# Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement"

## Transcription

1 Tutorial 9 Income Tax Calculator Application: Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement Outline 9.1 Test-Driving the Income Tax Calculator Application 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement 7.3 Implicit (promotion) and Explicit (cast) conversion 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application 9.4 Wrap-Up

2 Objectives In this tutorial, you will learn to: Use the switch multiple-selection statement to choose among many alternative actions. Use case labels to identify the alternative actions in switch statements. Understand the short and long data types to represent small and large integers.

3 9.1 Test-Driving the Income Tax Calculator Application Applic ation Requirements An accounting firm wants an application that estimates the amount of Federal income tax that a client must pay, depending upon that client s annual salary. The application should use the following income ranges and corresponding tax rates: Under \$25,000 = 15% income tax \$25,000 74,999 = 25% income tax \$75, ,999 = 28% income tax \$150, ,999 = 33% income tax \$300,000 and over = 35% income tax Your application should display an error message if the user enters an annual salary that is less than or equal to zero. [Note: The actual U.S. Federal income tax rates vary based on many factors. For more information, see the information in IRS Form 1040-ES, which is located at In Exercise 9.12, you will create an application that calculates a closer approximation of an individual s Federal income tax.]

4 9.1 Test-Driving the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.3 Income Tax Calculator application output for a \$100,000 yearly salary.

5 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement The syntax of the switch statement is a bit peculiar. Its objective is to check several possible constant values for an expression. Something similar to what we did at the beginning of this section with the concatenation of several if and else if instructions (source: cplusplus.com) switch (expression) { case constant1: group of statements 1; break; case constant2: group of statements 2; break;.. default: default group of statements }

6 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement switch multiple-selection statements switch keyword Controlling expression Must be a value of the char, short, int or long types or a type that can be converted to these types case labels case keyword Constant expression Can be a character literal, an integer literal or a variable containing a character or integer constant Cannot be a floating-point value

7 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement (Cont.) break statement transfers control to the first statement after the switch statement If a case label has no break statement, execution falls through default case Executes if no constant expression matches the controlling expression A switch statement cannot contain two case labels with the same constant expression or two default cases If the controlling expression does not match any constant expression and there is no default case, none of the statements in the switch body are executed

8 9.2 Introducing the switch Multiple-Selection Statement (Cont.) Figure 9.4 switch multiple-selection statement UML activity diagram.

9 7.3 Implicit (promotion) and Explicit (cast) conversion Implicit conversion (promotion) Values are automatically converted to larger data types (types at top of the list in Fig. 7.12) when necessary No loss of data Explicit conversion (casting) Use unary cast operator static_cast< datatype > Prevents compiler warnings when converting to a smaller data type Converting to a smaller data type may cause a loss of data

10 Fundamental Data Types (Week 3 Review) Summary of the basic fundamental data types in C++, as well as the range of values that can be represented with each one.

11 7.3 Implicit (promotion) and Explicit (cast) conversion Primitive typ e long double double float unsigned long int long int unsigned int int unsigned short int short int char unsigned char signed char (synonymous with unsigned long) (synonymous with long) (synonymous with unsigned) (synonymous with unsigned short) (synonymous with short) bool (false becomes 0, true becomes 1) Figure 7.12 Promotion hiera rc hy for C++ p rimitive typ es.

12 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application Prompt the user for and input the yearly salary If the salary is less than or equal to zero Display error message Else Switch based on the integer result of the yearly salary divided by 25,000 If the result is 0 (salary is less than \$25,000) Set the tax rate to 15% If the result is 1 or 2 (salary is between \$25,000 and \$74,999, inclusive) Set the tax rate to 25% If the result is 3, 4 or 5 (salary is between \$75,000 and \$149,999, inclusive) Set the tax rate to 28% If the result is 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11 (salary is between \$150,000 and \$299,999, inclusive) Set the tax rate to 33% Otherwise (salary is greater than or equal to \$300,000) Set the tax rate to 35% Calculate and display the income tax Figure 9.5 Pseudocode for the Income Tax Calculator application.

