Genetics. The connection between Gene expression and Genetics. Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein.

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1 Genetics The connection between Gene expression and Genetics Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein. The protein has a specific function which produces a trait. Phenotype is the appearance of an organism (trait) 1

2 Closer look at Genotype: the combination of alleles an individual carries Genes that show complete dominance The type of inheritance in which both heterozygote and dominant homozygote have the same phenotype. Genotypes AA homozygous dominant Aa heterozygous aa homozygous recessive Phenotypes dominant dominant recessive 3 genotypes 2 phenotypes How can two individuals with different genotypes for a particular trait be identical in phenotype? 2

3 Determine your partner s phenotype and possible genotype Traits Earlobes: detached is dominant over attached E e Tongue: tongue rolling is dominant over not being able to roll tongue T t Hair line: widow s peak is dominant over straight hairline W w How are these traits (alleles) inherited? What happens to alleles during meiosis? What happens to alleles after fertilization? 3

4 What happens to the alleles during meiosis? During meiosis, If we look at one gene only: A gamete has only one allele How many types of gametes does each genotype produce? Homozygous individual produces only one kind of gametes Heterozygous individual produces two kinds of gametes Genetics in Class Practice # 1 In peas, the allele for purple flowers (P) is dominant to the allele for white flowers (p). What gametes would be produced by a plant that has white flowers? 4

5 What happens during fertilization? Fertilization creates allele pairs again in the offspring Parent 1: Genotype Aa Gamete types R r During fertilization Offspring: Genotype rr Parent 2: Genotype Aa R r Chance determines which alleles the offspring receives from each parent Punnett square shows all the possible offsprings from a matting 1. Write down the alleles, and all genotypes and phenotypes as reference 2. Determine the possible genotypes of the parents X 3. draw a p-square 4. "split" the letters of the genotype for each parent & put them "outside" the p- square 5. determine the possible genotypes of the offspring by filling in the p-square 6. estimate probabilities for genotypes & phenotypes of offspring 7. bask in the glow of your accomplishment! 5

6 Practice # 2 Assume tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t). If a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a dwarf. What will the offspring look like? Fill in the blanks: allele, recessive, homozygous, dominant, chromosomes b) 6

7 A gene with Incomplete Dominance results in in the heterozygous individual expressing an intermediate phenotype EXAMPLE: gene for color of flowers Genotypes RR rr Rr Phenotypes 3 genotypes and 3 phenotypes 3 rd phenotype is an intermediate of the recessive and dominant Practice # 4 Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a pink-flowered plant, What will the progeny of plants look like? 7

8 A gene with Codominance results in in a heterozygous individual expressing both recessive AND dominant phenotypes EXAMPLE: gene for color of hair in dogs Genotypes Phenotypes AOB blood type AOB blood gene codes for the type of antigen found in the membrane of red blood cells AOB blood gene is a codominant gene AOB blood gene has more than two alleles (multiple alleles) Alleles: I A I B i Genotypes Phenotypes 8

9 Practice # 5 A man who has type B blood And a woman who has type A blood have a child with type O blood. How is this possible? Sex chromosomes determine sex in many species In some cultures, The mother is blamed for not bearing a boy, is this justified? 9

10 Genes carried in the sex chromosomes exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance Some genes are present on the X-chromosome but missing on the shorter Y-chromosome. In the non-homologous region of the X-chromosome a male will only have one allele for any gene in this region. Hemophilia is a X-linked recessive disease Possible alleles X H X h Y Possible genotypes and phenotypes 10

11 Solving genetic problems for X linked genes Problem should state that it is a sex linked gene Allele is attached to the X chromosome Need to determine gender of offspring In order to determine phenotype Color blindness is a recessive trait Practice # 6 A couple are both normal, but their son suffers from hemophilia. What fraction of the couple s children are likely to suffer from hemophilia? What fraction are likely to be carries? 11

12 Pedigrees are often used to determine the mode of inheritance (dominant, recessive, etc.) of genetic diseases. 12

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