-Band Graphic Equalizer

EE 410 Final Linear Electronic Design Spring 2008 5-Band Graphic Equalizer Dylan Gaffney Owen Gaffney Justin Spagnuolo Joe Tearpock Kevin Brown 2 INTRODUCTION The design project being discussed in this

### Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF and BPF.

Laboratory of the circuits and signals Laboratory work No. 4 ACTIVE FILTERS Objectives: to get acquainted with active filter circuits and parameters, design methods, build and investigate active LPF, HPF

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### The Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013

The Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013 1. Oscilloscope A multimeter is an appropriate device to measure DC voltages, however, when a signal alternates at relatively

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior

Module 2: Op Amps Introduction and Ideal Behavior Dr. Bonnie H. Ferri Professor and Associate Chair School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Introduce Op Amps and examine ideal behavior School of

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance

Chapter 21 Band-Pass Filters and Resonance In Chapter 20, we discussed low-pass and high-pass filters. The simplest such filters use RC components resistors and capacitors. It is also possible to use resistors

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS

1.THEORY HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING ELE-313 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY II EXPERIMENT 6 - ACTIVE FILTERS A filter is a circuit that has designed to pass a specified

### DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. Date: Assistant A2: Test No. 4 (PSpice)

University of Applied Sciences Hamburg Group No : DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Laboratory for Instrumentation and Measurement L1: in charge of the report Test No. 4 (PSpice) Date: Assistant A2:

### UAF42 As a Low-pass Active Filter

UAF As a Lowpass Active Filter Many times, instrumentation of electromechanical systems, which utilize modern switching type power electronics, produces signals with unacceptable noise levels or high frequency

### Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators

Designing Stable Compensation Networks for Single Phase Voltage Mode Buck Regulators Technical Brief December 3 TB47. Author: Doug Mattingly Assumptions This Technical Brief makes the following assumptions:.

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #10. Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #10 Frequency Response of BJT Amplifiers By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective:

### AM Modulator. Experiment theory: Experiment # (3) Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (3) AM Modulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Infrared Transmitter/Receiver (Note to Teaching Assistant: The week before this experiment is performed, place students into groups of two and assign each group a specific frequency

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### AC Impedance and High-Pass Filters

Lab 7 AC Impedance and High-Pass Filters In this lab you will become familiar with the concept of AC impedance and apply it to the frequency response of a high-pass filter. 7.1 AC Impedance Just as Ohm

### 30. Bode Plots. Introduction

0. Bode Plots Introduction Each of the circuits in this problem set is represented by a magnitude Bode plot. The network function provides a connection between the Bode plot and the circuit. To solve these

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### LAB #1: TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES OF SERIES RLC CIRCUITS Updated July 19, 2003

SFSU - ENGR 3 ELECTRONICS LAB LAB #: TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES OF SERIES RLC CIRCUITS Updated July 9, 3 Objective: To investigate the step, impulse, and frequency responses of series RLC circuits. To

### DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

ECE 1250 Lab 6 Generate Voltages using a Function Generator and Measure Voltages using an Oscilloscope Building: Digital Circuit Build an Electronic Candle Overview: In Lab 6 you will: Build an electronic

### Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions

Karaoke Circuit Building Instructions Background Most popular and rock music recordings use multiple microphones and mixers to generate the left and right signals. Listening in stereo gives a broad presence

### Experiment 6: Amplitude Modulation, Modulators, and Demodulators October 4, 2006

Experiment 6: Amplitude Modulation, Modulators, and Demodulators October 4, 006 Double Sideband Amplitude Modulation (AM) V S (1+m) v S (t) V S V S (1-m) t Figure 1 Sinusoidal signal with a dc component

### Chapter 3. Simulation of Non-Ideal Components in LTSpice

Chapter 3 Simulation of Non-Ideal Components in LTSpice 27 CHAPTER 3. SIMULATION OF NON-IDEAL COMPONENTS IN LTSPICE 3.1 Pre-Lab The answers to the following questions are due at the beginning of the lab.

### Laboratory 1 Ohm's Law

Laboratory 1 Ohm's Law Key Concepts: Measuring resistance, DC voltage and DC current Investigating Ohmic (I = V/R) and non-ohmic components Equipment Needed: Digital Multimeter (2) Variable DC power supply

### APPLICATION NOTE - 016

APPLICATION NOTE - 016 Testing RFI Line Filters Frequency Response Analysis Testing RFI line filters Radio frequency interference (RFI) is unwanted electromagnetic noise within a radio communications frequency

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3. AC Circuit Analysis

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis 3.1 Introduction The steady-state behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. First, the

### A Constant-current Source

A Constant-current Source Frequently, such as when you want to measure temperature with a silicon diode, it is desirable to have a source of a reproducible, constant current. Many laboratory power supplies

### ω = 1/R 1 C 1, which is called the 3dB cut off frequency.

Lab 2 Linear Networks and Modular Construction Networks which contain only inductor, capacitors and resistors are called linear networks This means that if A and B are two sine wave inputs then the output

### Laboratory #2: AC Circuits, Impedance and Phasors Electrical and Computer Engineering EE University of Saskatchewan

Authors: Denard Lynch Date: Aug 30 - Sep 28, 2012 Sep 23, 2013: revisions-djl Description: This laboratory explores the behaviour of resistive, capacitive and inductive elements in alternating current

### Chapter 15. Active Filter Circuits

hapter 5 Active Filter ircuits 5.0 Introduction Filter is circuit that capable of passing signal from input to put that has frequency within a specified band and attenuating all others side the band. This

### Fourier Theory-Frequency Domain and Time Domain

Name Date ----------~----------------- ------------------ Fourier Theory-Frequency Domain and Time Domain OBJECTVES 1. Learn how a square wave can be produced from a series of sine waves at different frequencies

