DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS"

Transcription

1 DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

2 Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes are larger, more complex cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Oldest eukarytotic fossil is 1800 million years old. This is the oldest known fossil of a eukaryote: Grypania spiralis

3 Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells

4 Questions we re going to answer: What is DNA? What does DNA do and how does it do it?

5 What is DNA?- block 1

6 How does a cell know what to do and when? DNA- the cell s instructions for life coded into a sequence of bases

7 DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid All living things based on DNA Role of DNA Storing, copying, and transmitting genetic information Regulates and provides instructions for building proteins

8 A HISTORY OF DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix Frederick Griffith Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule using Franklin s X-ray.

9 DNA What is the monomer? Nucleotides Four nucleotides - Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine What is the polymer? Nucleic Acid deoxyribonucleic acid

10 DNA Nucleotide Phosphate Group O O=P-O O Sugar (deoxyribose) CH2 C 4 5 O C 3 C 2 C 1 N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T)

11 Nitrogenous Bases PURINES 1. Adenine (A) 2. Guanine (G) PYRIMIDINES 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C A or G

12 DNA Double Helix 5 O 3 P 3 O 5 P P O O 1 2 T G A C O P P 3 O 5 P

13 Complementary Base Pairs Adenine must pair with Thymine Guanine must pair with Cytosine T A G C

14 BASE-PAIRINGS H-bonds G C T A

15 Chargaff s Rule The amounts of adenine and thymine and cytosine and guanine in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. T A

16 Genetic Diversity Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.

17 DNA Replication A strand of DNA is used to make a copy of itself. New strand Original strand DNA polymerase (enzyme) Growth Growth Replication fork Replication fork Nitrogenous bases New strand Original strand Go to Section: Overview video

18 Enzymes involved in DNA Replcation There are a variety of enzymes involved in DNA replication. We learn two of them: DNA Polymerase Adds nucleotides to the growing strand of DNA. Proofreads new DNA Helicase enzyme that separates the DNA

19 When does DNA Replication occur? Before cell division (mitosis) provides a DNA copy for each daughter cell. Occurs in the S phase of interphase.

20 Complementary Base Pairing Allows Each Strand of DNA to Serve as a Template for DNA Replication

21 DNA Replication Something Old and Something New In Each Daughter Molecule. Semi-conservative replication

22 DNA Replication Because C pairs with G and A pairs with T, you can easily match up one strand of DNA with its complimentary base pairs. Try this out- What is the complimentary strand? A G G C T C A A G T C C T A G

23 DNA Replication Because C pairs with G and A pairs with T, you can easily match up one strand of DNA with its complimentary base pairs. Try this out- What is the complimentary strand? A G G C T C A A G T C C T A G T C C G A G T T C A G G A T C

24 DNA Structure The genetic code found in DNA is in the sequence of the bases. The bases are arranged in triplets called codons. A G G - C T C - A A G - T C C - T A G T C C - G A G - T T C - A G G - A T C

25 What is a gene? A gene is a section of DNA that codes for something, usually a protein. It is these proteins that give us our traits. What is a gene? Genes contain a set of codons in a specific order. Each codon codes for one amino acid. Proteins are made of chains of amino acids.

26 Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure

27 RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Transcription and Translation

28 RNA vs. DNA RNA and DNA have some similarities: Made of nucleotides Carry a code in their sequence Sugar + phosphate backbone They both have the bases: guanine, adenine and cytosine

29 RNA Ribonucleic Acid vs. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Sugar: Ribose Single stranded RNA leaves the nucleus Three types RNA has uracil DNA Sugar: Deoxyribose Double stranded Stays in the nucleus One type DNA has thymine

30

31 Protein Synthesis Overview Interactive Animation Video

32 RNA Vs. DNA DNA holds the master copy of the instructions for making proteins! It is kept safe in the nucleus The three different types of RNA are responsible for actually making the proteins!

