DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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1 DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

2 Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes are larger, more complex cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Oldest eukarytotic fossil is 1800 million years old. This is the oldest known fossil of a eukaryote: Grypania spiralis

3 Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells

4 Questions we re going to answer: What is DNA? What does DNA do and how does it do it?

5 What is DNA?- block 1

6 How does a cell know what to do and when? DNA- the cell s instructions for life coded into a sequence of bases

7 DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid All living things based on DNA Role of DNA Storing, copying, and transmitting genetic information Regulates and provides instructions for building proteins

8 A HISTORY OF DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix Frederick Griffith Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule using Franklin s X-ray.

9 DNA What is the monomer? Nucleotides Four nucleotides - Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine What is the polymer? Nucleic Acid deoxyribonucleic acid

10 DNA Nucleotide Phosphate Group O O=P-O O Sugar (deoxyribose) CH2 C 4 5 O C 3 C 2 C 1 N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T)

11 Nitrogenous Bases PURINES 1. Adenine (A) 2. Guanine (G) PYRIMIDINES 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C A or G

12 DNA Double Helix 5 O 3 P 3 O 5 P P O O 1 2 T G A C O P P 3 O 5 P

13 Complementary Base Pairs Adenine must pair with Thymine Guanine must pair with Cytosine T A G C

14 BASE-PAIRINGS H-bonds G C T A

15 Chargaff s Rule The amounts of adenine and thymine and cytosine and guanine in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. T A

16 Genetic Diversity Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.

17 DNA Replication A strand of DNA is used to make a copy of itself. New strand Original strand DNA polymerase (enzyme) Growth Growth Replication fork Replication fork Nitrogenous bases New strand Original strand Go to Section: Overview video

18 Enzymes involved in DNA Replcation There are a variety of enzymes involved in DNA replication. We learn two of them: DNA Polymerase Adds nucleotides to the growing strand of DNA. Proofreads new DNA Helicase enzyme that separates the DNA

19 When does DNA Replication occur? Before cell division (mitosis) provides a DNA copy for each daughter cell. Occurs in the S phase of interphase.

20 Complementary Base Pairing Allows Each Strand of DNA to Serve as a Template for DNA Replication

21 DNA Replication Something Old and Something New In Each Daughter Molecule. Semi-conservative replication

22 DNA Replication Because C pairs with G and A pairs with T, you can easily match up one strand of DNA with its complimentary base pairs. Try this out- What is the complimentary strand? A G G C T C A A G T C C T A G

23 DNA Replication Because C pairs with G and A pairs with T, you can easily match up one strand of DNA with its complimentary base pairs. Try this out- What is the complimentary strand? A G G C T C A A G T C C T A G T C C G A G T T C A G G A T C

24 DNA Structure The genetic code found in DNA is in the sequence of the bases. The bases are arranged in triplets called codons. A G G - C T C - A A G - T C C - T A G T C C - G A G - T T C - A G G - A T C

25 What is a gene? A gene is a section of DNA that codes for something, usually a protein. It is these proteins that give us our traits. What is a gene? Genes contain a set of codons in a specific order. Each codon codes for one amino acid. Proteins are made of chains of amino acids.

26 Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure

27 RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Transcription and Translation

28 RNA vs. DNA RNA and DNA have some similarities: Made of nucleotides Carry a code in their sequence Sugar + phosphate backbone They both have the bases: guanine, adenine and cytosine

29 RNA Ribonucleic Acid vs. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Sugar: Ribose Single stranded RNA leaves the nucleus Three types RNA has uracil DNA Sugar: Deoxyribose Double stranded Stays in the nucleus One type DNA has thymine

30

31 Protein Synthesis Overview Interactive Animation Video

32 RNA Vs. DNA DNA holds the master copy of the instructions for making proteins! It is kept safe in the nucleus The three different types of RNA are responsible for actually making the proteins!

33 What does mrna do? Carries the message from the DNA into the cell and to the ribosomes Each three letter reading frame is called a codon (ex: AAU-CGC )

34 What does trna do? trna comes in 3 nucleotide sequences called anticodons It s job is to bring amino acids to the ribosomes and match the letters on the mrna DNA: ACT mrna: UGA trna: ACU

35 What does rrna do? rrna is in the ribosomes It helps match the mrna to the trna and attach the next amino acid to the protein sequence

36 What do proteins do? Proteins are made of a sequence of individual amino acids Amino acids are joined into long chains called polypeptides Polypeptides fold and combine to form functional proteins! Proteins are the primary structures in your cells They do all the work in your cells! Motor proteins Protein channels/ pumps Enzymes

37 Protein Synthesis: The process of making proteins Protein Synthesis is divided into two steps: 1. Transcription: making a disposable mrna copy of DNA 2. Translation: turning the code of DNA into a protein

38 Transcription 1. An enzyme, RNA Polymerase uses one strand of DNA as template from which RNA nucleotides are assembled into a single strand of mrna 2. The single-stranded mrna leaves the nucleus

39 Translation 1. The mrna strand moves to a ribosome in the cytoplasm 2. trna that is complementary to the mrna carries the proper amino acid to the ribosome 3. The ribosome removes the amino acid and attaches it to the new polypeptide chain (protein)

40 Messenger RNA is coming out of the nucleus Transfer RNA is bringing amino acids to the mrna to make proteins

41 Protein Synthesis This key uses mrna codons! Start in the center and work your way out!

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