# Deep Foundation Axial Load Capacity Static Load Tests Analytic Methods Dynamic methods

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1 Deep Foundation Axial Load Capacity Static Load Tests Analytic Methods Dynamic methods Pile Foundation vs. Shallow Foundation Soil property unknown after driving Excessive pore water pressure during driving of piles Integrity of pile Load distribution along pile Pile load as function of pile displacement

2 Load deformation relationship of piles Direction of pile loading Determining Axial Capacity of Piles Load Test Static Analysis Based on estimated strength and stress Dynamic Analysis based on energy or wave equation Static Load Test

3 Static pile load test Definition of pile failure load Types of pile loading tests Static Load Tests Most reliable method to determine capacity Very expensive & takes a lot of time Lower FS can be used Most effective when Large project with many pile (Lower FS) Erratic soil conditions Pile in soft clay Structure sensitive to settlement Uplift Capacity Before construction- test pile program Proof testing during construction

4 Bearing Capacity of Piles in sand Analytic Methods End Bearing of Piles (Sand) According to Meyerhof (sand)

5 Bearing capacity factor of piles(sand) Failure mechanism at pile point (Sand) Comparison of cone resistance and pile point resistance (Sand) Comparison of SPTN-value and pile point resistance (Sand)

6 Critical depth of pile end bearing (Sand) Lateral pressure against pile shaft (sand) Pile shaft capacity (sand) Lateral pressure against pile shaft (Sand)

7 Critical depth of pile shaft resistance (Sand) Similar to end bearing, there is a critical depth for shaft resistance. A conservative estimates is Lc = 15 D Bearing capacity of piles in clay Failure surface at pile point in clay Skin friction resistance along pile shaft (Clay)

8 Beta Method (Effective stress analysis in clay) Pile driving Δu ( 4 ~ 6 Cu), the soil becomes remolded after Δu dissipated Alpha method (Total stress analysis in clay) f = α s c u f s = βσ ' v β = ( r 1 sin φ r ) OCR tan( φ ) Lambda-method (clay) Displacement of soil caused by pile driving results in a passive lateral earth pressure (Vijayvergiya & Focht, 1972) Bearing Capacity of Drilled Shafts Bearing capacity of drilled shaft is less than that of pile 1. The previous methods are usually calibrated using load test results 2. Empirical formulas using in situ tests are developed from load test

9 Load transfer from pile to soil as function of pile displacement Negative skin friction along piles Pile driving equipment Dynamic Methods

10 Dynamic pile test Stress wave analysis, rigid base Stress wave analysis, soft base Detection of pile defect by dynamic test

11 Determination of dynamic pile bearing capacity Engineering News Formula Q a = F s Wh ( S + c) C=1.0 for single acting hammer Work poor, but used a lot because of convenient We can run a pile test at the site and relate to this formula Elastic compression of pile Pile driving formulae (definition)

12 Pile driving formulae Wave Equation Consider Complete hammer system Pile characteristics Soil Characteristics Estimate Pile stress during driving Bearing capacity as a function of blow per count Pile Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) Measure strain and velocity in pile during driving Case method analyses: Simplification of true dynamics of pile driving & associated response of soil Determine the pile capacity from wave trace data The method include an empirical damping factor Jc, that can be determined from an on-site static load test CAPWAP (Case Pile Wave Analysis Program) Case method is a simplification with an empirical factor Wave equation is more precise but suffers from weak estimates of the actual energy delivered by hammer The hammer & accessories are replaced with force-time & velocity-time data obtained from PDA The analysis produces Ru (ultimate resistnce in the soil springs and q (the quake), and Jc.

13 Failure modes of horizontally loaded piles Lateral pile resistance in sand Lateral pile resistance in clay (rotational mode) Lateral pile resistance in clay (pile failure mode)

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