33 What does mrna do? Carries the message from the DNA into the cell and to the ribosomes Each three letter reading frame is called a codon (ex: AAU-CGC )

34 What does trna do? trna comes in 3 nucleotide sequences called anticodons It s job is to bring amino acids to the ribosomes and match the letters on the mrna DNA: ACT mrna: UGA trna: ACU

35 What does rrna do? rrna is in the ribosomes It helps match the mrna to the trna and attach the next amino acid to the protein sequence

36 What do proteins do? Proteins are made of a sequence of individual amino acids Amino acids are joined into long chains called polypeptides Polypeptides fold and combine to form functional proteins! Proteins are the primary structures in your cells They do all the work in your cells! Motor proteins Protein channels/ pumps Enzymes

37 Protein Synthesis: The process of making proteins Protein Synthesis is divided into two steps: 1. Transcription: making a disposable mrna copy of DNA 2. Translation: turning the code of DNA into a protein

38 Transcription 1. An enzyme, RNA Polymerase uses one strand of DNA as template from which RNA nucleotides are assembled into a single strand of mrna 2. The single-stranded mrna leaves the nucleus

39 Translation 1. The mrna strand moves to a ribosome in the cytoplasm 2. trna that is complementary to the mrna carries the proper amino acid to the ribosome 3. The ribosome removes the amino acid and attaches it to the new polypeptide chain (protein)

40 Messenger RNA is coming out of the nucleus Transfer RNA is bringing amino acids to the mrna to make proteins

41 Protein Synthesis This key uses mrna codons! Start in the center and work your way out!

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells GENES units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES Phosphate

More information

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!!

DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis. This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other

More information

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics

Genetics Notes C. Molecular Genetics Genetics Notes C Molecular Genetics Vocabulary central dogma of molecular biology Chargaff's rules messenger RNA (mrna) ribosomal RNA (rrna) transfer RNA (trna) Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains

More information

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation

More information

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez

DNA TM Review And EXAM Review. Ms. Martinez DNA TM Review And EXAM Review Ms. Martinez 1. Write out the full name for DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid 2. What are chromosomes? threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN 3. What does DNA control

More information

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix

DNA. Discovery of the DNA double helix DNA Replication DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix A. 1950 s B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin s X-ray. What is DNA? Question:

More information

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand

More information

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations

Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Dr. Terence Lee Overview 1. DNA and RNA structure 2. DNA replication 3. Transcription makes RNA 4. Translation makes protein James Watson, Francis Crick,

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology

Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis. Biology Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis Biology Let s Review What are proteins? Chains of amino acids Some are enzymes Some are structural components of cells and tissues More Review What are ribosomes? Cell structures

More information

Study Guide Chapter 12

Study Guide Chapter 12 Study Guide Chapter 12 1. Know ALL of your vocabulary words! 2. Name the following scientists with their contributions to Discovering DNA: a. Strains can be transformed (or changed) into other forms while

More information

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3

DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations. Chapters 12-13.3 DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can

More information

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another?

INTRODUCTION TO DNA. DNA, CHROMOSOMES AND GENES How do these terms relate to one another? INTRODUCTION TO DNA You've probably heard the term a million times. You know that DNA is something inside cells; you probably know that DNA has something to do with who we are and how we get to look the

More information

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis

Molecular Genetics. RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Molecular Genetics RNA, Transcription, & Protein Synthesis Section 1 RNA AND TRANSCRIPTION Objectives Describe the primary functions of RNA Identify how RNA differs from DNA Describe the structure and

More information

Transcription Activity Guide

Transcription Activity Guide Transcription Activity Guide Teacher Key Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Introduction Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein Almost all dynamic functions in a living organism depend on proteins. Proteins are molecular

More information

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA

Figure During transcription, RNA nucleotides base-pair one by one with DNA Objectives Describe the process of DNA transcription. Explain how an RNA message is edited. Describe how RNA is translated to a protein. Summarize protein synthesis. Key Terms messenger RNA (mrna) RNA