13 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.6 Defining variables to contain the tax rate and the yearly salary. Defining variables to store user input

14 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.7 Prompting the user for and inputting the yearly salary. Prompting the user for and inputting the yearly salary

15 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.8 Adding an if...else statement to the function. Displaying an error message if the user enters an invalid salary

16 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.9 Adding a switch statement to the function. Beginning of the switch statement

17 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.10 Adding a case label to the switch statement. Sets the tax rate to 15% if salary is less than 25000

18 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.11 Finishing the switch statement. Multiple case labels result in the same taxrate (28%) Sets tax rate to 25% if salary is between and Multiple case labels result in the same taxrate (33%)

19 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.12 Adding a default case to the switch statement. default case at the end of the switch statement When the default case is at the end of the switch body, a break statement is unnecessary

20 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.13 Calculating and displaying the income tax. Calculating the income tax Displaying the income tax

21 9.3 Constructing the Income Tax Calculator Application (Cont.) Figure 9.14 Completed Income Tax Calculator application.

22 1 // Tutorial 9: IncomeTaxCalculator.cpp 2 // Calculates a person's Federal income tax 3 // depending on that person's salary. 4 #include <iostream> // required to perform C++ stream I/O 5 #include <iomanip> // required for parameterized stream manipulators 6 7 using namespace std; // for accessing C++ Standard Library members 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 // define variables 13 double taxrate; // tax rate 14 double salary; // yearly salary // prompt user for and input yearly salary 17 cout << "\nenter yearly salary: "; 18 cin >> salary; // get yearly salary // ensure that the user entered a value greater than zero 21 if ( salary > 0 ) 22 { Define variables to store user input IncomeTaxCalculator. cpp (1 of 4) Prompt the user for and input the yearly salary

23 23 // determine appropriate tax rate based on yearly salary 24 switch ( static_cast< int > ( salary ) / ) 25 { 26 case 0: // yearly salary under \$25, taxrate = 0.15; // 15% tax rate 28 break; case 1: // yearly salary in range \$25,000-49, case 2: // yearly salary in range \$50,000-74, taxrate = 0.25; // 25% tax rate 33 break; case 3: // yearly salary in range \$75,000-99, case 4: // yearly salary in range \$100, , case 5: // yearly salary in range \$125, , taxrate = 0.28; // 28% tax rate 39 break; 40 Beginning of the switch statement IncomeTaxCalculator. cpp (2 of 4) Set the tax rate to 15% if salary is less than Set the tax rate to 25% if salary is between and Set the tax rate to 28% if salary is between and

24 41 case 6: // yearly salary in range \$150, , case 7: // yearly salary in range \$175, , case 8: // yearly salary in range \$200, , case 9: // yearly salary in range \$225, , case 10: // yearly salary in range \$250, , case 11: // yearly salary in range \$275, , taxrate = 0.33; // 33% tax rate 48 break; default: // yearly salary \$300,000 or higher 51 taxrate = 0.35; // 35% tax rate } // end switch double incometax = salary * taxrate; // calculate taxes // display income tax 58 cout << "\nincome tax: \$" << fixed << setprecision( 2 ) 59 << incometax << endl; 60 } // end if IncomeTaxCalculator. cpp (3 of 4) Set the tax rate to 33% if salary is between and default case at the end of the switch statement Calculate the income tax Display the income tax

25 61 else // display error message 62 { 63 cout << "\nerror: Income must be greater than 0" << endl; 64 } // end else cout << "\n"; return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Display an error message if annual salary is not greater than zero IncomeTaxCalculator. cpp (4 of 4)

26 Lab and Homework Assignment Tutorial 4 Wage Calculator. Turn in annotated source file with your own comments. Answer and Turn-in Tutorial 4 Questions 4.1, 4.2, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10 at the end of the Chapter 4 plus Tutorial 9 Questions 9.1, 9.2, 9.5, 9.7, 9.10 at the end of Chapter 9. Always write the question followed by the answer. Remember to highlight the answer. Exercises 4.11, 9.11, and 4.17 Due next Wednesday

### A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays

A First Book of C++ Chapter 2 Data Types, Declarations, and Displays Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Data Types Arithmetic Operators Variables and Declarations Common Programming Errors

### C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with the basic components of a C++ program,

### Name: Class: Date: 9. The compiler ignores all comments they are there strictly for the convenience of anyone reading the program.

