# Recap. A force is the product of an object s mass and acceleration. Forces are the reason why objects change their velocity. Newton s second law:

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1 Recap A force is the product of an object s mass and acceleration. Forces are the reason why objects change their velocity. Newton s second law: Unit: 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 Forces are vector quantities, since they have magnitude and direction. An effective force changes an object s velocity (magnitude and/or direction). A circular motion is an accelerated motion. Newton s first law is a special case of Newton s second law (F = 0): An object moves with a constant velocity unless a non-zero net force acts on it. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an object of mass, m:

2 Today s lecture The laws of motion: Newton s 3rd law Free Body Diagrams Applications of Newton s laws

3 Newton s 3rd law Action = - Reaction If object A exerts a force on object B (Action Force), object B will always exert a force on object A that is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction (Reaction Force) Important: - Forces in nature always exist in pairs (Action, Reaction). - The action and reaction forces always act on different objects.

4 Is Newton s third law correct? F A B Let s say F = 20 N, ma = 5 kg, and mb = 15 kg. What is the acceleration of both blocks? Newton s 2nd law: F = 20 N = (ma + mb) a = 20 kg a a = 1 m/s 2 (for both blocks!) Now, let s look at block B only. What must be the force of block A on B so that a = 1 m/s 2? FAB = mb 1 m/s 2 = 15 kg 1 m/s 2 = 15 N Now, let s look at block A only. What must be the force of block B on A so that a = 1 m/s 2? FA = F + FBA FA = ma 1 m/s 2 = 5 kg 1 m/s 2 = 5 N FBA = -15 N = -FAB

5 Normal forces

6 Applying Newton s third law The force exerted by the table on the apple is called a normal force, since it acts perpendicular to the surface of the table.

7 Does the earth move towards the apple? F12 = -F21 Apple Earth The force exerted by the apple on earth has the same magnitude as the force exerted by earth on the apple. However, the mass of the apple, ma, is much smaller than the mass of earth, me. F12 = ma aa aa = F12/ma is high, since ma is small. F21 = -F12 = me ae ae = -F12/me is small, since me is high. s = 1/2 a t 2 During a given time, t, the apple moves a longer distance than the earth. The latter is so small that it cannot be measured.

8 Walking - a consequence of Newton s 3rd law When we walk, we exert a force, FGP, on the ground. This forces pushes earth, but not ourselves! Due to Newton s 3rd law, earth exerts a force, FPG = -FGP, on us. This force pushes us forward!

9 Rocket propulsion - a consequence of Newton s 3rd law

10 Free body diagrams A free body diagram is a schematic that shows all forces acting on a given body (no other forces). The forces are represented by vectors indicating each force s magnitude and direction. It is called free body diagram, because the environment is replaced by a series of forces on an otherwise free body. A free body diagram is very useful to determine the resulting forces on an object. Draw a free body diagram, whenever you face a problem related to forces!

11 Example problem A sled is tied to a tree on a frictionless (snow covered) hill. If the sled weighs 77 N, find the magnitude of the tension force exerted by the rope on the sled and that of the normal force exerted by the hill on the sled. 1st step: Draw the free body diagram. Which forces act on the sled (dark blue arrows)?

12 The runaway car A car of mass m is on an icy driveway inclined at an angle of 20º. A. Determine the acceleration of the car (no friction) B. If the length of the driveway is 25 m and the car starts from rest at the top, how long does it take to travel to the bottom? C. What is the car s speed at the bottom?

13 Summary Newton s 3rd law: If object A exerts a force on object B (Action Force), object B will always exert a force on object A that is equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction (Reaction Force) If an objects is located on a surface at rest, at least two forces will act on it: (i) The gravitational force (downwards) and (ii) the normal force (upwards) exerted by the surface on the object to compensate gravitation. A free body diagram is a schematic that shows all forces acting on a given body (no other forces). Always draw such a diagram, when facing a problem related to forces. Action = - Reaction In problems about inclined planes, calculate all forces parallel and perpendicular to the inclined plane.

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