### Teacher s Guide Physics Labs with Computers, Vol C P52: LRC Circuit. Teacher s Guide - Activity P52: LRC Circuit (Voltage Sensor)

Teacher s Guide Physics Labs with Computers, Vol. 2 012-06101C P52: LRC Circuit Teacher s Guide - Activity P52: LRC Circuit (Voltage Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win)

### Electronic Components. Electronics. Resistors and Basic Circuit Laws. Basic Circuits. Basic Circuit. Voltage Dividers

Electronics most instruments work on either analog or digital signals we will discuss circuit basics parallel and series circuits voltage dividers filters high-pass, low-pass, band-pass filters the main

### The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

### ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

### APPLICATION NOTE 29 Testing Capacitors with High DC Bias

APPLICATION NOTE 29 Testing Capacitors with High DC Bias This application note will describe the process of analysing the impedance of a capacitor when subjected to high DC bias voltages. This particular

### Lock - in Amplifier and Applications

Lock - in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lock-in amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o

### RC Circuits. 1 Introduction. 2 Capacitors

1 RC Circuits Equipment DataStudio with 750 interface, RLC circuit board, 2 voltage sensors (no alligator clips), 2x35 in. leads, 12 in. lead Reading Review operation of DataStudio oscilloscope. Review

### USING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL

USING THE ANALOG DEVICES ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN TOOL INTRODUCTION The Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool is designed to aid the engineer in designing all-pole active filters. The filter design process

### Lab 11 Digital Dice. Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation

Lab 11 Digital Dice Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation From the beginning of time, dice have been used for games of chance. Cubic dice similar to modern dice date back to before

### Lab 3 Rectifier Circuits

ECET 242 Electronic Circuits Lab 3 Rectifier Circuits Page 1 of 5 Name: Objective: Students successfully completing this lab exercise will accomplish the following objectives: 1. Learn how to construct

### Lab Exercise: RLC CIRCUITS AND THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

and vary Lab Exercise: RLC CIRCUITS AND THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM OBJECTIVES Explain how resistors, capacitors and inductors behave in an AC circuit. Explain how an electrocardiogram (EKG) works Explain what

### Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage

### Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

1 of 12 BEFORE YOU BEGIN PREREQUISITE LABS Passive and Active Filters Lab Fourier Transforms Lab Introduction to Oscilloscope Introduction to Arbitrary/Function Generator EXPECTED KNOWLEDGE Laplace transform

### The RC Circuit. Pre-lab questions. Introduction. The RC Circuit

The RC Circuit Pre-lab questions 1. What is the meaning of the time constant, RC? 2. Show that RC has units of time. 3. Why isn t the time constant defined to be the time it takes the capacitor to become

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### Class #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1

Class #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1 Purpose: The objective of this experiment is to begin to become familiar with the properties and uses of the exponential function in circuits

### PIEZO FILM LAB AMPLIFIER

SPECIFICATIONS Charge or Voltage Mode Operation BNC Input and Output 0.01 to 1000 mv/pc Sensitivity Range in Charge Mode 1M to 1G Input Resistance, -40 to 40dB Gain in Voltage Mode Multi-Pole, Low-Pass

ECE 2C Laboratory Manual 5 Infrared PWM Receiver Overview In this lab you will construct the receiver circuit to complement the PWM transmitter board you assembled last week. This receiver detects, amplifies,

### EECS 100/43 Lab 2 Function Generator and Oscilloscope

1. Objective EECS 100/43 Lab 2 Function Generator and Oscilloscope In this lab you learn how to use the oscilloscope and function generator 2. Equipment a. Breadboard b. Wire cutters c. Wires d. Oscilloscope

### MATERIALS. Multisim screen shots sent to TA.

Page 1/8 Revision 0 9-Jun-10 OBJECTIVES Learn new Multisim components and instruments. Conduct a Multisim transient analysis. Gain proficiency in the function generator and oscilloscope. MATERIALS Multisim

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### ECE201 Laboratory 1 Basic Electrical Equipment and Ohm s and Kirchhoff s Laws (Created by Prof. Walter Green, Edited by Prof. M. J.

ECE201 Laboratory 1 Basic Electrical Equipment and Ohm s and Kirchhoff s Laws (Created by Prof. Walter Green, Edited by Prof. M. J. Roberts) Objectives The objectives of Laboratory 1 are learn to operate

### Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

### WHALETEQ. Common Mode Rejection Ratio Tester (CMRR 2.0) User Manual

WHALETEQ Common Mode Rejection Ratio Tester (CMRR 2.0) User Manual (Revision 2015-08-14) Contents 1 Introduction... 2 2 Description... 3 2.1 CMRR Box... 3 2.2 ECG Breakout Boxes... 4 3 Set up... 5 3.1

### What you will do. Build a 3-band equalizer. Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter

Audio Filters What you will do Build a 3-band equalizer Low pass filter High pass filter Band pass filter Connect to a music source (mp3 player) Adjust the strength of low, high, and middle frequencies

### E X P E R I M E N T 7

E X P E R I M E N T 7 The RC Circuit Produced by the Physics Staff at Collin College Copyright Collin College Physics Department. All Rights Reserved. University Physics II, Exp 7: The RC Circuit Page

### Current Feedback Op Amp Applications Circuit Guide

Current Feedback Op Amp Applications Circuit Guide Introduction No two high-speed application are the same or at least it seems that way. Nonetheless, while every system has its particular requirements,

### ECE 2201 PRELAB 2 DIODE APPLICATIONS

ECE 2201 PRELAB 2 DIODE APPLICATIONS P1. Review this experiment IN ADVANCE and prepare Circuit Diagrams, Tables, and Graphs in your notebook, prior to coming to lab. P2. Hand Analysis: (1) For the zener