Name: Class: Date: Exam #1 - Prep True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Programming is the process of writing a computer program in a language that the computer can respond to

### Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to C++ Programming 1 Outline Introduction to C++ Programming A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers Memory Concepts Arithmetic Decision Making:

### Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Adjusted/Modified by Nicole Tobias Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types

### Tutorial 16 Shopping List Application: Introducing Pointers, References and Dynamic Data Structures

Tutorial 16 Shopping List Application: Introducing Pointers, References and Dynamic Data Structures Outline 16.1 Test-Driving the Shopping List Application 16.2 Introducing Pointers 16.3 Pointer Operators

### Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++

Chapter 2: Problem Solving Using C++ 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Modular programs Programming style Data types Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Common

### 6.096 Lab 1. Due: 7 January 12:30:00. September 20, 2011

6.096 Lab 1 Due: 7 January 1:30:00 September 0, 011 1 Additional Material 1.1 Constants A constant is an expressions with a fixed value. Kinds of constants: Literals: used to express particular values

### conditional statements

L E S S O N S E T 4 Conditional Statements PU RPOSE PROCE DU RE 1. To work with relational operators 2. To work with conditional statements 3. To learn and use nested if statements 4. To learn and use

### Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

### Programming Fundamental. Instructor Name: Lecture-2

Programming Fundamental Instructor Name: Lecture-2 Today s Lecture What is Programming? First C++ Program Programming Errors Variables in C++ Primitive Data Types in C++ Operators in C++ Operators Precedence

### Final Exam Review. CS 1428 Fall Jill Seaman. Final Exam

Final Exam Review CS 1428 Fall 2011 Jill Seaman 1 Final Exam Friday, December 9, 11:00am to 1:30pm Derr 241 (here) Closed book, closed notes, clean desk Comprehensive (covers entire course) 25% of your

### Control Structures in C++: Selection and Repetition Statements

Control Structures in C++: Selection and Repetition Statements 1. Log in to your account as usual and start up the Bloodshed Dev C/C++ System as described in Lab No. 1. Click on File New Source File. 2.

### Input and Output! Objectives" (and predefined functions)" 1E3! Topic 4! n Learn what a stream is and examine input and output streams!

Input and Output! (and predefined functions)" 1E3! Topic 4! 4 I/O 1 Objectives" n Learn what a stream is and examine input and output streams! n Explore how to read data from the standard input device!

### C++ Language Tutorial

cplusplus.com C++ Language Tutorial Written by: Juan Soulié Last revision: June, 2007 Available online at: http://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/ The online version is constantly revised and may contain

### Which of the following is the correct operator to compare two variables? A. := B. = C. equal D. ==

Group 1 Question 1. What is the correct value to return to the operating system upon the successful completion of a program? A. -1 B. 1 C. 0 D. Programs do not return a value. Question 2. What is the only

### Control Structure. Pseudocode: Input number If number is even Then Print even Else print odd. Flowchart: Begin. End. Print Odd. number even?

Control Structure Normally, a program is executed in a sequential manner.however, in many cases, a program has to choose among alternative statements C++ provides constructs that enable the programmer

### Simple C++ Programs. Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber. Dev-C++ Dev-C++ Windows Friendly Exit. The C++ Programming Language

Simple C++ Programs Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 2 Simple C++ Programs Program Structure Constants and Variables C++ Operators Standard Input and Output Basic Functions from

### cin >> num1 >> num2 >> num3 >> num4 >> num5; sum = num1 + num2 + num3 + num4 + num5; average = sum / 5.

Lesson Outcomes At the end of this chapter, student should be able to: Understand the requirement of a loop Understand the Loop Control Variable (LCV) Use increment (++) and decrement (--) operators Program

### MS VS Express 2008 C++ Quick Introduction. A1 Visual C++ 1

MS VS Express 2008 C++ A1 Visual C++ 1 Quick Introduction The following pages provide a quick tutorial on using Microsoft Visual Studio Express 2008 C++ to produce a small project. The following discussion

### Branching. We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including. Overview

Branching Overview We ll continue to look at the basics of writing C++ programs including Boolean Expressions (need to know this before we can using branching and looping!) Branching J.S. Bradbury CSCI

### Tutorial-3a: First steps with C++ programming

HTTP://WWW.HEP.LU.SE/COURSES/MNXB01 Introduction to Programming and Computing for Scientists (2015 HT) Tutorial-3a: First steps with C++ programming Programming for Scientists Tutorial 3a 1 / 17 Quick

### FORM 1 (Please put your name, section # (10am- 001/2pm-002, and form # on the scantron!!!!) CS 161 Exam I:

FORM 1 (Please put your name, section # (10am- 001/2pm-002, and form # on the scantron!!!!) CS 161 Exam I: True (A)/False(B) (2 pts each): 1. The following statement is legal: cout >> Hello, my name is

### Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 3 Control Structures 1 Control structures Algorithm Development Conditional Expressions Selection Statements Repetition Statements Structuring

### The Fundamentals of C++

The Fundamentals of C++ Basic programming elements and concepts JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc. Program Organization Program statement Definition Declaration Action Executable unit Named set of program

### Selection: if Statement

: if Statement The simplest selection structure in C++ is the if statement. Syntactically: 1 if The Boolean expression must be enclosed in parentheses, and

### Chapter 3 Basic Input & Output

Chapter 3 Basic Input & Output 3-1 Basic Output in C++ cout is a predefined variable in C++ that indicates you are going to output a stream of characters to an output device. cout uses an operator called

### Appendix M Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++.NET

Appendix M Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++.NET This appendix serves as a quick reference for performing the following operations using the Microsoft Visual C++.NET integrated development environment

### Programming II with C++ (CSNB244) Lab 12. Topics: C++ Basic Input/Output

Topics: C++ Basic Input/Output In this lab session, you will learn very basic and most common I/O operations required for C++ programming. C++ I/O occurs in streams, which are sequences of bytes. If bytes

### 6. Control Structures

- 35 - Control Structures: 6. Control Structures A program is usually not limited to a linear sequence of instructions. During its process it may bifurcate, repeat code or take decisions. For that purpose,

### C++ Basics. C++ Basics: Names: Identifiers. Names: Identifiers. Display 2.1 A C++ Program (1 of 2) Display 2.1 A C++ Program (2 of 2)

C++ Basics C++ Basics: 2.1 Variables and Assignments Variables and Assignments Input and Output Data Types and Expressions Simple Flow of Control Program Style A C++ variable can hold a number or other

### Variables and Constants

HOUR 3 Variables and Constants What You ll Learn in This Hour:. How to declare and define variables and constants. How to assign values to variables and manipulate those values. How to write the value

### Chapter 8. Arithmetic in C++

Christian Jacob Chapter 8 Arithmetic in C++ 8.1 The C++ Vocabulary 8.2 Variables and Types 8.2.1 Data Objects 8.2.2 Variables 8.2.3 Declaration of Variables 8.3 Elementary C++ Data Types 8.3.1 Integers

### C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition. Chapter 3: Input/Output

C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition Chapter 3: Input/Output Objectives In this chapter, you will: Learn what a stream is and examine input and output streams Explore

### Primitive Data Types Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller

Primitive Data Types 15-110 Summer 2010 Margaret Reid-Miller Data Types Data stored in memory is a string of bits (0 or 1). What does 1000010 mean? 66? 'B'? 9.2E-44? How the computer interprets the string

### Summary of basic C++-commands

Compiling Summary of basic C++-commands To compile a C++-program, you can use either g++ or c++. e.g. g++ -o executable filename.out sourcefilename.cc c++ -o executable filename.out sourcefilename.cc g++

### Quiz 3 Solutions EECS 211: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING II. 1 Q u i z 3 S o l u t i o n s. Q1: C++ functions other than main are executed:

Quiz 3 Solutions Q1: C++ functions other than main are executed: a. Before main executes. b. After main completes execution. c. When they are explicitly called by another function. d. Never. ANS c. When

### GETTING STARTED WITH C++ C++ BASICS - 1 -

- 1 - GETTING STARTED WITH C++ Programming is a core activity in the process of performing tasks or solving problems with the aid of a computer. An idealised picture is: PROBLEM COMPUTER SOLUTION Unfortunately

### Comp181 Midterm Examination, Fall Name Surname: Number: 90 min. 18/11/09

Comp181 Midterm Examination, Fall 09 10 Name Surname: Number: 90 min. 18/11/09 Answer ALL off the following questions. 1.What does the term hardware refer to? a. The relative difficulty of programming

### Introduction to the C++ Programming Language

L E S S O N S E T 2 Introduction to the C++ Programming Language PURPOSE PROCEDURE 1. To briefly introduce the C++ programming language 2. To show the use of memory in programming 3. To introduce variables

### Chapter 2. Values, Variables, and Types. 2.1 Java Values in DrJava s Interaction Pane

14 Chapter 2 Values, Variables, and Types In this chapter we explore the primitive building blocks that are used to develop Java programs. We experiment with the following concepts within DrJava s interactive

