NETWORKING. A major difference in the network types is the distance covered by the networks.

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1 NETWORKING What is a computer network? A network is a group of connected computer systems and devices (Laptop, Desktops, Servers) via a link, which enables the sharing of data/information between the connected devices. Types of networks? A list of some different types of networks are as follows 1) Personal Area Network (PAN) 2) Local Area Network (LAN) 3) Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) subset of LAN what is called WIFI 4) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 5) Virtual Private Network (VPN) 6) Campus Area Network (CAN) 7) Wide Area Network (WAN) A major difference in the network types is the distance covered by the networks. PAN is localized network covering a small area and are limited to Bluetooth, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and USB connections. Note this connections are designed for short distances mainly for personal items or peripherals. LAN is the most popular network as it covers a local area. This includes WLAN also know as WIFI which is just a wireless form of LAN. The most popular communication media/link for Wired LAN s is the Ethernet, which has matured from single copper cables to twisted pairs Category 6a 10Gps. Note twisted pair cables are copper cables twisted at intervals to cancel out electromagnetic interference. MAN are much bigger than LAN but confined to a small geographical area example Upper Marlboro or Prince Georges County. They are usually leased from phone and media carriers like Verizon or Comcast. Note Metro Ethernet is a MAN using ethernet cables. Metro is the abbreviated form of Metropolitan. Extra points 1) Search the internet for 2 MAN Adverts 2) The difference between Intranet and Internet. Copy on a text file or document and upload it to the thinkwave.

2 WAN is a network that covers a wider area than the LAN. It could be described as a collection of LANs and example is the USPS intranet in the state of Maryland. Here all the offices are connected to each other, another example is the Internet. Note the Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks, that use the Transport Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite. WAN can be wired (fibre optic cable) or wireless ( microwave satellite or infrared transmissions). Virtual Private Network is a secure form of LAN often used to remotely connect to an existing LAN. Examples are employees working from home. FIG 1 An example of a PAN

3 FIG 2 An Example of a Local Area Network FIG 3 An Example of a WAN

4 Network Topologies There are 5 network topologies which you are required to know (Bus, Ring, Star, Mesh and Hybrid) Bus Topology: consist of a single cable running through all the workstations. It requires the least amount of cabling but is is difficult to introduce another workstation hence does not scale. It also has a single point of failure for the entire network. FIG 4 A Bus Topology Network Ring Topology: The networks are connected in a closed circuit to form a ring. the same cable runs through all the workstations. Messages are passed along from workstation to workstation till it reaches the recipient. Note data transmission is unidirectional (in one direction). FIG 5 Ring Topology

5 Star Topology Devices which are members of the network are connected off a central device (Hub, Switch). The allows you add workstations and prevents a single point of failure as seen in the Bus and Ring Networks. FIG 6 Star Topology Mesh Topology It is a complex design which connects every member of the network to each other. This are rare in LANs as it requires a lot of complex cabling and can result in disruptions in the network like Loops. FIG 7 Mesh Network

6 Hybrid Topology Is a mix of the previous topologies. FIG 8 Hybrid Network Topologies

7 Internet Protocol : This is a network protocol (there are many network protocols) that is most popular on the internet. Note protocol is a set of rules that govern communication. There are two popular versions of the IP (IPv4 and IPv6) which are used on the internet. IP is part of the TCP/IP stack (collection of protocols) commonly used to send information across the internet. FIG TCP / IP Suite (by Department Of Defence) The Internet layer is also called the Network layer, and the Host to Host Layer is called the Transport Layer.

8 Internet Protocol Address This is used to give computers and devices connected in a network a means to uniquely identify themselves. Similar to the need for your house address when someone tries to send you letter. An IPv4 address is a 32 bit hierarchical that identifies a host on the network. It is usually written in dotted decimal notation a.b.c.d an example is Where a = 192, b = 168, c = 0, d = 2. Each number represents 8 bits (1 byte) of the address and is called an octet. The word hierarchical is used to describe the nature of IP address, which is in two parts. The Network address and the Host address. This is similar to your zip code and house number, where the zip code is the Network address and the street number the host. What is used to separate these parts of the address is called a mask. Example The 255 in this case identify the network address which is , the zero identifies the host address which in this case is 23. Classroom task (Identifying your ip address) 1) Turn on your computer 2) Press the window key and the R simultaneously 3) A will notice a Run window, type cmd in the run window and click the OK button

9 4) You will get a command line window that looks like the window below 5) Type the command ipconfig and press enter. You will notice a stream of data scroll down. Scroll the window back up so you can see the ipconfig command, and gradually scroll down. 6) Search for the line that says Ethernet adapter Ethernet: (note that this is the network card that connects your PC to the computer lab network. Example Ethernet adapter Ethernet: Connection specific DNS Suffix. : Link local IPv6 Address..... : fe80::44da:e5e7:9896:dd22%12 IPv4 Address : Subnet Mask : Default Gateway :

10 Note that the IPv4 address in the example above is The subnet mask is , meaning the Network address is and the Host address is 181. In addition the gateway address or router address for the PC is ) Right down the IP address of your computer indicating the network address, host address and subnet mask. Furthermore, identify the Gateway IP address. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) This is an Application Layer protocol that assigns an IP address to devices connected to a network. This is usually run by a server or on a router. The way it works is the PC or device connecting to the network will send a query (packet) to everyone on the network (broadcast) asking for its IP address. This broadcast is called a DHCP Discover packet. The DHCP server will make an offer contain IP address and other details to the Client this is called DHCP Offer packet. Next the client will now make a request to the server asking that the IP address offered be made available for it. This is called a DHCP Request. Next the server will send a DHCP Acknowledgement, indicating that the Client device can now use the IP address. Note the DHCP protocol allows the server to provide the Client Device the following 1) IP address 2) Subnet Mask 3) Domain name 4) Gateway IP address

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