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1 Chapter 8 Study Guide What is the study of genetics, and what topics does it focus on? What is a genome? NAME: Microbiology BI234 MUST be written and will not be accepted as a typed document. Describe the location and forms of the following genomes: Eukaryote: Prokaryote: Virus: Compare eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes. What is a gene? What is the final product of a gene? What are the three basic categories of genes? What is the difference between a genotype and phenotype? What are the three parts of a nucleotide? What kind of bond connects complimentary base pairs? Why is it so important for this bond to be relatively weak? Why is the structure of DNA considered an antiparallel arrangement? What is semiconservative replication? Page 1 of 10

2 What is the role of DNA polymerase III? What are some of its limitations? Draw DNA replication using table 8.2 as a reference: How often are mutations made during replication before being corrected? How does the cell correct these mistakes? What is transcription and translation? What is encoded from the DNA once thought to be junk DNA. What is RNA polymerase and what is its role in transcription? What is the template strand and what is its role in transcription? Page 2 of 10

3 Using Table 8.3 draw and explain transcription. Make sure in include: Initiation RNA Polymerase promoter initiation codon template strand of DNA Elongation Termination What are the three ways in which RNA is different from DNA Where does transcription take place in eukaryotes? prokaryotes? What is the role of regulatory RNA in the cell? Page 3 of 10

4 What is the role of primer RNA in the cell? What is the role of ribozymes in the cell? What is the structure and function of rrna? What is the structure and function of trna? What is the structure and function of mrna? What is the role of the ribosome? What is a codon and what information does it give? Explain the redundancy in the codon code and why it is important. What are posttransitional modifications? Why are they important? Describe the polyribosomal complex. How does this benefit prokaryotes? Why can this not occur in eukaryotes? Page 4 of 10

5 From table 8.5 draw and explain translation: Make sure in include: Start codon P site A site anticodon peptide bond translocation termination (stop) codon Explain how eukaryotic mrna is processed to remove the introns while retaining the exons. What is an operon, and why is it useful in the regulation of protein products? What is the role of the following in the lac operon? Regulator: Control locus: Structural locus: Page 5 of 10

6 Explain in detail how lactose controls the transcription of the lac operon genes. What is phase variation? What does it mean that this is heritable? How is this different than the lac operon? What phenotypic traits does phase variation usually affect? What is recombination, and how can it benefit prokaryotes? What is a recombinate? Describe horizontal gene transfer. What is a plasmid? Why are chromosomal fragments more difficult to pass and use than plasmids during horizontal gene transfer? Describe in detail conjugation. Make sure to include: The F factor gene Pilus Page 6 of 10

7 How is a high frequency recombination different from conjugation between an F + and F bacteria? What is a resistance (R) plasmid and what are the impacts of these plasmids on the bacteria? What is transformation? How is the process of transformation used in research? What is a bacteriophage? Draw and explain generalized transduction. Compare generalized and specialized transduction. Why must a temperate phage (one that incorporates their DNA into the host genome) be involved? Page 7 of 10

8 Give an example of a biomedical important specialized transduction. What is a transposon? What are some of the variables that effect whether a transposon relocation is beneficial or harmful to the cell? What characteristics in bacteria have been shown to be a result of transposons? What is a mutation and when is it most noticeable? What is the difference between a wild type and mutant strain? What causes a spontaneous mutation? How often do they occur? How is an induced mutation different than a spontaneous one? What is a point mutation? What is a missense mutation and what are the three different outcomes of this kind of mutation? What is a nonsense mutation and how does the resulting protein differ from the original? What is a silent mutation and how does the resulting protein differ from the original? What is a back mutation? Page 8 of 10

9 What is a framshift mutation and how does the resulting protein differ from the original? Describe excision repair. Describe how positive mutations and the environment allow bacteria to evolve. What are restriction endonucleases? Be sure to describe how and where they cut DNA. Why did bacteria evolve to have restriction endonucleases? Why are they so important in biotechnology? What is the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)? What is cdna and how is it used in research? The book tells you one way, can you think of a way you might be able to study regulation of genes with this? Explain. Describe gelelectrophoresis. What is its purpose in the analysis of DNA? Describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR)? How is this technique used to analysis DNA? Who are primers and DNA polymerase used in PCR? Page 9 of 10

10 What is the purpose of recombinant DNA technology? What is a clone in recombinant DNA technology. What is a cloning vector and why are they needed to manipulate genes in the lab? What is the purpose of the ori, restriction sites, and resistance gene on a cloning vector? What s working well and what s a suggestion to help things work better? Page 10 of 10

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