11 Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects The whole difference between construction and creation is exactly this: that a thing constructed can only be loved after it is constructed; but a thing

### ()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, / 47

A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. Dr. Daniel A. Ray MCS Dept UVa-Wise June 8, 2010 ()A Crash Course in Programming with C++ and the Ubuntu O.S. June 8, 2010 1 / 47 Outline What

### Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter

Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter Chapter 7 Strings 12-11-13 1 Strings Character Strings The string Class. 2 C style strings functions defined in cstring CHARACTER STRINGS 3 C Style Character

### Sources: On the Web: Slides will be available on:

C programming Introduction The basics of algorithms Structure of a C code, compilation step Constant, variable type, variable scope Expression and operators: assignment, arithmetic operators, comparison,

### [Page 70 (continued)] a. are used to document a program and improve its readability. [Page 71]

[Page 70 (continued)] Exercises 2.7 Discuss the meaning of each of the following objects: a. std::cin b. std::cout 2.8 Fill in the blanks in each of the following: a. are used to document a program and

### Proposal to add an absolute difference function to the C++ Standard Library

Proposal to add an absolute difference function to the C++ Standard Library Document number: N4318 Date: 2014-09-21 Project: Programming Language C++, Library Evolution Working Group Reply-to: Jeremy Turnbull

### Boolean Variables and Expressions

Boolean Variables and Expressions 1 Recall Standard C++ supports a simple data type specialized for representing logical values. bool type variables can have either of two values: or The identifiers and

### An Incomplete C++ Primer. University of Wyoming MA 5310

An Incomplete C++ Primer University of Wyoming MA 5310 Professor Craig C. Douglas http://www.mgnet.org/~douglas/classes/na-sc/notes/c++primer.pdf C++ is a legacy programming language, as is other languages

### Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction

Introduction to C++ January 4, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 6.096 Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction 1 Compiled Languages and C++ 1.1 Why Use a Language Like C++? At its core, a computer is just

### CS1020E: DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS I

CS1020E: DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS I Tutorial 1 Basic C++, OOP Problem Solving (Week 3, starting 22 August 2016) 1. Evaluation Order (Note: You can use any other C++ code editor/compiler). Examine

### 6.1. Introduction to Void Functions (Procedures) L E S S O N S E PURPOSE PROCEDURE

L E S S O N S E 6.1 T Introduction to Void Functions (Procedures) PURPOSE PROCEDURE 1. To introduce the concept of void functions (procedures) 2. To work with void functions (procedures) that have no parameters

### Chapter 6 Repetition

Chapter 6 Repetition 6-1 Repetition in C++ The final control/logic structure is repetition: Repetition repeating a block of code until a condition is met There are three repetition statements available

### CS 101: Computer Programming and Utilizati on

CS 101: Computer Programming and Utilizati on Jul-Nov 2016 Bernard Menezes (cs101@cse.iitb.ac.in) Lecture 5: Conditional Execution About These Slides Based on Chapter 6 of the book An Introduction to Programming

### BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security, BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Mathematics & BSc (Hons) Software Engineering

BSc (Hons) Computer Science with Network Security, BSc (Hons) Business Information Systems, BSc (Hons) Mathematics & BSc (Hons) Software Engineering Cohort: BCNS/07/FT- BIS/07/FT- BIS/06/FT -BM/07/FT BSE/07/FT/PT-

### CS201- Introduction to Programming Latest Solved Mcqs from Final term Papers July 11,2011

CS201- Introduction to Programming Latest Solved Mcqs from Final term Papers July 11,2011 Mc100401285 moaaz.pk@gmail.com Moaaz Siddiq Bc100400662 bc100400662asad@gmail.com Asad Ali Latest Mcqs FINALTERM

### Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

Eclipse Tutorial What is Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE) A Universal Platform for Development Tools Open, extensible architecture based on plug-ins Open-source see the Eclipse Project

### Introduction to C++ Programming Vahid Kazemi

Introduction to C++ Programming Vahid Kazemi Overview An overview of C/C++ - Basic types, Pointers, Arrays, Program control, Functions, Arguments, Structures, Operator overloading, Namespaces, Classes,

### VARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

CHAPTER3 CHAPTER TOPICS In this chapter, you will learn how to: Work with variables Perform arithmetic calculations Use mathematical functions VARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS 67 68 V ARIABLES AND ARITHMETIC

