Extending Mendel s Law. Incomplete dominance / Codominance / Multiple alleles

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1 Extending Mendel s Law Incomplete dominance / Codominance / Multiple alleles

2 Incomplete Dominance Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another

3 Snapdragons

4 What s Going On R 1 F 1 X R 2 F 2

5 Codominance The condition in which both alleles in a heterozygous organism are expressed BOTH alleles contribute to the phenotype The two alleles don t blend, but are rather both present in the offspring

6 Roan Horse / Roan Cattle

7 Multiple Alleles When there are more than 2 alleles possible for a given gene Allows for a larger number of genetic and phenotypic possibilities In traits with multiple alleles, each individual can carry any two of the several possible alleles The gene for blood type has 3 possible alleles

8 Blood Group Genes There is 1 gene for blood type There are 3 alleles for blood type A B O(i) A&B are codominant and both dominant to i (O) There are 4 ABO blood types

9 The ABO Blood system Blood types A and B have two possible genotypes homozygous and heterozygous Blood types AB and O only have one genotype each Genotypes I A I A I A I B I A i I B I B I B i ii Phenotypes (Blood types) A AB A B B O

10 How blood types work

11 Stats and Antibodies How common are the 4 blood types? 4% 11% 40% bloodfacts.jpg 45%

12

13 Blood types

14 Practice Problems 1. A mother is I A I B and a father is ii. Draw the punnett square. What is the probability their offspring will have A type blood? Can they have an offspring with O blood?

15 Practice Problems 2. A mother is I A i and a father is I B i Draw the punnett square. What is the probability their offspring will have B type blood? Can they have an offspring with O blood?

16 Rh Factors Scientists sometimes study Rhesus monkeys to learn more about the human anatomy. While studying Rhesus monkeys, a certain blood protein was discovered. This protein is also present in the blood of some people. Other people, however, do not have the protein. The presence of the protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor. If your blood does contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+). If your blood does not contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh negative (Rh- ). A+ A- B+ B- AB+ AB- O+ O-

17 Relevance of Rh Factors & ABO Typing It is very important for babies: An Rh(- ) mother may make antibody against an Rh(+) fetus if the baby gets a (+) gene from its father (Obstetricians screen pregnant women for this problem with blood tests). The ABO and RH genes are only two of many blood antigens that are present on human red cells and must be matched up for successful blood transfusions. A+ A- B+ B- AB+ AB- O+ O-

18 Multifactorial Referring to control of the expression of a trait by several genes and environmental factors Many multifactorial traits show continuous distribution E.g. Human height à usually between 120cm and 200cm, however these genes cannot be fully expressed without all the necessary nutrients from a healthy diet

19 Review 1. In a certain case a woman s blood type was tested to be AB. She married and her husbands blood type was type A. Their children have blood types A, AB, and B. What are the genotypes of the parents? What are the genotypic ratios of the children? 2. In a certain breed of cow the gene for red fur, R, is codominant with that of white fur, W. What would be the phenotypic & genotypic ratios of the offspring if you breed a red cow and a white bull? What would they be if you breed a red & white cow with a red & white bull?

20 Review 3. A rooster with grey feathers is mated with a hen of the same phenotype. Among their offspring 15 chicks are grey, 6 are black and 8 are white. a) What is the simplest explanation for the inheritance of these colors in chickens? b) What offspring would you expect from the mating of a grey rooster and a black hen?

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