More information

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis

Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis UNIT 3, CHAPTER 4: MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA STRUCTURE AND... 3 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS... 3 LESSON

More information

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA

(DNA) 2 = = RNA - DNA Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein synthesis and secretion DNA replication and the cell cycle Chromosomes and heredity Organization of the Chromatin Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes

More information

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism )

Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Biology 1406 Exam 3 Notes Structure of DNA Ch. 10 Genetic information (DNA) determines structure of proteins DNA RNA proteins cell structure 3.11 3.15 enzymes control cell chemistry ( metabolism ) Proteins

More information

Structure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA

Structure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA tructure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA I. tructure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A. Made of nucleotides 1. nucleotides have 3 main parts a. sugar (deoxyribose)

More information

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012

Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis. Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines

RNA and Protein Synthesis Biology Mr. Hines RNA and Protein Synthesis 12.3 Biology Mr. Hines Now we know how DNA (genes) are copied. But how is it used to make a living organism? Most of the structures inside of a cell are made of protein - so we

More information

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928

I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes. II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the of the cell Codes for your - discovered DNA in 1928 Name: Period: Date: = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) = uncoiled

More information

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA.

Answer: 2. Uracil. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds. Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Answer: 2. Uracil Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Thymine is found only in DNA; Uracil takes its (Thymine) place in RNA molecules. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds The complementary

More information

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna.

Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg. 1 1. I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Messenger RNA (mrna) acts as a copy of the instructions for making a protein. mrna carries these instructions

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

DNA and the HUMAN GENOME

DNA and the HUMAN GENOME DNA and the HUMAN GENOME What is a genome? The complete set of genetic instructions (DNA sequence) of a species Genes Genes are segments of chromosomes that determine your traits Genes and chromosomes

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids Responsible for the transfer of genetic information. Two forms of nucleic acids: Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Mainly found in cytoplasm Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Found

More information

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION

LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION LEVEL TWO BIOLOGY: GENE EXPRESSION Protein synthesis DNA structure and replication Polypeptide chains and amino acids Mutations Metabolic pathways Protein Synthesis: I can define a protein in terms of

More information

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14

From DNA to Protein. Chapter 14 From DNA to Protein Chapter 14 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes

More information

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet)

Tuesday 11/13. Agenda 1.Warm Up (Stamp HW) 2.Protein Synthesis Notes 3.HW Time (Transcription/ Translation Worksheet) Tuesday 11/13 Warm Up 1.What are the three parts of a nucleotide? How do two nucleotides link together 2.What binds the two strands of DNA together? Be Specific 3.What are the three main enzymes of DNA

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein.

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein. NAME: PERIOD: From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 i This activity will help

More information

Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement.

Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement. Choose the response which best answers the question or completes the statement. 1. The process of transformation in bacteria involves (1.) transfer of genes for making a capsule. (2.) infection with a

More information

DNA - The Double Helix

DNA - The Double Helix DNA - The Double Helix Name: Date: Recall that the nucleus is a small spherical, dense body in a cell. It is often called the "control center" because it controls all the activities of the cell including

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T).

Complementary Base Pairs: A and T. DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: A and T DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: G and C DNA contains complementary

More information

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated

More information

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA

B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA Review sheet for test B5 B8 ANWERS DNA review 1. What bonds hold complementary bases between 2 strands of DNA together? Hydrogen bonds 2. What bonds exist between sugars and phosphates? Covalent bonds

More information

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA.

It took a while for biologists to figure out that genetic information was carried on DNA. DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does

More information

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three

2. The number of different kinds of nucleotides present in any DNA molecule is A) four B) six C) two D) three Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,

More information

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS

PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.

