# Unit 3. Forces Part 2

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1 Unit 3 Forces Part 2 1

2 Vocabulary: Force Acceleration Mass Net Force Balanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Friction Air resistance Gravity Weight Inertia Action Force Reaction Force Concepts: How does a force affect an object s motion? How does force affect acceleration? How does mass affect acceleration? How do you find the net force acting on an object? How does friction affect an object s motion? How does air resistance affect an object s motion? How does gravity affect an object s motion? How does gravity affect an object s mass? How does gravity affect an object s weight? How does mass affect an object s inertia? How do action and reaction forces compare? 2

6 Directions # 2: 1. Re-read the statements above. 2. If the information in the article supports your choice, place a check mark in the Supported column. (The statement # s are the same in both charts.) a. Write the paragraph number of where you found the support. b. Quote the article for evidence of support. 3. If the information in the article does not support your choice, place a check mark in the Not Supported column. a. Write the paragraph number of where you found the correct information. b. Quote the article for evidence. Supported Not Supported Parapraph # Quote From Text 6

7 Information: Newton s 1 st Law Directions: Read pg in your text book. Use the space below to write down important ideas about inertia and Newton s 1 st Law of Motion. We will compile notes on the next page together. 7

8 Inertia and Mass 1. What is inertia? 2. What does inertia have to do with mass? 3. As the amount of increases, the inertia of the object. Newton s 1 st Law of Motion 4. What is Newton s 1 st Law of motion? 5. What does that mean in plain english? 6. Give four examples of Newton s 1 st Law from real life. 8

9 First Law Problems 1. How is it possible that an object is not moving when there could be multiple forces acting on it all at once? 2. What is INERTIA? 3. What type of things have the most inertia? 4. The law of inertia states that no force is required to maintain motion. Why then do you have to keep pedaling a bicycle to maintain motion? 5. Many automobile passengers have suffered neck injuries when struck by cars from behind. How does Newton s first law of inertia apply here? 6. How do headrests help guard against this type of injury? 7. Compare and contrast the following pairs of words a. balanced force & net force b. force & inertia c. force & net force 9

10 8. Which term below best describes the forces on an object with a net force of zero? a. inertia b. balanced forces c. acceleration d. unbalanced forces 9. What is the tendency for an object to resist any change in its motion? a. net force b. balanced force c. acceleration d. inertia 10. Explain why a passenger who is not wearing a safety belt will likely hit the windshield in a head-on collision. Teacher s Initials 10

11 Inquiry Lab: Newton s Second Law State the Problem How does mass affect an object s tendency to accelerate, when the same force is applied? Pre-lab: In this experiment 1. What was your independent variable? 2. What was your dependent variable? 3. Name at least two constants in this experiment. 4. Why will we repeat this experiment and find the average distance traveled? Write a Hypothesis Design an Experiment Materials Tennis ball Ring Stand Tennis ball with eyescrew Meter stick Styrofoam ball Electronic Balance 75 cm string Procedure 1. Measure the mass of the tennis ball and Styrofoam ball. Record this data in the data table. 2. Tie one end of the string to the ring stand and the other end to the eyescrew on the tennis ball. 3. Set the ring stand on a table. Adjust the height of the ball so that it hangs barely above the surface of the table. 4. Place the Styrofoam ball at the edge of the table. Adjust the position of the ring stand so that when the tennis ball is swung, it will contact the Styrofoam ball and knocks it off the table. 5. Hold the tennis ball so that it is perpendicular to the table and release it so that it hits the Styrofoam ball. 6. Mark on the floor where the ball lands. 7. Measure the distance the table to the place where the ball landed. 11

12 8. Repeat 4 more times and find the average distance the Styrofoam ball traveled. 9. Repeat steps 1-8, but use a tennis ball in place of the Styrofoam ball. Run the Experiment & Collect Data Mass of tennis ball and eyescrew: Table 1: Distance Traveled by Styrofoam Ball Mass of Styrofoam Ball (g) Distance (m) Trial 1 Distance (m) Trial 2 Distance (m) Trial 3 Distance (m) Trial 4 Distance (m) Trial 5 Average Distance (m) Table 2: Distance Traveled by Tennis Ball Mass of Tennis Ball (g) Distance (m) Trial 1 Distance (m) Trial 2 Distance (m) Trial 3 Distance (m) Trial 4 Distance (m) Trial 5 Average Distance (m) Analyze the Data 1. Was your hypothesis correct? Explain using data. 2. Were there any errors? Explain. 12

13 3. How does increasing the mass affect the object s motion when the force is the same? 4. Explain the difference in the distance traveled by the two balls (which went further). 5. How does this relate to Newton s Second Law? 6. Explain the relationship between mass and acceleration if the force is held constant. 13

