HOLE PLATING COPPER FOIL ANNULAR RING. Figure 1 A Section Through a Plated Through Hole in a PCB

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2 F B D A C FINISHED HOLE E A - Nominal Drilled Hole Size B - Plated Hole Size (Finished Hole Diameter) C - Maximum Wander of Drilled Hole D - Capture Pad Size E - Minimum Annular Ring F - Clearance to Nearest Copper (all layers) This is the diameter of the cylinder piercing all layers. COPPER PLANE Figure 2. A Top Down View of a Plated Through Hole Figure 2 is a top down view of a plated through hole or via showing the clearance hole or pad in a power plane of diameter F. This is the minimum opening in the power planes needed to guarantee that there is enough room for the drilled hole, the drill wander and minimum insulation to nearest copper in any layer, be it signal or power. In Figure 3 an array of vias or holes spaced on a 1 mm pitch is shown. The web between clearance pads is what is available for traces on signal layers and for copper in the plane layers to conduct the current used by the ICs and other devices on the PCB. (It should be noted that if the trace width were the same as the web in the plane, the impedance of the trace would raise several ohms as it passes over the array of holes under a BGA. To minimize this effect, the web should be wider than the trace by about 2:1.) Calculating Width of Plane Webs and Routing Channels in Signal Layers Clearly, the width of a plane web is the hole pitch minus the diameter of the clearance pad or hole. The question is how to arrive at the diameter of the clearance hole needed to satisfy all of the constraints. These constraints are: drilled hole large enough to insure proper plating; room around the drilled hole to allow for drill wander and minimum insulation thickness. Minimum Drilled Hole Size Determining the minimum drill size needed to insure proper copper plating requires knowledge of the maximum aspect ratio of the drilled hole. Aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of hole length to diameter. This is covered in detail in Chapter 4 of Volume 2. For now, the maximum aspect ratio for the top fabricators in the world is 10:1 for volume production. For the mid tier fabricators it is 8:1 and for the low-end fabricators it is 6:1. Of course, the minimum drill size is also influenced by the thickness of the PCB. For example, if the PCB is 120 mils thick and is being built by a top-tier fabricator the minimum drill size would be 12 mils. For a mid-tier fabricator it would be 15 mils and for a low-end fabricator it would be 20 mils. (As will be seen from the following analysis, with component lead pitches of 1 mm or more, a 12-mil drill works well. For this reason, this is my default smallest drill size even if the PCB thickness is less than 120 mils.) Most of the high performance PCBs being designed today are often 120 mils thick. This analysis will be for such a PCB built by a top-tier fabricator. Allowance for Hole Wander Drilled holes are often not exactly where they were designed to be. There are a number of reasons for this. Among these are: ability of the drill machine to locate the exact spot where the hole is to be drilled; shrinkage of the layers of the PCB during lamination; dimensional errors in the film used to image the layers of the PCB; and misregistration of the layers during lamination. All of these errors add up to a position error for the drill that is often referred to as TIR (total included radius) of FAQ #5 Why not two traces between pins on a 1 mm pitch BGA? Page #2

5 Minimum hole pitch = (d1 + d2) +20 mils + minimum web requirement (usually no less than 7 mils). Some Observations From the above it can be seen that routing two traces between pins of a 1 mm pitch BGA will result in a low yielding and unreliable PCB. Once it is agreed that it is only possible to route one trace between pins, as long as the trace width is 5 mils or less, it is possible to specify a minimum drill size of 12 mils. There is no good reason to specify a smaller drill size and the difficulties that it would entail- especially potentially unreliable plating. If one is fortunate to have access to 50-mil pitch (1.27 mm) BGAs, the space available for traces is 50 mils less 32 mils or 18 mils. This is plenty of room for two traces between pins and the space needed to separate them. Any time there is a choice between a 1mm pitch component and a 50-mil pitch component, the choice is clear. IC manufacturers would do their customers a great service to stick with 50-mil pitch BGAs when the pin count is high. They do their customers a grave disservice when they specify 0.8 mm pitch components as will be seen in a later FAQ. References: 1. Right the First Time, A Practical Handbook on High Speed PCB and System Design, Volume 2, Chapter4 and Appendices 6, 7 and 10. FAQ #5 Why not two traces between pins on a 1 mm pitch BGA? Page #5

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