Evaluation of the potential inclusion of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pig diets in Cuba

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1 TROPENTAG 05-8th of September, 05 Evaluation of the potential inclusion of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pig diets in Cuba MSc thesis in Agricultural Development Norman Martín Casas MSc candidate Mario Reinoso Pérez Supervisor, UCLV, Cuba Mette Olaf Nielsen Supervisor, UCPH, Denmark Dias University of Copenhagen (Denmark) Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas (Cuba)

2 Background: A Doublefold Problem in Cuba. Arable land infestation: DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA Invasive, thorny leguminous shrub with a vast impact on Cuban agriculture Common name in Cuba: Marabú AREA OF INFESTED AGRICULTURAL LAND 8,6% Source: Cordero (0) Slide

3 Background: A Doublefold Problem in Cuba. PROTEIN FEEDS for THE PORK SECTOR Sector on the rise 00% production increase between 005 and 04 ( tones to tones) and still increasing as well as prices Smallholder sector produces ~4% of pork meat (ONEI 05) but production costs are high AND protein supplements are not available In Cuba: PROTEIN FEED is MAINLY IMPORTED SOYA - virtually inaccessible for extensive smallholder pig producers - represents an important share of the country's soya imports (Domínguez 04) Dichrostachys cinerea (Marabú) pods are protein rich and have (undocumented report) reasonable digestibility when fed to pigs Slide

4 MAIN APPROACH Improve containment of Marabú in Cuba by generation of alternative value-chains based on Marabú biomass Courtesy of M.O. Nielsen, Cubamaca, Denmark Hypothesis: Dichrostachys cinerea pods can be used as protein supplement in pig diets Slide 4

5 METHODOLOGY. Bromatological characterization of Dichrostachys cinerea pods Period: 9//05 9/4/05 Site: CIAP, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba. Evaluation of the in-vivo digestibility of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pigs Period: 8/5/05 7/6/05 Site: Zootechnics experimental station, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba Slide 5. Evaluation of the effect of inclusion of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pig fattening diets Period: 7/4/05 6/6/05 Site: La Gran Señora farm, Santa Clara, Cuba 4. Evaluation of the invitro ileal enzymatic digestibility of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pigs) Period: SeptemberOctober 05 Site: Faculty of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

6 METHODOLOGY. Bromatological characterization of Dichrostachys cinerea pods Period: 9//05 9/4/05 Site: CIAP, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba. Evaluation of the in-vivo digestibility of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pigs Period: 8/5/05 7/6/05 Site: Zootechnics experimental station, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba Slide 6. Evaluation of the effect of inclusion of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pig fattening diets Period: 7/4/05 6/6/05 Site: La Gran Señora farm, Santa Clara, Cuba 4. Evaluation of the invitro ileal enzymatic digestibility of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in pigs) Period: SeptemberOctober 05 Site: Faculty of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

7 . Bromatological characterization of Dichrostachys cinerea pods METHODOLOGY Proximate analysis (AOAC) for the following components: - Total dry matter (05ºC) - Organic matter / ash - Crude protein - Crude fiber - NDF - ADF - Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin Minerals Spectroscopy (Smith & Schenk 97) - Macrominerals: Ca, Mg, K - Microminerals: Fe, Co, Zn, Cu, Na Slide 7

8 . Effect of inclusion of Dichrostachys cinerea pods in fattening pig diets (feeding trial) Experimental design: - Carried out on a smallholder cooperative (private; CCS) pig farm - Feeding period: 60 days (ending prior to slaughter) N=0 (Day 0-0) N=6 (Day 0-60) N=0 (Day 0-0) N=4 (Day 0-60) N=0 (Day 0-0) N=5 (Day 0-60) Initial LW: 59.8± Initial LW: 64.4±7.0 Initial LW: 67.6±5.5 A diet: Control diet Basal diet (cassava+yam+plantain, canteen waste, maize flour, vit+min mix) + pienso supplement Slide 8 B diet: 5% substitution of fattening pienso* for ground Marabú pods C diet: 0% substitution of fattening pienso* for ground Marabú pods * Pienso = concentrate (9.6% CP in DM)

9 Experimental diets - Isocaloric and isoproteic - Covering pig nutritional requirements for maintenance and growth, according to NRC (998) - Dinamically adjusted according to consumption (semi-restricted), availability of feeds and shift of growing stage Hydrated yam+plaintain Hydrated cassava Fattening pienso Nuprovim (protein/mineral supplement) Cantine food residues Maize flour Marabú pod flour DM per animal (kg) % of covered protein requirements % of covered energy requirements A diet 0-0 days 0-60 days % DM % DM 4,7 0 7,7, 47,4 44,,4 0,4,9 4, 9,5 0 0, n=0 Slide 9, n=6 B diet 0-0 days 0-60 days % DM % DM 4,7 0 7,7, 40, 7,6,4 0,4,9 4, 9,5 7, 6,6, n=0, n=4 C diet 0-0 days 0-60 days % DM % DM 4,7 0 7,7,,,4 0,4,9 4, 9,5 4,,, n=0, n=5

10 Dietary composition: Crude protein (CP; % of DM) Crude Fibre (% of DM) Diet A Diet B Diet C 5,8 5,5 5, Samplings and recordings: Body weights registered every 0 days - Group differences evaluated by ANOVA (Initial body weight included as covariate) Blood sampling (eye vein) for haematological analyses (autoanalyzer) obtained during st and last 0-day periods of study for haematological analyses (autoanalyzer) Faecal samples obtained on consecutive days commencing days 0 and 50 for parasitological analyses (simple test tube flotation method) (Henriksen & Aagaard 976) Slide 0