14 Information: Mass, Force, and Acceleration Newton s 2nd Law Force, mass and acceleration have a close relationship. This relationship is described in Newton s second law of motion. The law states that the force acting on an object is equal to the object s mass multiplied by the object s acceleration. An object will accelerate (move) in the direction of the net force. For instance, the net force on the object below is acting to the right, so the object will move to the right! 60 N 43 N Movement (net force = 17 N) The force on an object can be calculated using the mass of the object and the acceleration of the object. THINK: If you have two soccer balls of the same mass and you toss one underhand and you throw the other as hard as you can, which one will accelerate faster? o The greater the acceleration of the object, the greater the force acting on the object must be. THINK: If you have two objects of different mass, and you apply the same force to them both which one will accelerate faster, the heavy one or the lighter one? o The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force acting on the object must be. Critical Thinking Questions: 1. What is the relationship between force and acceleration? 2. As force increases, the acceleration. 3. How does the acceleration of an object affect the distance traveled? 14

15 4. What is the relationship between force and mass? 5. As mass increases, the force must. 6. What two variables does force depend on? 7. Write an equation that you could use to calculate the force on an object. Teacher s Initials 15

16 2 nd Law Problems Directions: Answer the following problems about Newton s second law. 1. What is the mass of a wagon accelerating at 4 m/s 2 if the force required to pull it is 120 Newtons? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 2. An Olympic swimmer pushes through the water with a force of 35 Newtons. What is her acceleration if she has a mass of 70 kg? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 3. A rock is dropped off the edge of a cliff so that it accelerates down at 9.8 m/s 2. What is the force acting on the rock if its mass is 5 kg? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 4. A net force of 10 N is applied to an object having a mass of 2 kg. What is the acceleration of the object? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 16

17 5. A net force of 20 N is applied to an object having a mass of 2 kg. What is the acceleration of the object? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 6. In questions 4 and 5 above, the mass of the object stayed the same. The net force applied to the object doubled. As the net force doubled, the acceleration. This is because net force is to acceleration according to Newton s Second Law. 7. A net force of 20 N is applied to an object having a mass of 4 kg. What is the acceleration of the object? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 8. In questions 5 and 7 above, the force applied to the object was help constant. The mass of the object was doubled. As the mass doubled, the acceleration. This is because mass is to acceleration according to Newton s Second Law. 9. What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force is applied to a 3 kg object? Givens Solving For Equation Substitution Answer with Units 17

18 Information: Newton s 3 rd Law Action & Reaction Directions: 1. Read pages Use the space below to write down important ideas about Newton s 3 rd Law. Including but not limited to: a. Action force b. Reaction force c. Newton s 3 rd law d. How does mass affect the reaction to the forces? e. How do action reaction forces compare to each other? 3. Complete the Sequential Alphabet Roundtable on the next page. 18

19 19

20 Sequential Alphabet Roundtable Newton s 3 rd Law Directions: Read the section in your text about Newton s 3re Law. Fill in each square with a main idea, phrase, or word that SPECIFICALLY has to do with the 3 rd Law. The main idea, phrase, or word MUST START WITH THE LETTER IN THE BOX. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 20

21 3 rd Law Problems 1. What is Newton s 3 rd Law of Motion? 2. Draw a picture of an action/reaction pair of forces. 3. Why don t action and reaction forces cancel? 4. Explain whether there can be any forces acting on a car moving in a straight line with a constant speed. 5. Explain why when you pull a door open, you don t move if the force on the door and you are the same? 6. I push on a wall with a force of 20 N. What are the magnitude and direction of the reaction forces? Draw the reaction force and explain in words. 20 N 7. A mosquito flies along and runs into the windshield of a rapidly moving vehicle. Which force is stronger: the force of the windshield hitting the mosquito or the force of the mosquito hitting the windshield? Why? 21

22 8. Complete the follow action/reaction pairs by drawing in the forces: a. A tennis ball pushes a racket c. A pool stick pushes the cue ball b. A soccer player strikes a ball d. A weightlifter pushes up on a dumbbell 9. A gun recoils when it is fired. The recoil is the result of action-reaction force pairs. As the gases from the gunpowder explosion expand, the gun pushes the bullet forwards and the bullet pushes the gun backwards. The acceleration of the recoiling gun is... (circle one): a. greater than the acceleration of the bullet. b. smaller than the acceleration of the bullet. c. the same size as the acceleration of the bullet. 22

23 10. In the top picture (below), a physics student is pulling on a rope which is attached to a wall. In the bottom picture, the physics student is pulling upon a rope which is attached to an elephant. In each case, the force scale reads 500 Newtons. The physics student is pulling (circle one): a. with more force when the rope is attached to the wall. b. with more force when the rope is attached to the elephant. c. the same force in each case 11. Identify the at least six pairs of action/reaction forces in the picture below: a. b. c. d. e. f. 12. An elephant and a mouse would both have a weight of 0 N in gravitational-free space. However, they would still retain their amount of matter or. If they were moving toward you with the same speed, would they bump into you with the same affect? Why? 23

24 Pop Rocket Demo 1. What happens when baking soda and vinegar are mixed together? 2. How do you know that? 3. What happened to the film canister? Explain why this happened. 4. Can you think of another event where pressure causes a similar "explosion?" 24

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