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1 alluvial fan fan-shaped deposit of earth materials on dry land alternative energy energy resources used instead of fossil fuels Arch a rock formation shaped like an upside down U Axis an imaginary line that a planet, or object in space, spins on 1 of 24

2 base bottom of a mountain or other landform beach biofuel the area above the shoreline, made of sand, stone, or gravel that has been deposited by the tide or waves a renewable energy source made from living or recently living organisms biome a large-scale ecosystem having the same climate and animal populations 2 of 24

3 canyon a V-shaped valley eroded by a river or stream cave cavern a hollow or natural passage formed under or into the Earth with an opening to the surface a large cave or large underground chamber made from soluble rock where speleothems are found channel a course or path a river takes 3 of 24

4 cliff climate a high, steep or overhanging face of rock formed by water or wind the average of all weather conditions over a period of time coal a nonrenewable resource found in sedimentary rock layers formed from ancient plant material constructive forces the building up of landforms 4 of 24

5 core (photo by NASA) center of the Earth corona the atmosphere of the sun that can only be seen during a solar eclipse crust (photo by NASA) outer layer of Earth that is made up of solid rock; also called the lithosphere currents a stream of water that flows like a river through the ocean 5 of 24

6 cycle any motion of an object, sequence or process that repeats itself dam a barrier that obstructs or does not allow, the flow of water delta a fan-shaped deposit of materials that is found at the mouth of a river or stream desert biome with very little precipitation and sandy soil 6 of 24

7 deposition Earth Science Vocabulary the process by which eroded materials settle in another place destructive forces the breaking down of landforms Earth third planet from the sun; only known planet that contains life earth materials substances that make up or come from the earth, such as water, rocks, and air 7 of 24

8 earthquake Earth Science Vocabulary shaking of Earth s crust caused by its movement eclipse the passing of one object through the shadow of another elevation height above sea level equator imaginary line dividing the Earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres 8 of 24

9 erosion movement of earth materials by water, wind, and ice (other natural forces) fault crack in Earth s crust flash flood sudden rush of water over land after a heavy rain flood a very heavy flow or overflow of water over land 9 of 24

10 floodplain Earth Science Vocabulary land that is covered with water during a flood fossil fossil fuels are the preserved remains or traces of animals and plants from the ancient past nonrenewable resources that formed from the remains of decayed plants and animals millions of years ago glacier a slab of ice that flows slowly over the land 10 of 24

11 geothermal energy Earth Science Vocabulary heat from inside the Earth grassland biome with high temperatures and low rainfall consisting of grasses and shrubs gravity hydroelectric power the force that pulls all objects in the universe towards each other electricity generated from the force of moving water 11 of 24

12 island Earth Science Vocabulary A land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, surrounded by water interpret to give an explanation landform a shape of the land levee a natural or constructed embankment along a stream that protects land from flooding 12 of 24

13 map mass movement drawings, usually on a flat surface, of an area or the features of an area sudden downhill movement of rock, sediment or soil; such as a landslide or mudslide meander a curve or loop in a river model a representation, generally in miniature, to show the construction or appearance of something 13 of 24

14 moon a natural object that orbits a planet; a satellite mountain natural gas a natural elevation of the Earth s surface having considerable mass, generally steep sides, and a height greater than a hill a nonrenewable resource that is found under ground, used as fuel and is a burnable gas nonrenewable resources resources that cannot be replaced in a short period of time, such as oil, natural gas, coal and minerals 14 of 24

15 orbit the path that one objects takes around another object phases of the moon the cyclical change in the way the moon reflects the sun s light as it revolves around Earth peak the highest point or top of a mountain petroleum A nonrenewable resource found in sedimentary rock caused by the ancient animal remains, also called crude oil 15 of 24

16 plains broad, flat areas of land not far above sea level planets large objects that revolve around a star plateau elevated areas of level land rain forest biome with high temperature and heavy rainfall 16 of 24

17 rapids the part of a river channel where the water moves rapidly over obstacles, such as large boulders recycle to use a material or substance again, usually in another form or way renewable resources revolution resources that can be replaced in a short period of time, such as plants, animals, water, oxygen, and soil the complete trip a planet makes around the sun; Earth s is 365¼ days 17 of 24

18 rotation the spinning of a planet or object in space on its axis sand dune a sand formation created by the wind sea level a line separating the land and the oceans; zero elevation seasons yearly pattern of weather changes due to the revolution of the Earth on its axis around the Sun 18 of 24

19 sediment tiny bits of rock, shell, soil, sand or dead plants sedimentary rock a type of rock formed by layers of sediments that were squeezed and stuck together over a long time slope a slanted surface; a surface that is not flat or level solar energy energy from the sun 19 of 24

20 solar flare release enormous amounts of magnetic energy that can and sometimes do affect the electronic equipment on Earth solar prominence violent explosions of stream of hot gas solar winds (photo by NASA) arise from the intense heat of the corona; travel outward from the Sun through our Solar System star an object in space that produces its own heat and light 20 of 24

21 structure Earth Science Vocabulary something built by people Sun a star around which the Earth and other planets in our solar system revolve sunspots (photo from NASA) dark spots on the surface of the sun that are cooler than their surrounding areas system a group of things or parts that work together for a common purpose 21 of 24

22 temperate forest Earth Science Vocabulary biome has warm summers and cold winters with moderate precipitation tiaga tides biome with cold winters and precipitation is in the form of snow; mainly coniferous forests the repeated rise and fall in the level of the ocean caused by the pull from the moon s gravitational force tundra is extremely cold and dry biome 22 of 24

23 u-shaped valley Earth Science Vocabulary a low area between higher areas formed when a glacier slowly flows over a long period of time v-shaped valley a low area between hills and mountains where a river often flows volcano an opening in the earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected water cycle the change of water from one state to another as it travels through Earth s atmosphere and its surface 23 of 24

24 weathering Earth Science Vocabulary the process of rock breaking down into smaller pieces weather the atmospheric condition over a small area and a short period of time wind energy an alternative energy source that uses wind converted into electricity 24 of 24

continent convection current core one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America

continent convection current core one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America continent one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America convection current a series of circular motions that occur in substances when heating and cooling happen together core

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