Concept Review. Physics 1

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1 Concept Review Physics 1

2 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or velocity would include m/s or. mph The magnitude of velocity is the same as speed, but it is more technically considered to be the amount of displacement divided by time, which is a vector quantity. On a graph of distance versus time, the speed of the object in motion can be found by determining the slope of the graph.

3 Acceleration Acceleration is defined as the change in velocity divided by. time Gravity offers a very uniform acceleration, which is measured to be 9.8 m/s 2. A falling object will gain speed. Each second, an object in free fall adds on 9.8 m/s to its speed. However, the distance covered is not 9.8m, because as the object gains speed, the distance covered each second. increases Driving a car is a great example of positive acceleration when it is gaining speed. Cars also exhibit negative acceleration, such as when the car is losing speed or traveling. backwards On a graph of velocity versus time, the acceleration can be found by determining the. slope

4 Vectors There a two types of measurements- scalar and vector. While both have a size, vectors also include. direction Direction can sometimes be as simple as a positive or a negative sign. We also made a directional grid where east was 0 or 360 degrees, north was 90 degrees, west was 180 degrees, and south was 270 degrees. Based on this grid, we could add vectors together. When drawing the vectors to add them, be sure to place the vectors head to. tail Perpendicular vectors will form a right triangle. To find the size of the resultant, use. c 2 =a 2 +b 2 To find the direction, use. SOHCAHTOA The angle you choose in your triangle is always the angle closest to the origin.

5 Newton s Laws and Forces Newton developed three laws of motion that involved force. The first law is called the law of. inertia The law states that an object will keep its velocity unless acted upon by a net force. An object at rest stays at. rest An object in motion stays in. motion You must have a net force to change the speed or the direction of an object. The second law states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the force on the object, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. This second law is often written as and equation which is. F=ma The more force you place on an object, the more it will accelerate. However, the more massive an object is, the less it will accelerate.

6 Newton s Laws/ Forces For the third law, Newton states that for every force there is an equal and opposite force. When you push on an object, the object also pushes on. you Swimming is a great example because as you pull backwards on the water, the water pushes you forward with the same. force The equal and opposite forces do not cancel because they are not acting on the same object. Net force is defined as the total force on an object. If multiple forces act on the same object, you must add together the forces as vectors before you can calculate acceleration. If two forces are in the same direction, add them. If two forces are in opposite directions, subtract them.

7 Mass and Weight Mass is defined as the amount of matter in an object, and the standard unit of mass in Physics is. kg Weight measures the pull of gravity on a mass, and is measured in the unit of. Newtons If you want to convert from pounds to Newtons, use the conversion factor. 1 lb. =4.45N Apparent weight can change if an object is. accelerating When accelerating an object upwards, the force required will be greater than the weight of the object.

8 Friction Friction is a force that always opposes motion. The types of surfaces in contact are often represented by a number called the coefficient of. friction The amount of force pressing the surfaces together is known as. Normal force The harder you press surfaces together, the more friction force is produced, but the coefficient of friction stays the same. Static friction is for objects that are not sliding. Once an object starts to slide, the friction force, decreases and we now have kinetic friction. For friction on level surfaces, the normal force is often equal to the weight of the object.

9 Gravitation Isaac Newton developed the Law of Universal Gravitation. In this relationship, he said that gravitational force is directly proportional to the size of two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Doubling the distance between two masses would actually cause the force between them to drop by a factor. four Albert Einstein advanced a new way to look at gravity in his General Theory of. Relativity Einstein suggested that masses actually cause a bend in the space-time continuum, creating a curve that objects would naturally follow. Evidence for Einstein s theory includes black holes and. gravitational lensing

10 Circular Motion To place an object into uniform circular motion, you must have the perfect balance of centripetal force and. tangential velocity As a car goes around a corner, its inertia wants it to go in a straight line, but the net force provided by friction pulls inward and allows it to stay on the road. The faster an object is moving, the more centripetal force is required to maintain circular motion. The more massive an object is, the more centripetal force is required to maintain circular motion. The bigger the radius of the turn, the less centripetal force is required to maintain circular motion. Other real life examples of circular motion could be or. clothes in a washing machine Passengers on some amusement park rides

11 Satellite Motion Satellite motion combines the rules for circular motion and the centripetal force provided by. gravity Since gravity depends on distance, the closer a satellite is to a planet, the faster it must move to maintain orbit. The time it takes to complete one orbit is known as the orbital. period Earth takes days to complete one orbit around the Sun. A satellite that always stays above a particular spot on Earth is called a geosynchronous satellite. To calculate the orbital velocity of a satellite, you must measure the total distance from the satellite to the center of the planet in the unit of. meters

12 Projectile Motion To be a projectile, an object is moving under the influence of only one force-. gravity The shape of projectile motion is a, parabola and at the peak of motion the vertical velocity of any projectile is. zero When firing at an angle, an angle of 45 degrees will produce the maximum range when air resistance is not a major factor. Assuming an equal launch speed, an angle of 58 degrees will give the same range as an angle of 32 degrees. For a horizontally fired projectile, the initial vertical velocity is, zero the horizontal projectile will fall at the same rate as an object dropped from the same height. Good examples of projectiles would include shot puts arrows and.

13 Work and Power force Work is calculated by multiplying the times. distance To do work, the force must be working against some type of resistance. The unit of work is. Joules Power is the rate of doing work, which in equation form is work divided by. time

14 Energy and Conservation Energy is usually defined as the ability to do. work Common forms of energy include Gravitational Potential Energy and is found by multiplying x x. mass gravity height Motion Energy is called kinetic energy, and is calculated by the equation. KE=1/2 mv2 Most important is the law of conservation of energy, which says that energy cannot be created or. destroyed Instead of being lost, energy is converted into other forms. The work done on the object is always equivalent to the change in energy. For a falling object, potential energy is being converted into. kinetic energy

15 Momentum/Impulse The symbol for momentum is, p and to calculate momentum use the product of mass and. velocity Because momentum is a conserved, the momentum before is always equal to the momentum. after For objects moving in opposite directions, one object will have a negative momentum. When force is applied over a time period to change momentum, we call it an. impulse Impulse is always equal to the change in momentum. When momentum is changed over a longer time period, the force required is. reduced To change momentum very quickly, the force will be. greater In a car collision, the longer it takes the passengers to decelerate, the smaller the impact forces will be.

16 Magnetism There are three main materials that are capable of becoming permanent magnets. These are, iron, nickel and. cobalt The actual cause of all magnetism is the movement of charged particles. In certain materials, their domains can be aligned so that the magnetic fields add together instead of cancelling. When using a compass, the needle will align itself to a field line that leads toward magnetic north. The two ends of a magnet are called the north and south poles.

17 Electricity Ohm s Law explains the relationship between three primary components for electricity; voltage measured in volts, resistance measured in ohms, and current measured in amps. The equation for Ohm s Law is. V= I R When creating circuits, batteries and resistors can be connected in either series or. parallel Batteries in series will add their voltages. When resistors are in series, add their values. When in parallel, the equivalent resistance will be less than the smallest resistor. To determine the total resistance in parallel, use the equation R EQ R 1 R 2 In our houses, a standard outlet will provide a voltage of 120 Volts. The house is wired in parallel so that the same voltage can be found at all points in the circuit.

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