### PART-A Questions. 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement?

1. Distinguish & and && operators. PART-A Questions 2. How does an enumerated statement differ from a typedef statement? 3. What are the various members of a class? 4. Who can access the protected members

### The switch Statement. Multiple Selection. Multiple Selection (cont.)

The switch Statement Topics Multiple Selection switch Statement char Data Type and getchar( ) EOF constant Reading Section 4.7, 4.12 Multiple Selection So far, we have only seen binary selection. if (

### Chapter 4 Intro to Programming in C++

Chapter 4 Intro to Programming in C++ 4-1 Computer Programming Earlier we defined an algorithm to be a step by step process for solving a problem. Computer programming is the process of implementing the

### CS101 Computer programming and utilization

CS101 Computer programming and utilization Dr Deepak B Phatak Subrao Nilekani Chair Professor Department of CSE, Kanwal Rekhi Building IIT Bombay Lecture 3, Basic features of C++ Tuesday, 2 August 2011

### 7 Introduction to C++

7 Introduction to C++ 7.1 Introduction C++ is an extension to C Programming language. It was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a deviation from traditional

### Y = abc = a b c.2 0

Chapter 2 Bits, Data Types & Operations Integer Representation Floating-point Representation Other data types Why do Computers use Base 2? Base 10 Number Representation Natural representation for human

### Appendix K Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0

Appendix K Introduction to Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 This appendix serves as a quick reference for performing the following operations using the Microsoft Visual C++ integrated development environment (IDE):

### 4.2 The while Loop. ***Same as Fig 3.6 in intro5e p91

Chapter 4 Loops Objectives To use while, do-while, and for loop statements to control the repetition of statements ( 4.2-4.4). To understand the flow of control in loop statements ( 4.2-4.4). To use Boolean

### Introduction to C++ Programming

2 Introduction to C++ Programming OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn: To write simple computer programs in C++. To write simple input and output statements. To use fundamental types. Basic computer

### Common Syntax and Semantic Errors

C H A P T E R 2 Common Syntax and Semantic Errors 2.1 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES To understand the fundamental characteristics of syntax and semantic errors To be able to identify specific common syntax and semantic

### Object Oriented Software Design

Object Oriented Software Design Introduction to Java - II Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa October 28, 2010 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) Introduction

### The University of Alabama in Huntsville Electrical and Computer Engineering CPE 112 01 Test #4 November 20, 2002. True or False (2 points each)

True or False (2 points each) The University of Alabama in Huntsville Electrical and Computer Engineering CPE 112 01 Test #4 November 20, 2002 1. Using global variables is better style than using local

### Example 7. na20.nada.kth.se 883)./a.out y = y = y = y = #include <iostream.h> #include <math.

In the example above two functions are defined. Both increments the value of i by one, but fcn1 uses call-by-value as parameter passing mechanism and fcn2 uses call-by-reference. call-by-value means that

### C++ Tutorial. Let s get to coding. W. Deconinck 1 V. Gray 2. Department of Physics College of William & Mary

C++ Tutorial Let s get to coding W. Deconinck 1 V. Gray 2 1 Assistant Professor Department of Physics College of William & Mary 2 Graduate Student Department of Physics College of William & Mary C++ Tutorial,

### The American University in Cairo Computer Science & Engineering Department CSCE 106 Fundamentals of Computer Science

Dr. KHALIL The American University in Cairo Computer Science & Engineering Department CSCE 106 Fundamentals of Computer Science Problem Solving & Assignment (2) Programming in C++ Group 1 Write a C++ program

### Pemrograman Dasar. Basic Elements Of Java

Pemrograman Dasar Basic Elements Of Java Compiling and Running a Java Application 2 Portable Java Application 3 Java Platform Platform: hardware or software environment in which a program runs. Oracle

### What is a Loop? Pretest Loops in C++ Types of Loop Testing. Count-controlled loops. Loops can be...

What is a Loop? CSC Intermediate Programming Looping A loop is a repetition control structure It causes a single statement or a group of statements to be executed repeatedly It uses a condition to control

### Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching

Exercise 4 Logical Operators & Branching Informatik I für D-MAVT (FS 2013) Christian Schumacher chschuma@inf.ethz.ch Agenda Branching relational operators logical expressions: and, or, not if, else if,

### Solution Exercise 1.1

Solution Exercise 1.1 Part I Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate answers. 1. A Program is a sequence of step-by-step instructions that a computer executes in order to solve a problem or to perform