More information

DNA: Molecule of Life

DNA: Molecule of Life DNA: Molecule of Life History DNA Structure Protein Synthesis Gene Regulation History of DNA H I S T O By the 1940 s, scientists knew that chromosomes consisted of both DNA and protein but did not know

More information

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains

From DNA to Protein. Proteins. Chapter 13. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. The Path From Genes to Proteins. All proteins consist of polypeptide chains Proteins From DNA to Protein Chapter 13 All proteins consist of polypeptide chains A linear sequence of amino acids Each chain corresponds to the nucleotide base sequence of a gene The Path From Genes

More information

Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis

Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis Transcription, Translation & Protein Synthesis Do you remember what proteins are made of? Hundreds of Amino Acids link together to make one Protein There are 20 types of amino acids, some we can make,

More information

DNA replication. DNA RNA Protein

DNA replication. DNA RNA Protein DNA replication The central dogma of molecular biology transcription translation DNA RNA Protein replication Revers transcriptase The information stored by DNA: - protein structure - the regulation of

More information

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids

NUCLEIC ACIDS. An INTRODUCTION. Two classes of Nucleic Acids NUCLEIC ACIDS An INTRODUCTION Two classes of Nucleic Acids Deoxynucleic Acids (DNA) Hereditary molecule of all cellular life Stores genetic information (encodes) Transmits genetic information Information

More information

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009

Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting. Spring 2009 Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting Spring 2009 Chains of amino acids 20 named types Create/build structure within organisms Function as important biochemicals Ex: hair, skin, tissues in organs,

More information

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402)

Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) 3.1.1 Monomers and Polymers 3.1.4 Proteins 3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules 3.2.1 Cell structure

More information

Chapter 4 Genetics And. Cellular Function 4-1. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 4 Genetics And. Cellular Function 4-1. Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4 Genetics And Cellular Function Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 4-1 Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein

More information

Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1

Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1 Web Quest: DNA & Protein Synthesis Biology 1 Name: TO ACCESS THE WEBSITES IN THIS WEB QUEST WITHOUT HAVING TO TYPE IN ALL OF THE URLs: 1. Go to alkire.weebly.com 2. Mouse over Biology 1 3. Click on Online

More information

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis

Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Introduction DNA is the code of life, and it is the blueprint for all living things. DNA is contained in all cells, and it is replicated every time a cell divides.

More information

DNA, genes and chromosomes

DNA, genes and chromosomes DNA, genes and chromosomes Learning objectives By the end of this learning material you would have learnt about the components of a DNA and the process of DNA replication, gene types and sequencing and

More information

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet:

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Name Key Date Block Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, Transcription & Translation Worksheet: Chapter 10: The Cell Cycle 1. The process by which a cell spits into two daughter cells is called Mitosis 2. DNA

More information

DNA Structure and Replication. Chapter Nine

DNA Structure and Replication. Chapter Nine DNA Structure and Replication Chapter Nine 2005 We know: DNAis the hereditary material DNAhas a double helix structure Made of four bases; A,T,C,G Sugar-Phosphate backbone DNAreplication is semi-conservative

More information

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis

Transcription & Translation. Part of Protein Synthesis Transcription & Translation Part of Protein Synthesis Three processes Initiation Transcription Elongation Termination Initiation The RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule upstream of the gene at the

More information

Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes

Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Kun-Mao Chao 1,2,3 1 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics 2 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering 3 Graduate

More information

Structure. Structural Components of Nucleotides Base. Introduction Nucleotide to Cells & Microscopy and Nucleic Acid. Sugar. Phosphate Glycosidic bond

Structure. Structural Components of Nucleotides Base. Introduction Nucleotide to Cells & Microscopy and Nucleic Acid. Sugar. Phosphate Glycosidic bond 11 Introduction Nucleotide to Cells & Microscopy and Nucleic Acid Structure Structural Components of Nucleotides Base Sugar Phosphate Glycosidic bond H NUCLEOTIDE H 1 RNA DNA Table 3-1 Nucleic acid polymer

More information

Multiple Choice Review- Genes

Multiple Choice Review- Genes Multiple Choice Review- Genes 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotides are composed of a. Ribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) b. Ribose sugar, a phosphate

More information

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein.

