Branching. We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including. Overview

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1 Branching Overview We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including Boolean Expressions (need to know this before we can using branching and looping!) Branching J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 1

2 Data Types & Variables Last Lecture Input using cin and output using cout Data types char, int, long, float, double, bool, string Variables Declaration Initialization Usage J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 2

3 An In Class Challenge Question: Using C++ write a program that will exchange the values of two variables without using a third temporary variable. (5 minutes) What is the advantage/disadvantage of using this technique vs. using a temporary variable? J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 3

4 Boolean Expressions Branching and looping requires you to first understand boolean expressions Operator Meaning == Equal to!= Not equal to < Less than <= Less than or equal to > Greater than >= Greater than or equal to && And Or! Not J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 4

5 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression (x == y) x < y < z Meaning (x < y) && (y < z) (y > z) && (y!= x)!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 5

6 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression Meaning (x == y) If x is equal to y the expression is true x < y < z (x < y) && (y < z) (y > z) && (y!= x)!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 6

7 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression Meaning (x == y) If x is equal to y the expression is true x < y < z X Not proper syntax don t do this! (x < y) && (y < z) (y > z) && (y!= x)!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 7

8 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression Meaning (x == y) If x is equal to y the expression is true x < y < z X Not proper syntax don t do this! (x < y) && (y < z) Correct form of the previous example. If x is less than y and y is less than z the expression is true (y > z) && (y!= x)!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 8

9 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression Meaning (x == y) If x is equal to y the expression is true x < y < z X Not proper syntax don t do this! (x < y) && (y < z) Correct form of the previous example. If x is less than y and y is less than z the expression is true (y > z) && (y!= x) If y is less than z and y is not equal to x the expression is true!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 9

10 Boolean Expressions What do these expressions mean? Expression Meaning (x == y) If x is equal to y the expression is true x < y < z X Not proper syntax don t do this! (x < y) && (y < z) Correct form of the previous example. If x is less than y and y is less than z the expression is true (y > z) && (y!= x) If y is less than z and y is not equal to x the expression is true!((x > 6) (x <= 2)) If x is greater than 6 or x is less than or equal to 2 than the expression is false J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 10

11 C++ Branching If-else statement The else is optional! You can nest if-else statements inside other if-else statement You can have multi-way if-else statements (using else if) See branch_ex1.cpp for an example of branching using an if statement. J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 11

12 C++ Branching Switch statement The default is optional! You can have multiple cases Break statements can be used to end a switch statement See branch_ex2.cpp for an example of a switch statement. J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 12

13 C Input/Output (ASIDE) Let s consider input and output in C (not C++) How does it work? See chello.cpp for examples of input and output using scanf() and printf(). J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 13

14 In Class Challenge Question: Print Hello World to the screen in C without using any semi-colons (5 minutes) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 14

15 In Class Challenge Question: Print Hello World to the screen in C without using any semi-colons (5 minutes) SOLUTION: Use an if statement! What does the if condition evaluate to? (ANSWER: number of characters printed) J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 15

16 Branching Summary We covered more of the basics of writing C++ programs including Branching if statement, switch statement Next Time We will learn about looping and functions. J.S. Bradbury CSCI 1060U Lecture 3 Slide 16

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