### Lecture 4 Notes: Arrays and Strings

6.096 Introduction to C++ January 10, 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Marrero Lecture 4 Notes: Arrays and Strings 1 Arrays So far we have used variables to store values in memory for later

### Creating a Standard C++ Program in Visual Studio C January 2013

Creating a Standard C++ Program in Visual Studio C++ 10.0 January 2013 ref: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms235629(v=vs.100).aspx To create a project and add a source file 1 1. On the File menu,

### Object Oriented Software Design

Object Oriented Software Design Introduction to Java - II Giuseppe Lipari http://retis.sssup.it/~lipari Scuola Superiore Sant Anna Pisa September 14, 2011 G. Lipari (Scuola Superiore Sant Anna) Introduction

### Each statement is ended by a semi-colon (;). The formatting is free.

Example 1 cout x; double err, tol=1e-12, x1; int it, maxit=100; it = 0; err = tol + 1; while( err > tol && it < maxit ) x1 = x - (x-cos(x))/(1+sin(x)); err = fabs(

### Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming SS 2012 Adrian Kacso, Univ. Siegen adriana.dkacsoa@duni-siegena.de Tel.: 0271/740-3966, Office: H-B 8406 Stand: April 25, 2012 Betriebssysteme / verteilte Systeme Introduction

### 7.7 Case Study: Calculating Depreciation

7.7 Case Study: Calculating Depreciation 1 7.7 Case Study: Calculating Depreciation PROBLEM Depreciation is a decrease in the value over time of some asset due to wear and tear, decay, declining price,

### Lecture 2. Functions in C++

Lecture 2 Functions Declaration (prototype) Definition (implementation) Function calls Parameters Call by reference Call by value Return value Function overloading Header files Standard library: cmath,

### Chapter 2: Elements of Java

Chapter 2: Elements of Java Basic components of a Java program Primitive data types Arithmetic expressions Type casting. The String type (introduction) Basic I/O statements Importing packages. 1 Introduction

### Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA. What is DrJava? Dr Java

1 Outline TOPIC 2 INTRODUCTION TO JAVA AND DR JAVA Notes adapted from Introduction to Computing and Programming with Java: A Multimedia Approach by M. Guzdial and B. Ericson, and instructor materials prepared

### Lab Exercise Polymorphic Banking

Chapter 13 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism 19 Date: Section: This problem is intended to be solved in a closed-lab session with a teaching assistant or instructor present. The problem is divided

### CSI 333 Lecture 2 Introduction to C: Part I 2 1 / 16

CSI 333 Lecture 2 Introduction to C: Part I 2 1 / 16 Basics of C Remark: Skim Chapters 1 through 6 of Deitel & Deitel. You will notice the following: C is (more or less) a subset of Java. (So, you are

### INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA

CSC112 (F) / Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA CERTIFICATE IN COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMME CSC 112 : FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING FINAL EXAMINATION : DECEMBER 2002 SESSION This paper consists

### The programming language C. sws1 1

The programming language C sws1 1 The programming language C invented by Dennis Ritchie in early 1970s who used it to write the first Hello World program C was used to write UNIX Standardised as K&C (Kernighan

### Exam objectives. Java Certification - Week 2. Operators and Assignments. Chris Harris. Overview. Exam objectives (continued)

Exam objectives Java Certification - Week 2 Operators and Assignments Chris Harris Determine the result of applying any operator,including assignment operators,instance of,and casts to operands of any

### Chapter 5. Control Statements: Part 2

Page 1 of 63 [Page 185] Chapter 5. Control Statements: Part 2 Not everything that can be counted counts, and not every thing that counts can be counted. Albert Einstein Who can control his fate? William

### Introduction to Classes and Objects

3 Introduction to Classes and Objects OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn: What classes, objects, member functions and data members are. How to define a class and use it to create an object. How

### Using C++ with NetBeans For Introduction to Programming With C++

Using C++ with NetBeans For Introduction to Programming With C++ NOTE: This tutorial is for experience users to develop C++ programs using NetBeans. To use C++ with NetBeans, you have to download and install

### Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Programming in C: Basics CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Types of variable We must declare the

### Basics of I/O Streams and File I/O

Basics of This is like a cheat sheet for file I/O in C++. It summarizes the steps you must take to do basic I/O to and from files, with only a tiny bit of explanation. It is not a replacement for reading