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1 Suck It In! Not Lesson Overview After water is heated in a flask, a balloon is attached and the flask is cooled quickly. The balloon collapses into the flask demonstrating atmospheric pressure. Suggested Grade Levels: 3-6 Standards for Lesson Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science VA SOL: 3.1 a, c, g, j; 4.1 a, b, c, f, g; 4.6 a, b; 5.1 e, f, g; 5.4 a, c; 6.1 e, f, g, h, i; 6.3 b, c, d, e; 6.6 a, b, e; LS.1 a, b, f, g, i; PS.1 a, g, h, i, k, l, m; PS.2 a, c; PS.5 a; PS.6 a, c; PS.7 b, c Time Needed This lesson takes several class periods. Sample schedule: Day One: Day Two: Day Three: Complete the Engage portion of the lesson Complete the Explore and Explain portion of lesson Complete the Elaborate and Evaluate portion of the lesson Materials for Lesson Small marshmallows Pressuring Pump Plastic soda bottle - 16 ounce size Erlenmeyer flask 250 ml Hot plate or burner Latex balloons, 11 inch 25 ml water

2 Ice bath or cold running water Content Background Information for teacher: Air pressure is the force exerted on a given point by the mass of air molecules. Air molecules are invisible, but they still have mass and take up space (volume). Since there is a lot of empty space between air molecules, air can be pushed together, or compressed. When air is compressed, the molecules move closer together and air pressure increases. Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by the concentration of gases at a given point in the Earth s atmosphere. The pressure of a gas is related to the mass of gas molecules per unit of volume i.e., density. Low pressure areas have less concentration of gases above their location while high pressure areas have a greater concentration of gases. As the density increases (more molecules closer together), so does the pressure that the gas molecules exert on their surroundings. The density and pressure of atmospheric gases are related to their temperature. Both highpressure and low-pressure systems start with the sun. Heat warms air molecules causing them to move faster and occupy more space. As they do, the concentration of gas becomes less dense. The warm air then rises, leaving an area of low pressure. As temperatures cool, gas molecules move closer together and pressure increases. Because the cooler air higher in the atmosphere is denser, it then sinks, replacing the air that has risen and creating an area of high pressure. When this dense air sinks toward Earth, it is eventually warmed, and the cycle continues. The replacement of the warmer (less dense) air by cooler (more dense) air is called convection current. Air pressure is used to predict weather. When a high pressure system moves in, cooler temperatures and clear skies are expected due to the higher concentration of air molecules. There is less space for clouds and precipitation. If a low pressure system arrives, one can expect warmer temperatures that may be accompanied by gentle rain or severe storms. As the warm air rises, it cools and condenses to form clouds and precipitation. Earth s atmosphere is pushing against each square inch of our bodies with a force of 14.7 pounds per square inch, or 1 kilogram per square centimeter, at sea level. That s approximately the weight of two gallons of water resting on one square inch. With this much pressure, why aren t we crushed? The air pressure inside our bodies balances out to equal the pressure outside our bodies. In this demonstration, a difference in pressure is created by the collection of steam inside the flask covered by a balloon. As the steam cools, it condenses (molecules move together) and forms a partial vacuum inside the closed system. The pressure outside the balloon covered flask is at atmospheric pressure which at this point is greater than the pressure inside the flask. This

3 pressure differential causes the balloon to be pushed into the flask. The lower pressure inside the flask does not suck the balloon in. Rather, the higher pressure outside pushes the balloon into the flask. Eventually, the pressure inside the flask will equal the outside atmospheric pressure. Engage Activate students background knowledge, and engage them in the learning task by posing the questions: What is a meteorologist? (A scientist who studies weather) Where do meteorologists get information to develop a weather report? (From instruments that measure temperature, air pressure, winds, humidity, and precipitation) Record student answers. Ask students if they ve ever heard anyone say, I m under so much pressure. What might a person mean by this? Have students discuss with their shoulder partners. Allow students to share their ideas. Tell the students that today we will explore what it means to be under pressure in terms of atmospheric pressure. MARSHMALLOW MASHER: Fill the 16 ounce bottle about half full with small marshmallows and screw on the special pressurizing pump. Begin pumping to increase the pressure within the bottle. As you increase the pressure inside the bottle, students should make observations. They should notice how the marshmallows seem to become wrinkled and shrink. Do not pump more than 40 times! Have student record their observation and draw a picture of what happened to the marshmallows in their science notebooks. When students finish, release the pressure by unscrewing the cap, but tell students to keep watching the marshmallows as they rapidly decompress. Have student record their observation and draw a picture of what happened to the marshmallows in their science notebooks. COMPRESSED AIR: Demonstrate how air can be compressed by using a syringe. Pull the plunger out as far as it will go without exiting the tube. THINK-PAIR-SHARE: Ask students if there is anything inside the syringe. Have students draw a picture of the syringe and the air molecules inside the syringe in their science notebooks. Tell them to think about what happened to the marshmallows.

6 What happens to the air in the flask when the water was heated? (The air in the bottle was heated by the hot water. As the molecules got hot, they moved farther away from each other. Therefore, the air expanded.) How do you know that is what happened? (Because the balloon began to inflate) As the flask cooled, what happened to the air in the flask? What happened to the balloon as a result of this? (The air in the flask cooled and the molecules moved closer together thus reducing the pressure. As a result of this, the pressure was greater outside of the flask and pushed them balloon in.) How are low-pressure systems formed? (When the air near the surface of the Earth is heated, the air molecules spread out so there are fewer air molecules in the same space. Warm air weighs less than cool air, which means that warm air presses down on Earth less than cool air does. A mass of warming air is an area of low pressure.) How are high-pressure systems formed? (When air cools, the air molecules come closer together, so there are more air molecules in the same space. The air mass becomes heavier and sinks toward the Earth, creating an area of high pressure.) Sample assessment Have students describe in their own words how atmospheric pressure affects the weather.

7 Observation Sheet What do you see with your eyes? What do you smell with your nose? What do you hear with your ears?

8 Under Pressure Experimental Design Sheet Why did the balloon collapse into the flask of water? What could you change about each material to affect how balloon collapses? If you change, what could you describe or measure to determine if affects how the balloon collapses?

9 Under Pressure Lab Sheet My independent variable is. My dependent variable is. My question is: What is the effect of on. My hypothesis is:. Independent Variable: Dependent Variable: List levels Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average

10

11 3. Safety Sheet The following safety rules are to apply to this activity: 1. Roll up long sleeves and tie back long hair. 2. Wear safety goggles over your eyes. 3. When you heat anything in a flask or test tube, point the open end away from yourself and others. 4. Keep your work area clean and clear of materials that might catch on fire. 5. Use hot pad when handling hot glass. 6. Rapid changes in temperature may crack glass. Carefully check the flask before conducting repeated trials.

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Popping Popcorn! Lesson Overview Learners learn what makes popcorn pop and then use what they learn to design an experiment to test an idea. Suggested Grade Levels: 3-6 Standards for Lesson Content Standard

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