11 . In-vivo apparent total tract digestibility of Dichrostachys cinerea (Marabú) pods Experimental design and methodology: - Experimental station(university) - Digestibility estimation by the indirect method - Basal feed: final molasses with known digestibility - Very low protein content -Experimental diet (DM basis): - 50% dried ground Marabú pods (CP: 5.4% in DM) - 50% final molasses -4 adaptation days + 6 sampling days -Restricted feeding; meals per day (morning, afternoon) -Daily recording of total ingested feed, urinary and fecal outputs - Sampling of feces and urine days, and 5 -Digestibility calculations for DM, OM, N (Schneider & Flatt 975) Slide

12 Slide

13 RESULTS. Nutrient characterization of D. cinerea pods Slide

14 Analysis of dry matter and organic matter components Slide 4

15 Analysis of minerals X X X Mean (%) s^ s CV (%) SE Ca 0,46 0,7 0,5 0,06 0,000 0,0 0,054 0,007 Slide 5 Mg 0,04 0,09 0,078 0,050 0,0000 0,00 0,67 0,00 Fe 0,07 0,08 0,008 0,00 0,0000 0,00 8,98 0,00 Co 0,0006 0,0006 0,0009 0,0007 0,0000 0,000 0,89 0,000 Zn 0,006 0,005 0,0074 0,005 0,0000 0,000 4,74 0,000 K 0,5 0,56 0,4 0,50 0,000 0,007 4,7 0,004 Cu 0,0069 0,009 0,0069 0,0077 0,0000 0,000 7,88 0,000 Na 0,089 0,055 0,00 0,088 0,0000 0,00 7,9 0,00

16 RESULTS. Feeding trial Slide 6

17 Individual daily weight gain performances GROUP ANIMAL NR Slide 7 Average daily weight gain (kg/day) 0-0 days 0-0 days 0-0 days 0-40 days days days -0,0 0,60,00,00 0,460 0,50 0,960 0,660 0,500 0,600 0,80 0,0 0,0 0,970 0,60 0,40 0,0,00 0,000,000 0,550-0,90,90 0,50 0,0 0,080 0,70 0,50 0,690 0,450 0,970 0,0 0,80,00 0,70 0,880,000 0,000 0,750 0,700 0,670 0,50 0,500 0,400 0,70 0,650 0,770 0,800 0,900 0,0,050,00 0,0 0,770 0,0 0,670 0,50 0,40 0,705 0,585,80 0,090 0,50 0,670 0,60 0,470 0,900 0,000 0,80 0,690 0,690 0,950 0,470 0,705 0,405 0,950 0,940 0,60 0,450 0,40 0,770,00 0,80 0,800 0,50 0,70 0,50,050,070 0,850 0,60 0,50 0,400 0,70 0,800 0,00 0,0 0,50 0,850 0,650 0,0 0,70 0,880 0,40 0,760 0,650 0,490 0,60 0,650 0,0 0,470 0,500 0,700 0,550 0,580 0,60 0,50 0,50 0,650 0,400 0,470 0,770 0,90 0,80,080 0,00 0,880 0,0 0,70 0,50 0,470 0,50,050 0,70 0,940 DWG 0,80 0,69 0,647 0,50 0,58 0,48 0,87 0,605 0,608 0,68 0,760 0,7 0,50 0,477 0,6 0,58 0,675 0,6 0,575 0,785 0,458 0,440 0,50 0,58 0,57 0,57 0,50 0,605 0,457 0,598

18 Growth patterns of pigs A: Control diet B: 5% Marabu C: 0% Marabu Day 0-0: 70 Pen A (n=6) Pen B (n=4) Pen C (n=5) Day 0 Day 0-60: Day 0 Day 0 Day Same pattern! Pen A (n=0) Pen B (n=0) Pen C (n=0) Slide 8 0 Day 0 Day 0 Day 0 Day 0 Day 40 Day 50 Day 60

19 Faecal egg counts and haematology Coccidia observed in Day 0+ samples No faecal eggs detected in pigs Day 50+ Normal haematological profiles observed No differences between groups except: Increased albumin levels at Day 50 In both groups of pigs fed Marabú If anything: indicator of improved protein status Slide 9

20 RESULTS. In-vivo digestibility trial Slide 0

21 Digestibility results for Dichrostachys cinerea pods Component Content Digestibility DM 9.4 ± 0.8 % 8.8 ± 7.8 OM 94.9 ± 0.7 % of DM 40.8 ± 7.6 CP 5. ± 0.70 % of DM 50. ± 5.8 Slide

22 Conclusions -Dichrostachys cinerea pods could be included in fattening diets for pigs in a conventional smallholder setting with up to 5% of dietary DM and 5% of dietary CP -This without compromising productive or health parameters of pigs -Thus, ground Marabú pods represent a potential new protein source in pig diets in extensive pig production -However, limitations for its inclusion in more commercial pig production are likely, due to its relatively low protein digestibility (50.%) and high NDF content (47.5%) Slide

23 Future perspectives: Potential value of D. cinerea pods as a protein feed for pigs can: Provide potentials for its inclusion as marketable fodder in value-chain developments targeting the emerging private (cooperative) sector in Cuba Reduce the dependency of imported protein sources such as soya, as well as its competition with human consumption By creating market opportunities for products derived from D. cinerea biomass, incentives can be generated for activities which will contribute to improve the control of its spread and reclaim infested arable lands. Slide

24 Acknowledgements - AGRINATURA - Dr. Hanne H. Hansen - CIAP, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba - Staff from feed testing laboratory - Staff from spectroscopy laboratory - Research and education staff - Staff from zootechnics experimental station - Student volunteers - Guillermo Hdz. and family, Gran Señora farm (CCS El Vaquerito ) - IBQ, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Cuba - Leonides farm - Staff from Deparment of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Slide 4

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