This activity will help you to learn how a gene provides the instructions for making a protein. From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 1 This activity will help you to learn

More information

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test

Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Each organism has a unique combination

More information

From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview

From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview Protein Synthesis! From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview A. Certain sequences of nucleotides in DNA [called genes], can be expressed/used as a code to determine the sequence

More information

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis

Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Objective 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation 1. Which series is arranged

More information

Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication

Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication Lecture 9 DNA Structure & Replication What is a Gene? Mendel s work left a key question unanswered: What is a gene? The work of Sutton and Morgan established that genes reside on chromosomes But chromosomes

More information

2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material?

2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material? Chapter 16: DNA: The Genetic Material 1. What must genetic material do? 2. Why did biologists used to think that proteins are the genetic material? 3. Describe Griffith s experiments with genetic transformation

More information

Bio EOC Questions for DNA and Protein Synthesis

Bio EOC Questions for DNA and Protein Synthesis Bio EOC Review Topics for DNA and Protein Synthesis o DNA: structure - What are the parts of a nucleotide? sugar, acid, N-bases (and be able to identify these parts on a diagram) A-T / T-A / C-G / G-C

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis

13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis 13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Introduction: *A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids (there are 20 different types of amino acid).

More information

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA

Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the major experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as

More information

Opening Activity: Where in the cell does transcription take place? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Transcription Video New Information:

Opening Activity: Where in the cell does transcription take place? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Transcription Video New Information: Section 1.4 Name: Opening Activity: Where in the cell does transcription take place? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Transcription Video New Information: Protein Synthesis: pages 193-196 As

More information

Thymine = orange Adenine = dark green Guanine = purple Cytosine = yellow Uracil = brown

Thymine = orange Adenine = dark green Guanine = purple Cytosine = yellow Uracil = brown 1 DNA Coloring - Transcription & Translation Transcription RNA, Ribonucleic Acid is very similar to DNA. RNA normally exists as a single strand (and not the double stranded double helix of DNA). It contains

More information

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS

Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN Name: B5. Describe DNA replication 1) Label each base given in the diagram below and describe the 4 primary characteristics

More information

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene.

2. Describe (draw) the structure of a chromosome. Identify: DNA, proteins + a gene. Biology 12 DNA Functions Practice Exam - KEY A. DNA Structure 1. DNA is often called the "code of life". Actually it contains the code for a) the sequence of amino acids in a protein b) the sequence of

More information

Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication. I. Biological Background

Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication. I. Biological Background Lecture 14: Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication I. Biological Background A. Types of nucleic acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a. Makes up genes that indirectly direct protein synthesis b. Contain information

More information

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation 16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Ge n e s c a r r y t h e information that, along with environmental factors, determines an organism s traits. How does this work? Although the complete

More information

7 Nucleic acids. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

7 Nucleic acids. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 7 Nucleic acids Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 DNA, an extremely long, thread-like macromolecule, consists of two anti-parallel polynucleotide strands, paired together and held

More information

DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY

DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY DNA AND IT S ROLE IN HEREDITY Lesson overview and objectives - DNA/RNA structural properties What are DNA and RNA made of What are the structural differences between DNA and RNA What is the structure of

More information

Transcription Animations

Transcription Animations Transcription Animations Name: Lew Ports Biology Place http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/protein%20synthesis%20-%20long.html Protein is the making of proteins from the information found

More information

RNA and Protein Synthesis

RNA and Protein Synthesis RNA and Protein Synthesis Answer Key Vocabulary: amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation Prior Knowledge Questions

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA

Lesson Overview. Fermentation. Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Lesson Overview 13.1 RNA Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base. Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important

More information

Name: Date: Period: DNA Unit: DNA Webquest

Name: Date: Period: DNA Unit: DNA Webquest Name: Date: Period: DNA Unit: DNA Webquest Part 1 History, DNA Structure, DNA Replication DNA History http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/1/concept/index.html Read the text and answer the following questions.

More information

Where is DNA found. In the cell lies the nucleus which house the chromosomes which is composed of short sections called genes. Chromosome.

Where is DNA found. In the cell lies the nucleus which house the chromosomes which is composed of short sections called genes. Chromosome. Where is DA found In the cell lies the nucleus which house the chromosomes which is composed of short sections called genes. Cells ucleus Chromosome For human beings there are 23 pairs of chromosomes which

More information

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms!

DNA is found in all organisms from the smallest bacteria to humans. DNA has the same composition and structure in all organisms! Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI DNA omponents and Structure Introduction Nucleic acids are molecules that are essential to, and characteristic of, life on Earth. There are two basic types of nucleic

More information

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OVERVIEW NUCLEIC ACIDS: THE BASICS Richard L. Hodinka, Ph.D. University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC hodinka@greenvillemed.sc.edu

More information

From DNA to Protein

From DNA to Protein Nucleus Control center of the cell contains the genetic library encoded in the sequences of nucleotides in molecules of DNA code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins determines which specific proteins

More information

Engage: Hox Gene Activity

Engage: Hox Gene Activity Engage: Hox ene ctivity The Hox (homeobox) gene is a major regulatory gene in animal development. It controls the basic body form of the organism. It tells where things should go; for example, an organism

More information

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure

Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Nucleic acids play an important role in the storage and expression of genetic information. They are divided into

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

Chapter 4: DNA, Genes, and Protein Synthesis

Chapter 4: DNA, Genes, and Protein Synthesis Chapter 4: DNA, Genes, and Protein Synthesis The cell is structurally and functionally the basic unit of life for all organisms. The term cell comes from Robert Hooke, who in the seventeenth century observed

More information

Molecular Biology of The Cell - An Introduction

Molecular Biology of The Cell - An Introduction Molecular Biology of The Cell - An Introduction Nguyen Phuong Thao School of Biotechnology International University Contents Three Domain of Life The Cell Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell The Genome The

More information

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why?

Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins. Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? Unit 9: DNA, RNA, and Proteins Pig and elephant DNA just don t splice, but why? BONUS - History of DNA Structure of DNA 3.3.1 - Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and

More information

Cells. DNA and Heredity

Cells. DNA and Heredity Cells DNA and Heredity ! Nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) Determines how cell function " change the DNA and you change the nature of the organism Changes of DNA allows

More information

Life. In nature, we find living things and non living things. Living things can move, reproduce, as opposed to non living things.

Life. In nature, we find living things and non living things. Living things can move, reproduce, as opposed to non living things. Computat onal Biology Lecture 1 Life In nature, we find living things and non living things. Living things can move, reproduce, as opposed to non living things. Both are composed of the same atoms and

More information

Transcription recap What is translation? Short Video Activity. Initiation Elongation Termination. Short Quiz on Thursday! 6.1 and 6.

Transcription recap What is translation? Short Video Activity. Initiation Elongation Termination. Short Quiz on Thursday! 6.1 and 6. Protein Synthesis Transcription recap What is translation? Initiation Elongation Termination Short Video Activity Short Quiz on Thursday! 6.1 and 6.2 1. RNA polymerase attaches to promoter region 2. Unwinds/unzips

More information

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene

Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene Chapter 10 Molecular Biology of the Gene PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture

More information

Transcription Study Guide

Transcription Study Guide Transcription Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the transcription unit. The cell s DNA contains the instructions for carrying out the work of

More information

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein

Genetics. Chapter 9. Chromosome. Genes Three categories. Flow of Genetics/Information The Central Dogma. DNA RNA Protein Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,

More information